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^^ J), ic 

r ^ 

















Wm. H. a L L E N & Co. 
booksellers to the honourable east-india company, 

7, leadenhall street. 



J. & H. COX, BROTHERS (latb COX & SONS|, 


74 & 75« GicBt Queen Street, LbioolnVInn Fields. 





Sir HENRY WILLOCK, K.L.S., Ghaibman. 
JAMES WEIR HOOO» Esq., M.P., Deputy Chairman. 



Migor-Gcn. Sir J. L. LUSHINGTON, G.C.B. 



















IDonouMliK ^MU^vHiiti Cotnvans» 











London, 12M May, 1845. 


The conviction that great advantage is likely to accrue to 
Candidates for the Indian Service, from the acquisition of some 
elementary and grammatical acquaintance, with the most common and 
practically useful dialect of India, previous to their arrival in that 
countiy, is now become so prevalent, that argument seems hardly 
needed to extend or strengthen it. And, as in India a knowledge 
of the languages of that region, but especially of the Hindustani, 
is made indispensable to the attainment of staff, as well as of other 
extraordinary beneficial appointments, no opportunity— no time 
should be let slip or lost by those about to go thither, for commencing 
and continuing the study of that dialect. To facilitate this study, the 
author or compiler of the following sheets has before prepared and 
passed through the press, various editions of a Grammar, Dictionary, 
and two volumes of Selections, the utility of which is best proved by 
the uninterrupted public countenance shewn them ; and, for such 
learners as can obtain the assistance of a fit instructor, these helps might 
have suflioed. From the manner, however, in which some persons are 
obliged, without much previous notice and with little or no instruction 
in the language, to proceed to India, a compendious work, made as easy 
as possible, has been judged still requisite for individuals thus circum- 
stanced : and, though some little instruction from a qu^fied teacher 
is earnestly recommended where it can be obtained, to guide the reader 
in the pronunciation and other particulars, yet it is hoped this book 
may prove essentially useful to the assiduous student, whether aided 
by others or obliged to rely solely on his own application and dis- 



• • • • • 

Chaftbs I.— Ghrammar ... 
Persian alphabet, with the diacritical 
marks and the composition of the 

J6W> JTB «•. •■* ••• ••• 

Devanagari alphabet* with the com- 
pounds ... ••• ••• 

Proniinciation of the Persian and Na- 
gari, with diacritical signs adopted in 
them as well as in the Roman 
Chaptxb II. — Nonns substantive 

\3 CI mcr ..a ••• ••• ••* •■• 

Plural, how formed ... ... ... 

Cases, how formed 

Postpositions, how used 

V CJOUX « 6 ••. *•• •«• ... 

Persian and Arabic words, how con- 
structed ... ... ... ... 

Declension ••• 

Adjectives, how inflected and used . . . 

Ad]imct of Similitude, L» sd ... 
Uhaftbs Ill.-^Pronouns 
Chaftbe IV. — Verb 

AlOOb ... ••• ••• 

Infinitive ... ... 

PEtft Participle .. . 

• •• 





Present Participle 



Past Conjunctive Participle ... 

. a • 


Past Tenses 



Present Tenses... 



Future Tenses ... 

. •« 


Imperative ... ... ... 



Transitive and Causal Verbs ... 

• •• 


Compound Verbs 



Derivative Verbs 

• a • 


Passive Verbs 



Auxiliary Verb, conjugation of 

• • . 


Intransitive Verb, v>. jSy Go . . . 

. . a 


Transitive Verb, conjugation of, Active 

and Passive .. . 


Chaptbb V. — Indeclinable words 


Postpositions, the most usual ... 


Adverbs ... ••« 


Conjunctions ... ... ... 


Interjections ••• ... ... 


Chaftxr VI. — ^Numerals, Cardinals 


Ordinals and Aggregates 


Numerals, used distributively ... 


f^ractionals ... ... ... 


Chaptbb VII. — ^Derivatives 


Chaftxr VIII. — Syntax 



Vocabulary, English and Hindustani ... 88 

Nouns, Celestials, Infemals 88 

Fabulous beings. Some general terms 89 

The Elements 90 

Heavenly bodies, signs, appearances, &c. 90 

Things relating to Fire 93 

Things relating to Air 93 

Things relating to Water 94 

Things relating to the surface of the 

Earth ... ... ... ... 95 



Vocabulary (continued) — 

Minerals, Metals, &c 

Trees, Shrubs, Plants, and Herbs 
Esculent Roots and Vegetables 
Flowers ... ... •• 

Fruits ••• 

Ghrains, Seeds ••• ... .. 

Food in general for Animals .. 
Worms, Reptiles, Insects, Spiders 
Fishes ••• ••• 

Birds ••• ••• 

^3CttBv8 • • . • • • 

Man ••• ••• 

Human beings in relationship 
The Body and what relates to it 
Hurts and Diseases of the Body 
Persons employed in curing Diseases 

Medical Means 

The Mind and its Attributes ••• 







MoralSf-^moral and immoral Actions... 146 




Professions, Occupations 

People of Professions, Trades, &c. 

Meats and Drinks 

Spices, Condiments 

Apparel, Dress... 


Household Furniture 

Country and Country AffiBdrs ... 

Society and Gbvemment 

War, Military Affisdrs ... 

Naval Affairs 

Divisions of Time 

Other useful Nouns, alphabetically ar- 
ranged ••• ••• ' ... ••• 196 

Verbs of frequent use, alphabetically 
arranged ... ... ... ... 293 

Adjectives, Adverbs, &c., of frequent 



... 347 

Short Sentences of common use 400 | Dialogue 

... 423 

Short Stories, in Persian and Nagari characters, with translation and grammatical analysis 467 


Hindustani Composition, or fiEU^iUties for translating English into Hindustani 


... 510 


Forms of Letters and Notes, with verbal 
translations ... ••• ... ••• 530 

Grammatical Terms, with examples of 
their application • 537 

Military Words of Command, English and 
Hindustani, in Nagari and Roman 
characters ... ... ... ... 543 

Corrections ••• ••• ... ••• 563 







Alphabets f Orthographical Signs, and Pronunciation. 

The most common dialects of India, whether that of Hindustan 
proper, or that of the Dakhan, are often found written in the Persian 
or Arabic characters, especially by the Musalman population of the 
country ; by Hindus, however, the Devanagari (a word often con- 
tracted to Nagari), or characters allied to the Devanagari, are usually 
adopted: the alphabets and other orthographical signs, therefore, 
made use of in each of those two systems of writing claim the earliest 
attention of the learner ; and, will in the first place be submitted to 
his notice. 

A Gramnuir of 

Persian Alphabet* 


Names in 

Persian and 




*^\ alif 

A « 




Jl j fa/ 






1^ zhB 





eqiiiyalents in 


a, a, t, u. 












Names in 

Persian and 


jU §ad 

jU xad 






fH tarn 
^ nuTt 

^ Aq 


equivalents in 





|» » A • A 

, a, t, u, oCc. 







y, t, e, ai, 8ic. 

* The characters of this alphabet are to be read from right to left, 
f Called fiS^ b^tS^ (i^^^s^ ^) ^1 ^^7 of distinction from the other he* 
j: CalleJAa'e hawwaz Qyb ^^ U) or hffemudawwara (^«^ i^ ^)* 

the Hinduitim Langtuige. 3 

The Persian characters^ as above deacribedy are used when standing 
alone ; and, the letters j J Jj J J \ neither admit of junction to a fol- 
lowing one, nor are liable to any material change from another letter 
being prefixed : the rest of the characters, however, become apparently 
abridged, retaining their essential portion only or assuming some varia- 
tion of form, when used in composition ; as in 

tl^ J^ ^ tji S.M ^ j^ ^ j-» LTJ ji '^ iff i^r-i ^ ^^ 
kk kl ka ib ghf f^ xr shsh sr rs wr jd pch lib ha ab 

fd ^^i -V* ^ J sft (^ J^ ^ H y ^ U vl^ SorJ If 

ym ye h&h ha II we mm nn hy yh nw mn ma Ik la ga 

«X«S LSi ^KC wA^ laiaL ^^AO^a \ji -mA «X>-J ,^f^ CxJ ^_-xl 

i^d fhi ghghgh "" tit zzz shst djd jjj ttt hhh 

yyy hhh hhh nnn mmm Ul khh ^kl^ 

To represent some sounds peculiar to the Hindus, additional marks 
are commcMily assumed with a few of the Persian letters, or certain 
combinations may be adopted ; as, 

phab nh mh gh kh rh dh dh chh jh th th ph bh r d t 

nhab mhab khab rhab dhab chhab thab 

In uttering cf^ or J or Jf the point of the tongue is to be reverted 
to the palate ; and the aspiration intended in ^ bh, &c. is to be ex- 
pressed at once with the preceding consonant. 

Of the letters above recited, the term c^Ip tmJj^ ^arf-i-illat (infirm 
letter) is technically given to \ or j or «^, as that of ,f^^ ^J^ b^'^^f* 
i-^ifi (sound letter) is applied to each of the rest. 

The short vowels are three, namely ' (y ;) zabar or (<lacG) fat*ha, 
to which may correspond the Roman a ; , (^j) zer or ( •-^) kasr, 

4 A Grammar of 

which may be represented by i ; and ' (tA?i) jpSsA or \mS) xamm, by 

« : so, in Jj fto^ ; 43J 5t^ ; «3j fit^.* 

<x r 1 The long vowels and the diphthongs are formed by the adjunction of 

^ = ^ / the infirm letters (^^ j to consonants uttered with the short vowels ; 
yet, at the beginning of a word or syllable, each of these infirm letters 
may perform the office of a consonant; and, instead of writing \ \ (two 
alifs) at the commencement of a word, one of those letters with the 
sign "^ ('«V«) madda, is commonly adopted : so, 

X^ S^ X^ iZ^i CL^^ CL^i \i t-^ji Mj^ M^ H h M 

jaid fi%d jtd haut lio-^t hut ha avh offt ub yah wah ab 

y^ ^ ^.^' ^ ^ ^. ^ 

yai yeX yi ya sai $£% si sa 


^ These short vowels are but rarely marked by the natives in writing 
Hindustani; yet, for the guidance of European learners in pronunciation, 
they may with much convenience be frequently used ; the most common 
of them, however, faffh^ or zabar^ will be lefl generally unmarked in 
this work ; and, must then be understood after a consonant, which is not 
final, nor marked with either of the other short vowels, or with 

+ For the sound here intended there is no discriminating mark in the 
Arabic orthography, because it is unknown in that language : and the 
wS*o in such case termed waw^i mafhul (unknown wa^o) is left without 
any vowel accompanying the preceding consonant, which circumstance 
will suflSciently distinguish it from the wa^o when following a vowel and 
taking another sound. 

X The ya-i mqphul (unknown ye) is, for the like reason as the 
waw'i mafhul^ left without any vowel accompanying the foregoing con- 

the Hindusiam Language* 6 

Other orUiographical signs are — 

(jT^) hamza, which is always initial in a syllable and accompanied 
or moved by a short vowel either written or miderstood ; as^ in 

<_>\ (ab), 4/y. (Au'i), AiU (a'fd). 
^ or (|*j>-) jazm shews that the subscribed letter has no vowel to be 

' * coo 

sounded after it ; so, in ^ (wm), J« {jCt)^ *— ir^ Q^'^f)* 
* (43j«\U) tashdid, which shews that the letter underneath is to be 
pronounced double ; as, in c^iXS* (shiddai) : and the letter so 
marked must be distinctly twice sounded. 

** (J*f^) wflwZ, which serves to join together two Arabic words, the latter 
havingthearticle J\ (aZ) prefixed, the vowel of which is dropped in 
pronunciation; as, in *«S \JA (afchirurl-amr) : and, the J (jam) 

of the article becomes converted in sound to the following letter, 
if this beO(-L>(3«S^J ^/-^^^jo^jfltbjor^j which may 
.then be marked with tashdid, and is to be uttered as double ; 

so, in (^U \ /^^ (atcammu'n-'nas). 

^^ ^ ^ (v:;^) tanwtn, giving the nasal sound to the final vowel; as, 

in yjiyo^ {khususun)^ ^yas>^ (khususin)^ L>^«d£&» (khusu^an). 

Some few words, in which the use of these letters and signs will be 
fiurther exemplified. 

siddfia zhola Muar jabbar buda bqjh bud aur ayat andar dbad 

j^'i ^ jj jJf' jx\? jCl jQ »> !» ^ 

lorgant lala lal gambaz ka gh az ghubhar aiyar turra zidd shubha 

^ \ ^^^ ii^juJ \ J«) 1 Jc^ <-jyU CJA, Ji^ 
firlrfaur alhatnduliimh tndorlr^akk magkrab muddat muiakkar 

AiAa nujaba kaVa tffus ^U'Jrfal}ar haktkatan fauran fi-l^lfiJ^at 

6 . A Grammar of 

BhUt" dlwndkna ^ibm thandf^ thora shahaiuhah $kuliab 

^am*&fAt hUmi4''ldhirr'rahmanirr'r(iptm 

Devanagari Alphabet4 

^a, ^5;T», ti;^tt, ^ii;'«n, '^rl/llW/riJ 

W/ri;|| "T e, t ai; ^ o, ^ an. 

Gutturals, ^ ka, ^ kha, ^ ga, "^ gha, ^ nga.\\ 

Palatals, ^ cha, ^ chha, ^ja, ^jha, ^ «ya.|| 

Cerebrals, '^ ta, ' jAa, ^ da,^ ^dha,^^^. 

Dentals, ^ ta, ^ tha, T da, ^ dim, ^ na. 

Labials, ^i^i, ^ pha, ^ ba, ^ bha, "^ ma. 

Semivowels, ^ ya, ^ ra, ^ la, ' va. 

Sibilants and Aspirate, ^ fa, •• ' «Aa,tt ' *«* ^ ^• 

* The ij (ntifi) before ac^ (6e)or c-^(pe) becomes m in pronunciation. 

f When if (he) sensibly expressed is preceded by a vowel, it may be 
thus represented to distinguish it from the Ao-e mukhtafi (concealed he) 
as in ^ gUy or from the aspirated compound as in ^ gha. 

X Frequently called Nagarl alphabet, and read from left to right 

P But very rarely, if ever, used in writing Hindustani. 

1[ ^ and ^ are often pronounced rather as ra and rha by reverting 
the tip of the tongue to the palate ; and, to mark this variation, a point 

may be subscribed, as ^ fa, ^ rha. 

** «r 18 a palatal sibilant ; and often adopted to represent the Arabic 
^ (lAtfl). 

f f ^ is sometimes uttered as kha. 

ike Bind&stim Language. 7 

In addition to tbe above are the two charactera, annuwara (*) and 
vUarga {}\ the first of which placed oyer a letter imparts to the 
▼owd a 8l%ht nasal sound, somewhat stronger however than the 
French n in him; and the latter placed after a letter dotiotes a soft 
aspiration (not perceptible, and but rarely used in Hindustani).* 

The forms of the vowels, as above described, are used when standing 
alone or when initial in a syllable : after consonants, however, there 

is no character for ^ (a), which is to be understood in case no other 
vowel be noted, or no consonant be added as a compound, or no 

maik called mrama (rest) be appended, as in ^. Yet, in Hmdus- 
tani, this unwritten vowel is not to be understood at the end of a 
w(Hrd, where indeed no vowel, unless expressly marked, is to be 

After consonants, and as compounded with them, the rest of the 
Towels are represented by the following forms :-^ 

TS; H; lt;^tt; ^u ,' ^ fi; g H ; ^ /«; ^ In; I; at; 

^ o; ^ au. 

And the composition of vowels and other marks with consonants 
may be exemplified in 

^rar ^>WT Tf^ ^'ft ^5^ ^3ri[ ^w ^n ir| w^ 

oka aha Uci tki nku uku rikri rikrt Irikfri friklri 

T^ ^ ^t^ "W^ ^wf ^wr: ^* f^ 

ikt aikai okS aukau akan akah kansah dif 

* ThoQgh in repeating the alphabet^ it is usaal to say a, Sy i^ ? , &c. 
kOf kha, gOy ghoy &c. simply, as before noted, yet in naming the letters 

^'^ kara (or karj is added to the sound of each ; so ^^*T\ (jakar) 

tbe letter ^, **nC (kakSr) the letter '. 

8 A Grammar of 

If two or more consonants come together without the interrention 
of a vowel, they should coalesce and become one compound character. 
Such compounds are formed in various ways ; dther by placing the 

body of the subsequent consonant under the first, as in V X»(7 ; by 
arranging them in their usual order, omitting however the perpendicular 

line in all but the last, as ^•'^ smy ; or, by varying somewhat the 

elementary characters and blending them together, as in ^jn, ^ 

ksh, ^ ddh. With the semivowels ^ y, and ^ r, composition is 
of most frequent recurrence : the adjunction of the first to a pre- 
ceding consonant does not much, if at all, change its original shape ; 

as, in ^ Ay, ^ khy,^ jy, ^ dy, ^ py,^ phy, ^^ «y, "f hy: 
but, the latter, when inmiediately foUowii^ a consonant, usually takes 
the form ^ beneath, as when preceding a consonant it is denoted by the 

character placed above ; so, '^ Ar, ' gr, "^ tr, ^ sr, ^ sr, 

^ kr; * rft, ^ rg, ^^ dharm. 

Other compounds, of most frequeilt use, are the following : — 

^kk, ^kt, W*n, ^Am, W kl, ^ ghn,^ ghy,^ chch,^ chchh, 
^ chchhr, «r jy-, ^jm, Wjny, W jhjh, T «, ^ pd, 'W «^ 
^ tty^ T triy ^ try^'^ thth, ^ thn, T dg, X dd, ^ ddh, T. dn, 
Ti ddhn, ^ ddhw, W dbh, ^ dm, 5" dr, ^ dw, ^ dhn, ^ dhm, 
^ dkwj ^ «n, ^ »ny, ^ ntry, 'T ndy, ^ pt, ^ pn, ^ pp, '^pl, 
'^pw, ^ ps, 'S ptw, ' bb, f 6;, 1" W, ^ bhy, T bhri, ^ mm, 
'^ ml, ^ ru, ^ru, ^ II, ^ mtt, ' wri, ^ sch, ^ §chh, ^ fry, 
'^ », ^ shk, ^ sht, ^ shty, ¥ shtw, '^ shth, ^sri,^ sn, ' hu, 

▼ hu, ^ hfiy ^ hfi, ▼ A n,^ Am, ^ Ay, ^ AZ, ^ Air. 

To represent such Arabic or Persian letters as have no exact cor- 
respondents in the Nagari, the following characters, which approach 
most nearly in pronunciation, are commonly used in writing this lan- 
guage ; and, though not the practice of the people of India, points 

the Hindustani Language. 9 

may be adopted beneath the letters^ in such cases^ to shew the extra- 
ordinary use made of them : thus, 
















y (final) Jj {alif'i maksura). 







5 for "* {tanwin). 


















ay as in America^ 






or T g^ as a in all. 





or ^i, as i in fin. 





or T ;^ as ee in peer. 






or >j «, as u in pull. 








or ^u, as oo in cool. 






or € or e, as ai in pair. 





or ai, as ei in height. 



or ^ or 0, as o in bone, 
or ' au, as ou m our. 






b, as the English b. 






bh, as in abhor. 







p, as the English p. 





^ pA, as ph in up-hill. 

/ «» ^ 




<, as t in tube. 



— i 


th, as the last aspirated. 





f , as t in true. 





— . 


ihf as the last aspirated. 

10 A Chrammar of 















J for ^ .?> as 8 in sin. 
J. — ^ J, as j in judge. 

!li jhf as the last aspirated. 

^ ch, as ch in church. 

If chhy* as the last aspirated, 

^ ^, as h in horse. 

^ M> as the German ch. 
J or *x— ?['d, asdin dew. 
JbJ or Jb<A — V dhy as the last aspirated. 

h> or J^ — "^ d, as d in dim. 
JbJ or Jbl — 7 dh, as the last aspirated. 
J or «k — ^ «, as z in zeal. 
J ox J — "^ r, as r in rain. 

^ n, as ri in river. 

^ rty as the last prolonged. 

^ r, as r in rim nearly. 

^ rhf as the last aspirated. 

^ 2r^ as z in zeal. 

^ zhy as s in pleasure. 

^ 5^ as s in sin. 

1[ shf as sh in shine. 

1^ ^^ as s in sin. 

^ fy as z in zeal. 

H j[, as t in tub. 

^ X, as z in zeal. 






































* The Nagari compound ^ is occaBionally represented by -f^, and 
similarly pronounced. 

the Hindustani Language. 11 

S « ft 

ft or ^ for ^ «* h ^9 as a, i, or u.* 

c or £ — ^ J!^9 ^ the Northumberland r.f 

uJ or i — ''^ /, as f in fin. 

» QP J — ^ it:, as k peculiarly uttered 4 

1^ or f — ^ A:, as k in king. 

^ ox ^ — ^^ M^ as the last aspirated. 

CS/ or f — T g, as g in give. 

-^ or ^ — '^ ghy as the last aspirated. 

J or 1 — W /, as the English 1. 

f ox ^ — il fft, as the English m. 

^^ or 3 — ^ n, as n in tint* 

^j; or J — V n, as n in king. 

^ or > — Bf n, as n, in singe* 

* With the Arabs, this letter is a guttural c(l|sonant of peculiar 
utterance, which is hardly attempted in Hindustani ; and the mere vowel 
used wfth it is noted, in the Nagari character, when it occurs at the 

beginning of a syllable : so, in that character, for e , ^ may be 

adopted; for U, ^; for c, T; for ^, %i for ^-c, ?; for c ,^; 

fbrjc, ^; for ^, ^' . In the Roman characters, this letter c when 
initial in a syllable will be here represented by a small form of itself 
written over its subsequent vowel; and, when in the middle or at the 
end of a syllable, by the same mark placed afler the vowel which pre- 

cedes ; so, Jle akly JjAk^ ma kuL 

+ Or, as the sound gha, gha^ ghuj formed in gargling. 

^ With the root of the tongue pressed back on the throat, so as to 
check the voice gently and to occasion a clinking intonation. 

§ The Nagari ^ may occasionally be sounded like this and represented 
by the same Persian or Roman letters. 


12 A Grammar of 

^ or 3 for ' n, as in none. 

^, or J — n,^ slight nasal.* 

« or 9 — W t;, or w, as V in voice.f 

^or ^ ^A, ashin horse, how.:|: 


} — ^ y, as y in yoke.§ 

* The Nagari sign may be used for any nasal not initial in a syllable. 

f Pronounced as w when compounded with some other consonant. In 
the Arabic orthography, moreover, this letter, subsequent to fafha be- 
comes au ; to zamm^ u ; and, when mqphul, it is sounded o, as before 
noted under the vowels. In some Persian words, j though written is 
scarcely, if at all, sounded; as in »\y^ (jdSBpaK) desire^ LT)^ (ichu sh) 
pleasant. When thus used it is technically termed ^jJat< ^j (wdw^i 
ma^duUi) ; and may in the Nagari translation be either wholly omitted, 

or distinguished by a point underneath, as well as in the Roman, so ? 
tp or o. In a few lAtances, too, of Arabic words, this letter may take 
the sound otalif; so, SjLp §alat. 

'^ When 6nal, however, in Indian and Persian words, this letter is 
sometimes, but very slightly, if at all, sounded, and is then termed 

^ir^s^ ^^ \sb (hSe-mukhtaft) ; in which case, it may be denoted by I 

(visarga) in the Nagari character, and omitted in the Roman. At the 
end of certain Arabic words, too, this letter may occur with two points 

marked above it, when it takes the sound of /, as it is often transmuted 
to (JL^ ; so, in «X:^\ iJI^ (jdjulasatu-l-nini). 

§ In the Arabic character, however, this letter when secondary in 
a syllable becomes, together with the preceding vowel, if fat ha^ ai ; 
if kasry i ; and, if it be mafhul^ it is sounded e, as before instanced 
under the vowels. A final 4^ moreover, preceded by fafha^ in Arabic 

words, is sounded as alif; so J^IUJ T^TWT (jta*dta) : but, when followed 

by J^ (aO> as faffia only ; so, ^LJ \ ^Ic (ala-s-fabafi). 

the Hinduitant Language. 13 


Words may be divided into Nouns substantive or Adjective, Pro- 
nouns, Verbs comprising participles, Prepositions, Adverbs, Conjunc- 
tioos, and Interjections. 

Nouns Substantive. 

L Nouns substantive may be, in gender, masculine or feminine ; in 
number, singular or plural ; and for case, are frequently liable to iu" 
flection or change in the termination. 

2. The gender of nouns is sometimes to be determined from the ^ 
natare of the beings to which words are applied ; as J^ (mard) man, A/}a^sc.7?rrrf. 

^^jf' (fl^^^^ woman : in numerous instances, however, the distinction 
is conventional, and to be learned by practice in the language only ; 
yet words terminating in s (a), \ (a),* ^t (oii), are generally mascu- 
line, and those ending in 4/ (? ), ^^^ (iii\ CL> (t), ^J^ (jsh), ^^ («), ^"^ * '^ 
will most commonly be found to be feminine, 
a. As marked exceptions to the foregoing rule, may be noticed ^ 

^U (pani) water ^ ^ (g^O clarified butter, ^^W (dahi) curdled 
**'*> ^VT O**) 'l/^> L5i^• (moil) a pearl, which are perhaps the only 
masculines, unless by nature, terminating in ^ (i) ; and, many words 
ending with iZJ (t), ^ («A), or ^ (n) will occur in use as of the mas- 
culine gender.f 

* Most of the pure Sanskrit and Arabic nouns ending in \ (a) are 
feminine, as well as some of the latter tongue terminating in a (a)* 

Arabic verbal nouns of the form ^^mj \taf\l) are said to be all feminine in 

the Dakhni of Madras; and, in Urdu or proper Hindustani, to exhibit but 

one exception, ijyu (ja^wtz) an amulet j which in this dialect is masculine. 


f Some words are naturally of both genders; such as, (<«3l (^admt) 
and \j>m\^ (/nanus J a human beings l<*^^ (josamt) a client; whilst, 

14 A Crrammar of 

,/o^irc*»i fern, ^ 

s I b- -^ 3* ^^ ^^"^ feminine nouns fix>in masculines^ such of the latter 
(3,1. i^b— l:^'., description as end in * (a), \ (a), or b (y5), usually convert, those 
*^' ^ finals to 4/^ (0 ; such as end in f^\ (on), or ^\i (yon), to ^^ (tii) ; 

and suchas end in ^^ (1) to ^ (an orin) : so c/^l^^ (shahzadi) a 
princess f from ^^^j\^ (shahzada) a prince ; %^j^ Cg^fO ^ ^n^^^y 
from \jy^{ghjora) a horse ; 4^ \j) (paral), frombj^ {pdraya) foreign ; 
^yU (^atof^), from ^^yU (^a^u^o^) sevefith; ^J>^ (dhobin) a 
washerwoman, from ^cH^^^ (dhobf) a washerman. 

a. Masculines^ ending in other letters, may either assume certain of 
the above-mentioned feminine terminations, or take \ (jSl), _3 (m)^ _3l 

(ani\ ^ (yan), or ^3 (ayan) ; so ^jtb {harm) a doe, from ^yb 

(haran) a deer; \iu[U {nayaka) the female of (JL^U {nay ale) a 

teo^r ; ^Vjj^ (womi) a peahen, from jj^ (mar) a peacock ; lj^J/S^ 

(miAtorant), from jS^* (miAtor) a sweeper ; ^U:j (ftanyayan), the 

wife of a L:j (jbanyck) shopkeeper. 
jc ^^m A/of^ Ti*/^ 4^ To form the nominative plural, masculine nouns ending in s 

(a) or \ (5) change the termination to 4/ (c) ; as ^^U (piyale) cups, 
from ^Lj (ptyaZa) ; ^JLj (KJ?) sons, from llo (icfa) : other termi- 

nations remain unaltered ; as J^ (mard) a man or men : j^ (chor) a 
thief or thieves,* 

a. Certain nouns substantive masculine, as well as adjectives, 
though ending in \ (a) remain unchanged in the nominative plural ; 

such as, \dS^ ikhada) God, \j^ {ymara) nobles or a nobleman. 

is. I 3 


others, like^ (fikr) core, ^^^ (jan) life, may be used indifferently as 

masculines or feminines. On the subject of gender, indeed, considerable 
difference will be found to exist between the Hindustani and Dakhnj; and, 
even speakers or writers of the same dialect are sometimes at variance. 

* In Dakhni, however, ^t (ofi) is subjoined to such nouns ; so, ^^j^ 
{tnardan) men, ^jj>' {chorm) thieves* 

the HifuB^ant Language* 15 

!U (mulla) a doctor, U-lj (faja) a prince, ii (lala) master, \j\j (baba) 
or \bj {pita) father, bj^ (sauda) melancholy, l3b {dana) wise, \jU 

(data), liberal, 1 Jui (paida) produced, and various others.* 

6. Feminine nouns ending in ij («) assume ^\ (an) for the nomi- ^/^^*^ ^"^f ~^r 
native plural, as those of all other terminations take ^^ \in) ;t ^f 0^iu^ ^ (^. 
^;\JLi {betiyan) daughters, from ,<S^ (fie^ ; ^;:rj^ (hitabin) books, 

fix>m c^l:;^ (/n^a&). 

c. Persian nouns may form their plurals in ^\ (oA) U (ha) c^l (aO '^'"'^ '' '^'^ '''''"'* 
or CL^U^ O^Oi or by changing a singular s (a) to ^;\f (gar) ; as, 

40^^ (safciyan) cupbearers, from jJ^ C'^^') ; V^ («ai%a) yeor^, 

from JLi (sal) ; CD\J^j\y (nawazishat) favours, from (J!^j^y (noiDo^ 

zish). Arabic plurals, too, of various forms may occur ; as, jJ\i^ 

(anafir) bomj^ufi' (unsur), j\j>^\ (afAbar) (romj^ (khabar). 1^1 
(umara) from j^\ (amir). 

6. Cases of nouns, excepting the nominative, are formed in this ^ecutiAoK 
language by the means of small words, generally placed after the 
nouns, whence the term postposition is conveniently applied by 
Europeans to these words; and, such masculine nouns as have for '^^' ^^^ 
their final in the nominative singular s (a) or 1 (a) mostly change it 

to (^ (2) in the other cases of that number ; so, ^ Lg)))j^ (darwaze 
ko) to the door, from ^j^^jt^ (darwaza), \i ^^ (larke ka) of the boy, 
from \^ (iirft5),ji ^^jjp (ghofe par) on the horse, from \j^(gh5fa). 

* In the Dakhan, ^^ (oti) is usually added to nouns ending in 1 (a) 

unchangeable, to form the nominative plural; so, (^jt«Xs>» (khu dS'on) gods. 

f In Dakhni, ^ (on) or more rarely ^1j (wan) is added to feminine 

nouns whose singular final is \ (a) to form the plural, whilst other femi- 

nines assume ^\ (an) or sometimes change 1^ (i ) to ^Jj (yan) ; so, 

42^t0 (ma^on) or ^j^ (mawan) mothers^ from U (ma)f ^\^«X} naddVin 

(or naddyan) rivers, from i^JJ (naddi). 

16 A Orammarof 

Masculines in \ (a) which aie not liable to change in the nominative 
plural, some of which aie enumerated at paragraph 4. a., as well as 
masculines of all other terminations, and all feminines, admit of no 
inflection before postpositions in the singular ; so, ^ \sAj (rya se) 

from the prince ; ^^j^^g^or min) in the house ; ^ tjJ (^dawa ie) 
with medicine ; ^jTT ^ ^j^ {ghof^ ^ 5gE) before the mare. 

a. The inflection for the plural is, in proper Hindustani, constantiy 
\c>} C^)' though in Dakhni it is more usually ^^ (an) ; excepting, 
however, the vocative, in which it is commonly j (S) ; so, ^ ^ ^^ 
QajIwA he tain) to boys ; (^U ^ ^'U^j(dana'Sn he pas) near thewise; 

ji u^j^ (g^P'lf^^ P^^) ^^ mares; ^^ ^^^^ (kitabon men) in books.* 

b. It may here be noticed that words of two syllables, the first of 
which has any short vowel and the second is sounded with ' (a), drop 
the latter when any termination beginning ¥rith a vowel is affixed ; 

so, ^j*0j) {baras) a y^ar becomes uy^ji (barson), ..y^ (jctgah) a place, 

\:9t^ 0'^£r'^^) * ^^^i ^^ ^^ contrary, nouns ending in \ (a) un- 
changeable may assume ^ (y) before the affixes of the plural ; as, 

^U 4^^ (at mjayo) O mothers ! from U (mSi) ; ^ ^^^^ (dawayon se) 

with medidnesy from tjj (dawa). 

6. The simple postpositions used with nouns, inflected if capable of 
inflection, are — 

For the Genitive case, ^ (jca) ^ (jce) ^ (JS) of. 

For the Dative, or 
For the Accusative 

\<^ (««) tttt-* (*^») ur" (*^*) J^ (**^) fi^* ^' 

J (j>ar) or iJ {pa) on, at : ^^ {men) in, among. 

[ / (*5) u5 ^/ (*« to7n), &c., to, for, 8ic. 

For the Ablative, 

♦ y b (panw) afooty becomes contracted to ^^/Ij (jpa'oii) in the inflec- 
tion of the plural. 

the Hindustani Language. 17 

Of these postpositions, l^ alone is liable to change, as above noted, 
to agree vith the noun to which it has reference ; and, most com- 
monly this noun follows immediately the postposition : thus, before a 

masculine nominative singular, \^ is used ; as, lij \^ jTl Jy«» (sauddgar 
ka beta) the merchants son : before a masculine singular acted upon 

by another postposition, or before a masculine plural in every case, 

(^ *■— — ..... 

^ {ke); as,^ ^^ ^^ \^)j (raja ke hathlpar) on the prince's ele- 

phant; yj^^ yS ^^j {jam ke ghofe) the princesses horses; ^ ^jfji 

i<^ U)f^ (farftofi ke Iiatlidn st) from the hands of the hoys : and 
before a feminine noun in every case of each number, ^ (jct) ; as 

ij^ ^J^y (naukar kl pagfi) the servant's turban ; \J<^j^ \^ J^^ 

(ganwar ki mur gh iyan) the peasant's hens. The rest of the postpo- 

sitions remain unchanged ; as j^ ^ (jcutteko) or ^" ^ ^ (kutte 

ke tain) to the dog or the dog ; ^ j^ {bandar si) by the monkey ; 

J^j^ (mXz par) on the table; ^^ \^j^ Lr^ (us arse men) i?i that 
space of time,* 

a. Many other words, moreover, are adapted to the like postpositive 
use ; and, as some of them generally take ^ (ke), whilst others re- 
quire ^ (ft?) before them, they have been termed compound postpo- 

sitions ; so, in (^b ^ *lljb (badshah ktpas) near the king;y^^\ l^J^ 
(dar ke upa'r) at the door ; ^i^^ lS J*J3 (^^^^^ ^^ waste) for the 
vizir ; ^^pl ^ i^jjf (g^^ore ke age) before the horse; ^-5 ^ ti-w-jjJ 
(dost ke li'e) for the sake of the friend ; j^jf^ ^ jp (ghar ke 
plchhe) behind the house ; t^Jo ^ Jjbt^ (masjid kl faraf) towards 
the mosque ; ^ ^ j^V^ (sipaht kl tarafi) in the manner of a sol- 
dier : yet ^ (ke) is sometimes omitted ; as, jJ^^\ jJ (dar upar), 

* il^ (tak, or (lakh. C.^ iog)^ u^lj (talak. or dakh. ^^/U talag)^ 
(^^ \^s)j S^jy (^^rO ^^9 ^P ^^9 near^ are also much used as simple 

postpositive words ; so CJ^ j^ (ghar tak) up to the house. 


18 A Grammar of 

(jJ^ i^j}^ Cghore pas) : occasionally, moreover, words of thisdescrip- 

tionmay precede the noun or pronoun; as, ^iL*\clX»43p (nazdik us-ke) 

near him : and two or more of the simple postpositions may occur 
together ; as, ^ ^^^ jp {ghar meA se) from within the house. It 
may be noticed, too, that with pronouns, such words require an inflected 
masculine or a feminine genitive ; so, (^U \^ji>^ {mere pas) near me, 
*-J;t ^JJJ (^teri faraf) towards thee, 

7« The vocative may be the same in form as the nominative; or, it 

may be denoted by some one of the signs i^\ (ai), i^\ (e), ^ (A^), 


^ (^)> \J^^ (^*0» i^' («^^)f V (yS), or f^J^ {art) before ihe noun 
singular, inflected if capable of inflection ; but the usual termination in 
the plural is^ (o); and, to a plural with this termination one of the 

« ■ 

signs above-mentioned may be prefixed. The vocative may likewise 
be expressed by cuyb (Ao^), ^j;j (re), or ^-j {be) after the noun ; but, 
i^J\ {are) is changed to ^^J\ (ari), as ^j {re) is to 4^ (ri) if applied 

to a feminine : the inter) ectional words, moreover, ^j\ or t^j\ and i^j 
or tjj, are generally used in a disrespectful or contemptuous sense, 
and ^ as well as ^^\ is perhaps always so applied. So, %) (icjS), or 
^JLj i^\ {ai bete) O son ! J^ ^1 {e mard) O man ! ^ji <^\ (o larKe) 
O boy ! ^jif^j i^j^ («^^ ramchera) holla servant ! t/J^ lSj^ (or? 
randt) O woman! jJj {yard) or j^b ^\ {ai yard) O friends! 

8. With Persian and Arabic words, the construction and preposi- 
tions peculiar to those languages are frequently adopted. Thus, to 
shew the connexion between two substantives, or between a substantive 
and its following adjective, the Persian izafat may be used ; and it is 
denoted, if actually written, after a consonant by , {zer or kasr), after 
X {he) silent, or after i^ {t/e) by {hamza)^ and after \ {alif) or ^ 

{wa'o) by ^ {ye) : so, *LJ* ^joU. --1^ {mttshlr-i IduLSS-i shah) privy 

counsellor of the king ; 1 J^ xjcj {banda-i lAudd) servant of Ood ; 
4-jyi" ^^^ {hawa-e khub) good air ; i\j y/^\ {asnd-e raJi) midst of 

the Hindustani Language. 


the way. And, when two Arabic substantives come together, or a 
snbstantive is followed by its adjective in the Arabic construction, the 
latter of the two words has the article J\ (al) prefixed, and they be- 
come united in pronunciation, the sign wasl being occasionally used 

in writing ; so, Afi \ c^U? {taliburl-ilm) a seeker of knowledge, a 

C* «> «0 mm 

Student ; m*^^*^ ^ ^ {jillahW-Tahman) to the merciful God. 

9. Declension, according to the preceding remarks, may now be 
formally exemplified ; as, with a masculine noun substantive ending 
in 9 {he) silent, thus — 

N. 5JCJ (handa) a slave. 

G. s^ tS ^ ^"^ 9f^ slave. 
D. ^ t^iicj to a slave. 

V. ij^Jcj i^\ O slave ! 

Ab. ^ ^*XJ from a slave. 

N. fc/«^ (ftancfe) slaves. 
^* v^ ^ ^ U^*^ of slaves. 
D. j^ (j!^^ ^^ slaves. 

Ac. j^ U!^^ slaves. 

V. jJCJ ^^^ orjXj O slaves! 
Ab. ^--« (j!^*^ /row slaves. 

Or^ as with a masculine noun ending in \ (a) liable to inflection. 


N. ]j^ig^ora) a horse. 

D. j^ s^^ '^ ^ Aor«c. 

Ac, ^ ^jy$ a horse. 

V. v^?^ c^i or ]j^ O horse ! 

^' l5^ ^J^ f"'^^ ^ horse. 


N. fcj^fjjf) (ghoft) horses. 

D. j^ \:)^w '^ horses. 

Ac. j^ ij^j^ horses. 

^' 3J^ S^^ ^^ )J^ ^ Worses! 
Ab. j<-» [i)3))r fro^ horses. 

And nouns ending in ^\ (a^)> the last letter being the obscure 

nasal, change that termination to ^ (^i) in the inflection of the sin- 

gttlar as well as in the nominative plural ; so ^^f^^ {panchwen)^ from 
^tya^b {'pmchwan)j fifth ; or, sometimes, to ^ (c), as ^^jiJ (baniyc). 


A Grammar of 

from ^Uij (baniyd^, a trader ; and they may convert it to ^j (m), 
and J (o) if used, in the oblique cases and vocative of the plural. 

Or, as with a masculine noun ending in \ (a), not liable to inflection, 
thus — 


G, ^J ^ l^ \pAj of a prince. 
D. j^ \pAj to a prince* 

Ac. if ^\) a prince. 

V.l>-|^ ^\ or \^\j O prince! 
Ab. ^-rf Isj*!^ from a prince. 

N. *^]j (raja) princes. 
O.^^^ UjVl; of princes. 

^' ^ cJ!^ Vb ^^ princes. 

Ac. j^ ^;^ U-]^ princes. 

V.J Isj-]^ 4^^ or J \9^J O princes ! 
Ab. ^ ^/\pr]j frompHnces. 

And, according to this example, are declined all masculine nouns 
ending in a consonant, or in any vowel not liable to inflection; as,^^ 
(^har) a house j If jp of a house, j^ houses, If ^j^ of houses ; 

j^Jl {adnit) man^ If vj**^ 9f wwin, &c. 

Or, as with a feminine noun terminating in i^ (i), thus 

N. i/v^CgAori) a mare. 

G- ^ ^^^j^ of a mare. 
D. jf s^^ '^ ^ mare. 

^* ^J^ ^ ^ mare I 

^>fJij^{ghoriyan) mares. 

^- l/ i/ ^ cyijj^ o/jBom. 
^* J^ \:>^^jy^ ^^ mares. 

Ac. / v:aij^ »*«^^- 

Ab. j^ ^j^ from a nuare. \ Ab. ^ m^tj^ from mares. 

Or, as with a feminme noun having any other termination than ^ 
(i), thus— 

* This particular word has been met with inflected like 1?^ pre- 
ceding, though this is very uncommon. 

tie Hindustatu Language, 





izj\j (bat) a word, an affair. 


^^b (bdtefi) words. 


^ ^^CL>\j of a word. 


L^v/^uyV of words. 


^ CL^b to a word. 


f (i)y b to words. 


f ts^b a word. 


^ j^yb words. 


CL>b v^\ O word I 


y\j i^\ or yb words ! 


^ CL^b from a word. 


L<-* u^y V f'Tom words 

And a dissyllabic noun, which drops the short vowel of the second 
syllable before affixes beginning with a vowel, as explained at para- 
graph 6. h., might be exemplified in the feminine *4^^ (/^g^^) apioce, 

which becomes in the plural ^jsV'.y (jdg'hen) places, ^ uJt^ (jag'hon 
ka) of places, &c. 

10. The affix ^^ (da), or j (p), is often taken, in an emphatic as 
well as plural sense, by numerals^ whether cardinals or aggregate, 
whether in the nominative or in some other case ; so, u^^ {donon) or 

yyd (dono), all two, the two, both ; ^yJ» (finm) all three, j^ ^^ 

ifakhon shahr) hundreds of thousands of cities. And, the nouns of 
time, ^^, (baras) a year, L»^ (mahtna) a month, i^J (din) a day, 

j^ (pahar) a watch, not unfrequently, and for the like purpose, as- 

sume the adjunct ^^ (on) ; as, t^j^^ uj^ji {bur son gvzre) years (many) 
have elapsed; ^<m» u^^^v^ (mahlnori se) for (many) months, or months 


11. Adjectives are generally liable to the same changes in their finals Adjectttjes 
for gender, number, and case, as substantives: in the plural^ too, 

they may assume the same adjuncts, with the exception of ^ (en) ; 
yet when followed immediately by nouns in this number, the plural 
signs yji (on), or ^^ (o») are usually, though not always, omitted, the 
substantives for the most part alone retaining them, as may be ex- 

emplified in l^ \Sj^ (chhota lafka) a little boy, thus— 


A Grammar of 









Or, in ^^ i^)if' (chhoG larlu) a little girl 



















The adjective, however, may occasionally stand alone, as when used 
substantively, or it may follow its substantive, in either of which cases 
it requires in the plural the affixes ^^ (5^) or ^^ (dfi). 

12. The ordinals of numbers are declined and used as adjectives, 
though they seem hardly capable, Uke the latter, of following the sub- 

stantives to which they relate ; sojb ^jiS^ {chauthubar) fourth time, 

A ^J^V*^ ^j^ {tlsre darwaze par) at tite third door, lij ^ys^Kt 

{jpanchwan beta) fifth son, ^ ^^ij ^^^ {chhatwen bete se) from 

the sixth son. 

^^t^y/r ^^* '^^ comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives are 

u\ . ^.Lv^ denoted by means of postpositions and adverbs, or occasionally by 

reduplication : thus, for the comparative may be used ^from^ than, 

the Hindustani Language. 23 

^^ anumgy ^ ^^ from among^ ^ of, after the noun to which com- 
parison is made, as well as if jU J {ziyada) or «! {aur) more, \Jj great, 
Ijjf {fhara) or )ij^ {zarra) a little, 8cc. before the adjective; so, 

kJ^ *Jj^ l<^ l5^^ W (^^*5 tambS^ $e bkarl hat) iron from copper 

heavy is : for the superlative, such adverbs as ls^ (bahut) much, 

^ «• 

v^^ly; (ntVioyaO or (JUJ (nipaf) or ^1 {ai%) extremely, «X^ {kadd) 

for tX>y 1 Caz hadd) beyond bounds, excessively, Lj {basa) most, very, 
\j{ (Jbara) great, before the adjective; or, the expression ^ c^^^^a {sab 

ice) or \^ w^^ (^ai fta) o/'aZZ, as well as a reduplication ; so \ef^ *>^^-^ 
(&iA£i/ unchSi) very high;j\J^^ CL^ (nipai hoshyar) extremely pruF- 
dent; ^^^ ^^ <^^V C^^^^y^^ burijagah) very bad place; ^ \^ l^^^^o 
(<ai Aa ftara) or |^ ^ c^*^ («a& st bara) greatest ; lf>-t \^\ 
(achchha achchha) very good, best. 

a. With Persian adjectives, J (tor) is at times suffixed for the Ji^ ^i 

— c / 

comparative, as ^^y {tartn) is for the superlative ; soji^^ (Jdmb- 

, f. t*. s . . / 

tor) handsomer, ^jij^^ij^ (jdiubtarin) handsomest, from c^ yv (khub) : 
and, Arabic forms, like Jb^ {azlam) more unjust, ^Hfe (zallam) most *^^-*<^^' 
unjust, from JA^ (s^lm) injustice, may occur, though but rarely. 
14. The adjunct of similitude, L> («a), ^^^ (st), ^^ («) /iA:6,+ 

varying in its termination to agree with the noun to which it has re- 
ference, is much used after other adjectives, as well as after substan- 
tives and pronouns. To adjectives, which like it must be made to 
accord in gender, number, and case with the governing noun, it seems 
often to convey but little, if any, additional meaning, though in^many 
bstances it corresponds to the English useful affix, — ish, and in 

rt^ ^m-mm. p*«. 

others it impoorts a degree of intensity to the expression ; so c-^1 La \2^ 

* Observe that ^ before LmJ or L^ is pronounced as m. 

+ ^v^e (sareka\ of similar import, sometimes occurs ; and in Dakhani, 
ujyMi (gartka) like^ is extremely common in use. 

24 A Grammar of 

{khatia sa amb) a sour or sourish mango ; ^IJ ^ l^J^ {chhote se 
kele) little plantains ; \jJ ^ S&j^ {karwi si dawa) bitter physic ; 
jJb L» c:-^ {bahut sa pant) much or very much water, 

a. Before this adjunct^ substantives or pronouns become inflected, 
and its meaning is fully intended ; so, J^ U ^b (Jbagh sa mard) a 

GO C / 

tiger^like man ; ^j! ,<-) ^ji {jarkt si larkt) a boy-like girl, ^^ -fsr* 

^Jfj! ^c^^ (mujh St achchhl larkt) a good girl like me : LjI {aisa) 

for L (jJ (is'Sa) like this ; Lj^ {waim) for L» (^^ (tw-«5) Zifce f Aa^ ; 

and, upon the same principle, L^ (kaisa) what-like ? Lmi^ (Jaisa) 

which'like? LJ {taisa) that-like. Sometimes, however, it is sub- 
joined to pronominals in their uninflected form, when it has a discri- 

minative meaning ; as UJ^ {kaun-sa) which ? what ? what sort ofl 

Lj%^ {jaun-sa) whichever, LJ^ {taun-sa) that, La i^ S (^kd'i-sa) 

some one, certain person. 



15. Pronouns, in Hindustani, may be personal, demonstrative, 
common or reflective, interrogative, relative, correlative, or indefinite. 
Generally they are the same for feminine as for masculine ; yet, the 
interrogative and indefinite exhibit each two forms, and each of these 
forms is, in great part, appropriated to a distinct gender. In the 
changes for case and number, pronouns differ essentially from 
nouns; as — 

the Hindustani Language. 


N. ^^^ {main) /. 
^ .Ir* (wcra), c^^ (were), 

First Person, 


N. *ft (jiam) we. 

\j\Aib (^hamara),i^j\^^ {hama- 

kjji^ (merl), of me, mine. 

f .^ {mujh Ao), or ^^^ 
Ac J (rnttjhe), to me, me. 

Ab. ^ .fff* {mujh St) from me. 

Second Person. 

N. y {fu), or ^ (torn) thou. 

re), v^Ujb (Aawflri) ()/*m5, our. 

D. 1^ ^ (Aam io), or ^^^Aib 
AcJ (Aameti) /o us, us. 


^ ^ {jiam St) f 

ham St) from us. 

I ]j^ {tcra), ^jJ {tirt), ^j^ 
[ {ieri) of thee, thine. 

»• 1 J^ ^ (^«;A *^)^ or ,^ 

V. y 4^1 (at tu) O thou ! 

Ab. ^-» -^fls? (^ty A «e) from thee. 

N. Jf (<M»i) ye or yow. 

^jlfiJ (fMmAara),c^\f4J (tum- 
G- ^ hart)j 4^V*^ (^MwiAari), q/* 

yoM, your. 

D. [/ jJ (*tfm ko), or ^^^-^w («w»i- 
Ac. J hhi) to you, you. 

9 y 

V. ^ o^ (ai ^M»i) O you ; 
Ab. ^^ w (^MOT St) from you. 

Third Person. 

N. Sj (tvuh) he, she, it. 

\^{J^{us ka), ^ fJ^ {us kt), 
[or^ ^1 {usla) of him, her, it. 

!9 f 

^ {j^ {us ko) or ^\ (m^c) 
to him. 

9 9 

Acj^^^l {us ko),or ^\ {use) him. 

9 •• 

Ab. ^ ^ {us St) from him, &c. 

N. c^j {wt) they. 

' " 9 9 

^ e^' ("^ A5) ^ ^1 (an ke) or 
^ ^\ {un ki) of them, their. 

m* ^ 

->< 9 CP 

I5- 1/ ^{unho),QX ^\ ( 
AcJ Km) to them, them. 


Ab. ^ ^ {un St) from them. 



A Grammar of 

And the same word is declined in like manner when used for the 
remote demonstrative, n^ that, in contradistinction to which is the 
proximate demonstrative, ^^ (ylh) this, declined as follows — 

^^. (is ka\ ^ (J^^ (is ke\ 

N. *^j (yiA) this, it. 

1 o^ \^ u^ (^ *0 ^f ^^^* 
D 1 / C/-Kw *5), or ^\^ (ise) 

Ac. 1^0 this, this. 

Ab. ^ (^1 (is se) from this. 


N. ^^ (ye) these. 

\^ ^ (in ha) ^ J^ (in ke) or 

U^\ (in ki) of these. 

D. [ j^ (i)' (yn ko) or ^^\ (inhen) 

Ac. j to these, these. 

Ab. L<-*c>' (in se) from these. 


Singular and Plural. 
N. c-i^l (op) self, myself, thyself, himself, ourselves, &c. 
G. \i lJ\ (ap ka) ^ c-jT (ap ke) ^ cJT (ap k%) or \J\ (apna) ^1 

(apne) ^\ (apni) of myself, &c., my ouni, &c. 
D. j^ c-iT (op fto) or jf ^^1 (apne ko) to myself, &c. 
Ac. ji^ c-M (ap ko) ox if ^\ (apne ko) myself, 8cc. 
Ab. ^ L^\ (ap se) or ^ ^\ (apne se) from myself, &c. 

This pronoun is applicable to each of the three persons, according 
to the nominative, expressed or understood, with the verb in the same 
sentence : ^jJ\ (apas), moreover, is frequently adopted before post- 
positions, especially in a plural sense ; so, ^,-^ ^^T (apas men) among 


This is of two forms, the one ^i^ (kauri) being generally applied, 
whether absolutely or adjectively, to persons, as the other \S (kya) is 

to actions or things ; yet, ^ (ids) the inflection of ^^ may occa- 
sionally be applied to things ; and, t^ in the uninflected state only 

the Hindustani Language* 


seems fitted to precede, as an adjective, the names of inanimate ob- 
jects : so, ytb ^^ J {turn kaun ho) you who are ? jJb ^^^^ ^ Q^yoL 
chahte ho) what desiring are you ? ^Jt^ u^ (*** ^^'^ ^^) ^^ which 
(or what) thing 'i \jf\S (jcya kama) what (is) to do ? J-^ L^ {kya 
chtz) what thing ? 



N. ^^ {kaun) who ? which? what? 

I ^(j*S{kiskl)ofwhonit whose? 

D. ^ ^jS (Jcis ko) or ^^^ (jcise) 

to whom? 
Ac. S ijS {ids ko) or --^ {kise) 



N . ^<^ {kaun) who ? which ? what ? 
[^ c/ (ftin kd) ^ ^ {kin ke) 

\^^^{kink^)ofwhoml whose? 


J>.^ ^ {kin ko) OT^j^ {kinhen) 
to whom ? 


Ac.j^^ {kin ko) or^^^-f,^ (AinAeti) 

Ab. ^^{kin se)from whomfiic. 

kh.^yjS {kisse)from whomfiuc. 

Singular and Plural. 
N. and Ac. \S {kya) what ? 
G. \^ ^\^ {kahe kd) ^ ^l^ {kdhl ke) ^^^ {kdhe kt) of what 

D. ^ ^J^ {kdhe ko) to or for what ? 
Ab. ^ ^^ {kdhe se) from what ? 


Singular. Plural. 

N. j^ 0*0)* ^"^ U!^ O^ttw) w?^<>> 
which, what. 

which, what. 

* In an indefinite sense, this pronoun may be repeated ; as, ^ 
{jo jo) whoever y whatever ; o (j*j*- j^,^-^ (ji^j*^ kd) of whichever : and, 
it is very frequently compounded with the indefinite pronoun; as, \^ y ^ 
{jd kd't) whoever ; vi ^jf u--^ O'w kisi kd) of whomever ; -x«r ^ 
0*5 kuchh) whatever ; fi yJ^ ^j.^ {jis kisu ko) to whatever. 


A Grammar of 


I L^ u^ (jiskt) of whom, &c. 

I>. / ir^ O'w *5) or ^<-^ Owe) 
to whom. 

Ac.j^^^P-^ O'w ^o) or L5— flr (jwc) 


(/ li;^ O'i^ *') of whom, 8cc. 

Ae^)^ to whom, 8cc. 

Ac. / ^ ( JiTi Ao) or ^^^-fc^ (Jin- 

hen), whom, &c. 
Ab.^^^^(ji>i se)from whom,iic. 



N. y^ (so) or ^y {taunj that, he, 


ri^ (j*j (^w fta) j^ ^ {tis he) 

Li ^.-J {tis ki) of that, &c. 

Ac. j^ {jJi {tis ko) or ^-—J (tise) 

Ab. j^ j^ {tis St) from that,iic. 

N. ^ (50) or^y {taun) those, they. 


l^ ^ {tin ka) ^ Ji {tin ke) 

^J ^ {tin ki) of those, 8cc. 

D. j$ ^ (rin fto^ or ^-^ (^m- 
hen), to those, &c. 

Ac. ^ ^ {tin ko) or ^J^ {tin- 
hen), those, &c. 

Ab. ^^ ^ {tin se)from them, &c. 


This is of two forms ; the one 4^ j^ being more commonly applied 

to peraons, as the other >^ is to things : and, for number, each form 
admits of no change ; thus — 

N. ^^ ^ {kol) a, an, any, some. 

\$ ^-^ {kisi ka) ^ j<-^ {kisi 
G. < he) .S jc— ^ {kist ki) of any, 

some, &,c. 

N. -^^ {kuchh) some, a little, a few. 

IS^ 4--^ (Ari^u ka) iSy^ {kisu 
^9 - ^ 

lit) ^ yS {kisu ki) of some, 



the Hindustani Language. 29 

D. if^jJ^Qdsi ho) to any^omefiic. 
Ac. tf ^^S {kist ko) any, some,ijic. 
Ab. ^ ^^^ (^kisl se) from any, 

I>.^y^ {kisu ko) to some, 8cc. 
Ac.^yJi {kisu ko) some, &c. 


PAi.^yS {kisu se)from some. 

16. In pronouns, the genitive terminations \j (ra) U (no) admit of 
inflection, like l^ (Aa), so as to agree with the nouns to which they 
relate ; thus,^ ^j^ ^jir^ (mere ghoft par) my horse on ; i^jyp ^r^ 
{firtghjofi) thy mare ; ^Ja^\j ^ ci^^^jJ ^\ {apnt dost ke waste) on 
account of his friend. When, however, any word intervenes between 

the pronoun and postposition, .^s^ and .-^fT as well as ^Jb and J are 
then used with the genitive of the succeeding word ; as l^ 

(mujk gharlb kd) of poor me. ^^ and ^J^ and 4*^ too, when 
separated from any postposition, may remain uninflected; as, ^^ 
^ (^^t ^ t-^.^U {^aun sahib ka adrnt hai) what gentleman's ser- 
vant is it ? \S^^- 1>- ^j-^ ^ jjJ ^^ ^ {kd*t din ko main chala 

ja'ungd) I shall depart on some day ; ^^^ J->- ^ {kuchh chiz 
men) in something. To ^Jt ^^ ^Z c:^^ u' (^ (^ ^^ plural sign ^^ 

{on) may still be subjoined, provided that no noun having the like 
9 f 

termination immediately follows ; the finals of ^J» ^^ ^:f u^ u^ (^ 
moreover may be aspirated, when used with, or without, the affix ^^ 
{on)* ; so, ^ >Jb {ham ko) or ^ ij>y^ {hamon ko) to us ; ^^ J {turn 
u) or ^ ^ {tumh se) or ^ i^j^ {tumhon se) from you; 

izJ^ ii'J^j' -^^ ^^ U^ (^^ 0^ '^^^ logon men) among those people. 
And, by the poets, -£jr* and ^sjr are frequently adopted in a posses- 

* The word ^^^^ («a&) all^ becomes on the same principle ^^^r^ 
{sabhon) for the inflection of the plural. 

30 A Grammar of 

sive sense, instead of the regular genitives ; as, J J .^fs^ (mtijh dii) 
my heart, JjLL^ -^rsT (jujh ishk) thy love. 



17. Verbs denote the motion or action intended in a sentence, and 
admit of two principal divisions ; verb intransitive and verb transi- 
tive ; the latter of these, moreover, may be subdivided into active and 

1 8. The most simple form of the verb, and which may be termed 
the root, is the imperative in the second person singular : this form, 
also, serves frequently as a verbal noun ; so, jU (mar) beat or a beat- 
ing ; Jy (boi) speak or speech ; «l^ (chdh) desire (thou) or the 

19. The infinitive requires the addition of U (no) to the root ; and 
before postpositions, when the infinitive often comes into use as a 
gerund or verbal noim, this U is changed to ^ (nt) ; so, fix)m jU beat^ 

comes UjU to beat or a beating ; fi'om Jy speak, ^^j {pt) drink, 

ji L5^y {bolne par) on speaking or about to speak, ^ ^^Jt^ (pine 

ko) for drinking : the same inflection also takes place when the 

infinitive is in construction with certain verbs ; as, uJ ^j>^ {kahnelaga) 
he was applied to saying or he began to say. This termination, 
moreover, may be changed to ^ (ni) ^ (nin) or ^jlJ {niyan) when 

a feminine noun, singular or plural, is the object of the verb ; so, 
L5^^ ^'J <---^J (^^ zaban bohu) to spexik a language. 

20. The past participle is obtained by subjoining to the root, \ (a) 
S^ (^) v/^ (0 ^Ji (j^) or j^b^ (iyon) according to the gender and 

the Hindustani Language. 31 

number of the governing noun ; so, for a masculine noun in the singu- 
lar ]Lj (bola) and in the plural ^yi {bole) ; for a feminine noun in the 
singular ^^^ {bolf) and in the plural ^ji (bolin) or j^Uy (boliyan) 

spoken, from Jy . 

a. If the root, however, ends in \ (a) or ^ (o) the letter ^ becomes 
inserted before a subsequent \ (a) ; but, it may be either assumed or 
omitted when followed by an affix consisting of, or beginning with, ,^: 

so, from S (la) bring, come 1>S (laya), ^^ (j^y^^ or ^*i (C^)* i^ 
(jayt) or ^5 J {idl), &c. brought ; from ^ (io) sow, b^ (MyS), ^yi 
(boye) or ^*^ {bo'e), ^^ (boyi) or 4^ y (^©7), 8cc. ^otrn. And, 
when to roots ending in 4^, an affix consisting of, or beginning with 
1^^ (i) would regularly follow, to foim the feminine of this participle, 
one of the long vowels is usually dropped ; so, ^^J (di), ^J {din) or 

^b J {diyan), from b J (rfiya) gircn ; ^ (fi) ^ (C?*) or J^ {Uyan), 
from U (Ziya) taken ; ^ {kf) ^^ {kin) or ^^\S {kiyan), from L^ 

£• Roots consisting of more than one syllable, having any short 
vowel in the penultimate and fafha (a) followed immediately by a 
consonant in the final syllable, drop the latter vowel before all affixes 

beginning with a vowel ; hence, 1;J^ {gusra) from joT (guzar) pass ; 

CO o 

Ifss*^ {samjhct) from -ff*^ {samyh) understand. 

c. The few anomalies are Li {gaya) gone, from U- (jo) ; L^ (ftiya) 
<2on«, madie, from ^ {kar) ; lyb (Au a) been, become, from ^ (Ao) ;* 
\yc {mu'a) dead, from •« (mar) ; b J {diya) given, from 1^ J ((iS) ; and, 
UJ {liya) taken, from J (C). 

* The regular forms, however, sometimes occur ; but, more especially, 

bU. {jaya) and |^ (inora), when used with b^ (Artfrna) to form a 
species of compound ; and |^ {kara) under other circumstances, though 
but very rarely. 

32 A Grammar of 

d. When used adjectively or substantively^ this participle is often 
followed by \^ (hu'a) been, become; as is.^ \^ l^ {likhd hffd 
ka gh az) the become written, or the loritten, paper; \^ 151^ (jcatd hffa) 
the cut. 

21. The present participle is had by affixing to the root, \j (to) ^ 

•>-— • ■• 

(^e) Jf {tf) ^ (tin) or jjlJ {tiyd7i\ agreeable to the gender and 
number of the governing noun ; so, from *l>- {jchdK) wish, come 
tjbU- (chdhta) hevnshing, ^^^^ {chdhtl) she wishing, f^\pJt>^ {chdh- 
tiydfi) they (females) wishing : and, to adapt it for use as an adjec- 
tive or even substantive, \^ become is frequently subjoined, like as to 

the past ; so, \^ Ij^U (mdrtd hu*d) striking, the person striking. 

22. The past conjunctive participle may be the same in form as the 
root of the verb, or it may be formed by subjoining to the root, ^^ (c)* 

l/ (^^) ^ (kar) ^^ (karkl) or ^^ (karkar) ; so, ^ (jcali) or ^S^ 
(kahke) otJL^ (jkahkar), 8cc., having said : and, from I (a) come, ^\ 

(5«) or ^ \ (dnke), as well as the regular ! or ^ 1 , &c., having come. 

23. The past indefinite tense is the same in form as the simple past 

participle, explained at paragraph 20 ; so, Xy ^^-^ (main bdld) I (a 
male) spoke, ^J^ »j (wuh boti) she spoke, ^jlyi ^ (ham botin) we 
(females) spoke, +^U ^ ^ (us ne mdrd) he or she struck, 

9 " 

\\j^ L5^ \J^ (^^ ^^ wiara) they (males or females) struck. 

* With this affix, verbs become generally the same as for the inflected 
past participle masculine singular ; so, ^5 *J^ (hu'e) from Jb (ho)y ^^S 
(kiye) from J (kar)^ ^J (dtye) from <^J (de)^ ^ (%0 ^rom ^ (le). 

+ Before transitive verbs in any past tense, viz. any tense formed with 
, the past participle in the active voice, the particle (j (ne) at once fol- 


lows, or is affixed to, the noun or pronoun denoting the agent, which, if 
not the first or second personal pronoun, is inflected before it, if capable 

the Hindustani Language, 33 

a. The pluperfect or past past tense is obtained by adding the 
aoxiliary past to the past participle ; as, \ff S^ ^^ (main bola tha^ 
I had spoken/^ \ff U-fi ^ i:)^"^ y^ l^ (^ ^^"* ^^ ^ admiyon ko 
hKtja tha) you had sent two men. 

b. The past definite or past present tense is had by the addition of 

the auxiliary present to the past participle ; as, ^ )^ y (tu hola hat) 
thou hast spoken ; *jJb \^J ^ i^j^, iV ^ (Ji/fi tie baghM ko dekha 
hat) the cat has seen the tigers. 

c. The past future is obtained by the addition of the auxiliary 

future to the past participle ; as, ^yb or (^Ayb ^y s^ (wuh boR howe 
or ^gi) she may {shall or wilt) have spoken^ or she might (should or 
would) speak ;* ^^^^ or gr^yb \fj ^ ^^\ (unhon ne rakha howe or 
hawega) they may (shall or will) have placed, or might (could or 
would) place. 

of inflection ; the verb being* made to agree with its object, provided this j 
be, as is most customary, in the nominative case : when, however, the 
object 18 placed in an oblique case, or is not a word but a sentence, the 
verb is then invariably constructed as the third person masculine singular. 

Thus, \jVt ^^>-,J Jj (billt ne chuha mar a) the cat killed the rat ; 
i^U i^^ ^V V ^ (b^gh ne ghort mart) the tiger killed the mare ; 
L^f^ ^jy^ ff*'^ (^ ^*^y^ (sauddgar ne panch ghore beche) the 
merchant sold Jive horses ; ]j^ ^ ^jW l5^ U^^ (bdghon ne ghort ko 
mar a) the tigers killed the mare ; t-^t^ KS^f (^ Wvi l^ c^^ 
yb fA^jl (larkdn ne puchhd turn kaun^si kitah parhti ho) the boys 
asked, what book are you (female) reading ^^^ In the Dakhani of 
Madras, however, though ^J is of^en used, it does not interrupt the 
agreement of the verb with the nominative or name of the agent ; whilst 
the dialect of Bombay conforms to that of Hindustan in this respect as 
well as in most other particulars. 

* See note + on the foregoing page. 


34 A Grammar of 

d. The past conditional or optative is formed by the addition of the 
present indefinite of the verb^ {ho) be, became, to the past participle 
of the verb conjugated, with a conditional or optative adverb, ex- 
pressed or understood, in the same sentence; so, Ijfyb !l^ \:yr^J'^ (agar 
main bola hota) if I had spoken ; \j^ bT x^^ (j^g^^ truA aya hota) 
if he had come; \jyb IjU ^j^\ ^J:^ {hash tis^e mara hota) would to 
Ood he had struck ! It may be noticed, moreover, that when any 
plural feminine form of the auxiliary verb ^, terminating in ^ (n) or 
fj^ {an), is used in construction with participles preceding, these 

commonly drop the like plural signs ^ {n) or ^ {an) ; as, ^^ ^Jy *ib 
{ham bolt hain) we {females) have spoken ; ^j^^y^ ^^ ^J^ sft (*^^ 
mart ga*i ho'engln) they {females) may have been struck : yet, some- 
times, they are retained; as, ^^ iJ^ji (^ {ham boliyan hain) we 
{females) have spoken. 

24. The present indefinite tense is the same in form as the present 

participle, already explained at paragraph 21 ; so, IJ^J ^^^ {main 
daurta) I {a male) run ; ^T s^ {wuh ait) she comes ; l<^W" (!^ {ham 
jate) we {males) go ; ^j-sJ^ ^ {tum bolttn) ye {females) speak.* 

a. The imperfect or present past tense is obtained by adding the 
auxiliary past to the present participle ; as, Iff \:^ ^^ {inain likhta 
tha) I {a male) was writing ; ^ \S^ji ^ (^'^^ parhtt tht) she was 
reading ; ^^^ ^j^ |J {tum bdlii thtn) ye {females) were speaking.f 

* The present indefinite tense, moreover, with a conditional con- 
junction or adverb of wishing, expressed or understood, is much used to 

convey the sense of a past conditional or optative ; bb^ Sj y \s!y U^ J^^ 


1^0 {agar main boltd to wuh likhta) if I should speaky then he would 

vorite ; yet such sentences when rendered word for word are intelligible, 
if I speakj then he writes. 

f When one or more feminine participles precede an auxiliary verb in 
the plural, the plural sign ^ (n) or ^\ {an) is generally omitted in all 

the Hindustani Language. 36 

b. The present definite or present present is formed by the addition 

of the auxiliary present to the present participle ; so^ ^yb \jj^J ^j^ 

{jtMLvk danrta hun) I (a male) am running ; ^ ^\ y {tHatl ha%) 

thou (a female) art coming, 
e. The present future is had by the addition of the auxiliary future 

to the present participle ; so, u)^^ or ^^^ tjbjj ^^ (main parhta 
ho'un or ho^unga) I (a male) may (shall or will) be reading; 
ySi^^ or c^^ ^U i^ (wuh gatl howe or howegt) she may (shall or 

wiU) be singing. 

25. The future indefinite or aorist* is obtained by affixmg to the 
root, for the first, second, and third persons singular of either gender, 
^^ (tin) f^ (e) 4^ (e), and for the like persons of the plural, ^^ (en) 

-? (^) cM (^^) ^ ^f U^J crJ^ i^^i^ karun) I may do, ^^ y (tu kare) 
thou mayest do, s^^ if^ (wuh kare) he (or she) may do ; ^^ *ib (ham 

karen) we may do, jj w (tum hard) ye may do, ^^^ 4^ (we karen) 
they may do : and, in a more strictly future sense, by subjoining IT 
(?«) ^/ (g«) v^ (p) cr?f (5^^) ^^ U^ (giy^n), agreeable to the 
gender and number of the goveraing noun, together with the afore- 
mentioned affixes, to the root ; so, Iwj \p^ ^^^ (main jffunga) I (a 
male) will go, ^Xi^ *j (wuh awegi) she will come, ^S^t^ (^ (ham 
kahenge) we (males) shall say, ^Jl^ fjb (ham kahengln) we 
(females) shall say. 

but the final auxiliary, as above exemplified ; yet, Rometimes, though but 
rarely, the participle retains it, as ^^Uf^ U^}i ^ (ham holtiydn thVan). 

* This form serves for a subjunctive mood, and has occasionally an 

indefinite present meaning ; bo, ^j Uj- ^j*^ J ^^^ ij (wuh awe to main 

ja^un) (if) he should come^ then I shall go ; ^J ^ l5^V ^'^^ (Mkuda 
chahe so kare) (what) God wills^ that he does. 

36 A Grammar of 

a. To such verbal roots, however, as end in ^ (a) j (o) ^^ (e) or ij^ 
(t)i the letter J may be optionally affixed, or not, before every future 
termination beginning with c^ (e) ; so, from t come^ may be formed 

4// (awe) ^T (awen), &c. ; from y, saw, ^^j^ (bowegi) jAi^y, 

(bowengiycat) : and, on the contrary, verbs ending in 4^ (e) or ^ 

(0) may admit of contraction or elision ; so, ^^ J (de'un) or ^jJ (^un) 
(/) may give ; ^^O (dewe) or i^J (de) (A« or she) may give ; 

Ixl^J (de'unga) or iC^J (cftinga) (/) shall give ; jjJ (dS'o) or^O (do) 
(yc) may giw ; ^^^ (detoen) or ^ J (den) (we or ^Aey) may give ; 

j^^ (Ao'iin) or j^ (hon) (l) may be; ^j^^ (howe) or ^^^ (ho'e) 

or ^ (ho) (thou or Ae or she or t^) may become ; ^^j^i^^ (howen^n) 

or ^j;-xyyb (Ao'engtn) or ^j-Cyb (Aongiii) (tre or M€y females) shall 

become; jj^ (/?5n) or ^jj^ (Ziln) (T) may take; ^j^ (lewe) or J 

(C) (Ae or she) may take ; jJ (S'o) or j5 (Z5) (ye) may take. 

b. Roots of more than one syllable, having a short vowel in the 
penultimate and fafha (a) in the final, drop the latter vowel when the 
signs of the future are subjoined ; so, IxlJij (niklunga) from J^ 

(nikai) issue ; ^j^(guzrega) Sromj^ (guzar) pass. 

26. The imperative for the second person singular is the mere root 
of the verb ; and, for the second person plural, it is formed by adding 

J (5) to the root ; so, J^ (bol) or JjJ y (tu bol) speak thou ; Jy 

(bold) or ^y Jf (turn boto) speak ye. The other persons of each 

number may be the same as in the aorist ; so, y^y ^^^ (main bolun) 

I may speak, or (if) I may speak ; ^y ij (wuh bole) (if) he or she 
may speak : yet, to express the imperative sense in these persons, the 
verb 4^4) (de) give (thou), or in the plural j*> (do), or in the respectful 
form jcfjKifc) (dyiy^) be pleased to give, or ^^li (^jiyo) you must give, 
is more commonly used, hke the English " let" ; so, ^^J ^^y f .^j^ 
(mujh ko bolne de) let me speak ; i<*^.0 ^-J^ ^1 (use bolne dljiye) 

the Hindustam Language, 37 

be pleased to let him (or her) speak ; ^^jbU ^y /j\ (un-ko bolnl 

dtjiyo) you must let them speak, 

a. In this mood of the yerb, moreover, and of very frequent use, is 
the respectful or precative form ^ ^ (it/e) or in a future sense UIj ^ 

(it/ega)f which some honorific term, such as lJ\ (ap) self (you, Sir), 

— -^— 

(haxrat) the presence, ^^r>\a (jaliib) the lord or master, 8cc., 

generally precedes; so, L<Jy *^\ {o>p boliye) be pleased. Sir, to 

speak ; lv«..^ l^\ (ap Ujiyega) you, Sir, will be pleased to take : 

but, the termination _> ^ (iye) is at times adopted impersonally, and 

as an indefinite future or present ; so, -^ J ^ jLj^^ y vj^ j^ ^ 

^yi^ ^ (jo marjffiyt to sansar ke dukh se chhUtiye) when one 

dies, then one escapes from the trouble of the world; ^<;Jt\^^ (chahiye) 

one should desire, (one must). And, to give intensity to the impera- 
tive sense, or to express command respectfully, or even with a precative 
or future meaning, the termination ^ ^ (iyo) comes, also, frequently 

into use ; as, ^U l^ \^ (mtra kaha maniyo) mind my saying ; 

jJ^ aIu \j^ yLtf\ (us-kd mera paigkam boliyo) speak to him my 

^"'^essage ; vJb; c>-«^ jV Ir!^ (mera yar salamat rahiyo) may my 

friend remain in safety ! ; V. W" r< (mar jaHyo) may you die. After 

words ending in t/ ^ (a) or j (o), too, it must be noticed that the affixes 

t^^ (iy^) or iL ^ (iyega) and ^^ (iyo) become ^ (jiye) or ^ 

(j^)f ^^tiPr (jiy^go^f ^iPr (jiyo) or ^ 0'^) y so, ^jas^j^ lJ\ (ap 
dijiye) be pleased, Sir, to give ; ld.»*ci^ i^^^>\a (sahib ktjiyega) the 
gentleman will be pleased to do ; ^^^ te;T (azma Rjiyo) you will take 
(and) try. Before these terminations, we may add, the roots y^ (ho) 
^ (kar) u/fc) (de) ^J (le) usually become^ (hu) ^ (kt) ^/J (dt) ^ 
(/i) ; so, ^^y. (Aa/tye) j^ Qnjiyd) ^^J (^fi/tye) j-fj (^ji- 

b. Another way of expressing an absolute command is by the use 

38 A Grammar of 

of the infinitive ; as, UT «^Jlsr ^ {turn jaldi aria) you (are) to came 
immediately ; L^ ^ ^Lt (us-ko na kahna) not to tell him. 

c. In a prohibitive fiense, (iS^w« (mat) is generally used before the 

verb ; as, jjU c:..v< yLiI (t^-io ma^ mSro) do not beat him ; «ff J 
^jj d^^ (^{£191 ftucAA ma^ io/5) do you not say anything ; Cj\i ^X^\ 
j^ (juv« (tc^i? &a^ ma^ suniyo) hear not his word : for the like pur- 
pose, however, ^ (na) may occasionally be adopted ; so, ^j^^ J J A) w 

(laga na dil ho kahtn) place not the heart (or affection) anywhere. 

27. A transitive verb is formed from an intransitive, or a causal 
from a transitive, by the addition of \ (a) or \^ (wa), and sometimes of 
^ (0) to the root, the vowel of the primitive, if long, being frequentiy 
shortened before those additions ; so, ^ (Jala) burn (transitively), 

Ijlrj^ (jalwa) cause to bum (by another), from Jsj- (jat) bum (intran- 

sitively), be burnt ; )U (hiloL) move (transitively), tJjb (hilwa) cause to 

move (by another), from Jjb (hit) m&oe (intransitively), be moved; !> 

(bula) cally 1^ (bulwa) cause to call (by another), from Jy (bot) 

i it 

speak ; y J (dubo) droum, from (--^^^ (4^i) ^^ immersed or drowned ; 

S^ (bhigo) wet J steep ^ from (jL^^C* (fi^^g) ^ ^^^' and if the primitive 
root end in 1 (a) i^ ^ (?) ^ (e) orj (0), the letter J (Z) is to be inserted 
before the transitive or causal sign, the vowel being shortened ; so, 

O - .. . . 

H^ (khila)feed, \ji^ (khllwa) cause (another) to feed, from \^ (kha) 

eat; lb (pila)give to drink, \^ (pilwa) cause (another) to give to drink, 

from ^ (pi) drink ; H J (dila) cause to give, 1^0 (dilwa) cause (ano- 

ther) to cause to give, from (^ J (de) give ; ^ J (dhula) cause to wash, 

\jUbJ (dhulwa) cause (another) to cause to wash, from jJbJ (dhb) 

a. In other cases, these verbs are obtained by lengthening, if short, 
the vowel of monosyllabic, or the last vowel of dissyllabic, roots ; as, 
CJ^ (kat) cut, from ul^ (ka() be cut ; Ju^^ (chhld) bore, from Jl^^ 

the HindustavS Language. 39 

(ekkid) be bored ; ^}yp (g^ol) dissolve (transitively), from J^ (ghul) 
be dissolved; J^ 0^) joiriy fromJ>. ijur) be joined; J^ (nikal) 
make issue, expel, from Jij (nikat) issue : yet, when the termination 
\^ (wa) is used, the short vowel of the primitive remains ; as, \jS^ 
{katwa) cause {another) to cut ; \ji^ (jiikalwa) cause to be expelled, 

ft. In a few instances, especially if the root be a monosyllable ter- 
mmating in an aspirated consonant, either \ (a) or S (la), as before 
described, or very rarely Jl (at) may be added to form the causal ; 

80, l^J (dikha) or i|^J (dikhla)shew,(tom^d (dekh) see; l^ (sikha) 

cc & c* CO 

or l^ (sikhla) teach, from .^C^ (sikh) learn ; \^ (bitha) or H^ (bithla) 
or Jt|SL> (ftaiMaO ^^^» ^°^ '^ (&aiM) st^ ; Jl^ (paitJial) cause to 

c <^ 

tfiil«r, fit>m .i|ij (l><>if a) ^ter, the long vowel being continued in the 
syllable before Jf (at). On a principle nearly analogous, too, are 

formed t^ (nahla) cause to bathe, and ^^iy (naAaZti^a) cause to cause 
to bathe, from l^J (naha or nAa) bathe : and, a very few causals seem 
to deviate more from analogy; as, ^ (bech)sell, from u^ (^^i) &£ 
sold ; jy^ (chhof) let go, from (S^^ (chhut) be let go ; Jf^ (phor) 
and Jl^ (phar) break or burst, fix>m ^y^ (p^^f) ^^^ <^^ (p^^t) i^ 
broken ; jy (tor) break, fit)m <^y (tUt) be broken ; ^ (niber) finish, 
from^ (nibar) be ended. 

c. In dissyllabic roots, the short vowel of the last syllable, if it be 
fat ha (a), is dropped when \ (a) but not when Ij (ic5) is suffixed ; so, 

IfB^ (samjha) inform, from ^^s^ (samajh) understand; \^ (sarka) 


move, and \jfj>^ (sarakwa) cause to move, from d/^ (sarak) be moved ; 


1^ (bahla) amuse, from J^ (bahat) be amused. 

28. Compound verbs may be formed in various ways. If regard 
be had to the structure of the words, a compound may be obtained, 
firstly, by the addition of some verb, regularly conjugated, to a sub- 

40 A Grammar of 

Btantive or adjective^ which remains unchanged as a masculine singu- 
lar uninflected ; secondly, by the addition of a verb, regularly conju- 
gatedy to the root, or the infinitive, or the past participle, or the pre- 
sent participle of another verb ; and, thirdly, by the construction of 
two verbs, both admitting the usual changes of conjugation : and, 
verbs of this description may, according to their import in English, be 
arranged under particular terms, as follows : — 

1st, Nominals; so, U^ d^U ijaiat hama) to discourse; U^ f«^ 
(shurv^ kama) to begin ; \i^j Jb (yarf rakhna) to recollect ; UJ J^ 
(mol lena) to purchase ; l3^l« 4?^ (ghota murnoi) to dive ; U^ aXaj 
{tamam karria) to finish ; l3yb \j^ (^pura h^tia) to be complete. 

2nd. Intensives ; as, Uj J Jy {bol dena) to declare ; UlU ^J (de 
dalna) to give away ; 1:j J Jl J (dal dena) to throw away ; U1 J jU 
{mur dalna) to kill downright; \j\p^ \^ (jchajana) to eat up ; ^vS^ 
{gir papid) to fall down ; U^ J jy (tor dalna) to break to pieces ; 
\u^\ Jy (bol ufhna) to speak out ; 1}\»-T (ajana) to come suddenly. 


3rd. Potentials, formed by the addition of \J^ (sakna) to be able, 
to the root of another verb ; so, U^ ^ (likh sakna) to be able to 
write ; \:>La J^ (chal sakna) to be able to walk.* 

4th. Completives, formed by adding \ii:>. (chukna) to be finished, 

to the root of another verb ; as, U^ ^ (pi chukna) to have done 

drinking ; UC>- \^ (kha chukna) to have finished eating. 

6th. Inceptives or Inchoatives, formed by the addition of Ufl (lagna^ 
to come in contact, to be applied, to begin, to the inflected infinitive 

of a verb ; as, US ^J^ (bolne lagna) to begin to speak ; ifl 15^ 

(kahne laga) he began to say ; \S l<J^ (parhne laga) he began to 

* Sometimes, however, especially in Dakhani, \:m may be constructed 
with an inflected infinitive, or even an uninflected one. 

the Hindustam Language. 41 

read: and, sometimes, though but rarely, 10 precedes ; as, ^U^ IJli 
(jagajane) he began to go.* 

6th. Permissives, formed by adding Ik^J {dena) to give, to let, to 
permit, to an inflected infinitive ; as, bjJ (VW" (jarie dena) to permit 
to go ; liJJ jJI {jane dena) to let come. 


7th. Acquisitiyes, formed by the addition of \j\j (j)anaL) to get, to 
acquire, to an inflected infinitive; as, Ub _31 (anepdna) to be allowed 
to come; Ub ^\^ (jane pana) to be allowed to go, 

8th. Desideratives, Requisitives, and Proximatives, formed by adding 

bjbl>- (chahna) to desire, to require, regularly conjugated, to the past 
participle of a verb, which remains unchanged in the state of the 
masculine singular, whatever the gender and number of the governing 
noun may be ; so, ltol>- L* (mara chaha) or ^^ \^ (mara chaht) 

he or she unshed to die, or was about to die ; Uibl>- bl>- {jayd chahna) 

to wish to go, to be about to go ; UibU- l^ {likhd chahna) to wish to 

write, to be about to trri^^.f In this compound, the regular past 
forms \j^ {mara) and bis*- {jaya) are preferred, as in the examples 

above, to the more common ]y< {mffd) and Ls {gaya). 

9th. Frequentatives, formed by the addition of U^ {kama) to do, to 
make, to the past participle of a verb, which is invariably used as an 
nninflected masculine singular, whatever the gender and number of 

the governing noun may be ; so, b^ bl {dyd kama)) to make aprac- 
tice of coming; \jji l^ {likha kama) to make a practice of writing ; 
b^ b W (jdyd kama) to make a practice of going. In this com- 
pound, too, Uke as in the last described, bb>- is preferred to Lif. 

* In Dakhani, especially in poetry, the verbal noun in ^ (an) may be 

used with bjJ ; as wJ ^^ he began to open. 

f In Dakhani, or even in Hindustani occasionally, an inflected in- 

finilive, or in Dakbani even an uninflected one, may precede bjbl>>. 


42 A Grammar of 

10th. ContinuativeSy formed by adding UU- (jaTUi) to go, or \iJbj 
(rahna) to remain, to a present participle made to agree in gender 
and number with the governing noun ; so, UU- U^j (boltajana) to go 
on speaking (a male) ; \iJbj bU* (jata rahna) to keep going, to go 

entirely away (a male) ; ^J^ l^ V \Jv ^^^ J^^^ ^^ *^ S^^^ ^^ 
weeping; ^ ^\^ ^}i (parhte jate hain) or ^ ^ ^^^ 
(parA^eraA^ Aatn) they (mates) continue reading. 

11th. Statisticalsy formed by adding a verb regularly conjugated, 
to a present participle used invariably as an inflected masculine singu- 

lar; so, UW ^j4 (boUejana) to go (in the state of one) speaking; 

^ ^\ ^U (gate ait Iiai) she comes (in the state of one) singing; 

^ bjf^J ^jj (rote daurta hai) he runs (in the state of one) weeping. 
12th. Reiteratives, formed by using together two verbs regularly 

conjugated ; as, Ul>- Uy (bolna chalna) to converse ; Ul|i ls>^«3 
(dekhna bhalna) to see. 


29. Verbs may be derived from either substantives or adjectives, by 
affixing the verbal signs only in some instances ; or, more commonly, 
by shortening the vowel of the original, if long, and inserting \ (a) 

or U ^ (iya) before those signs : so, ^^jff- (chmirana) to widen, from 

\j^ (chaura) wide ; UUsI (latiyaTia) to kick, from clU (Ht) a kick ; 

bLlf (galiyana) to abuse, from ^iT (gaU) abuse ; \j\p>>' (jutiyana) 

to beat with ^^ (juS) a dipper. 


30. The Passive v<Hce is formed on the past participle of an active 
verb, by the addition of 13^- to go, both parts of the compound being 
made to agree in gender and number with the governing noun ; so, 

Ls J^U ^j^ (main mara gaya) I was struck ; ^^ bUf- l^U ^^^ (main 

marajatd hin) I am struck; wjl>» |;U ^j^ (main mara ja'Unga) 

the Hindustam Language. 43 

IskaUhe struck; 'Ji^^ i^^ ^Sj^ (jarKi marijawegi) the girlunll 

be struck. 


31. The auxiliaries,* used iu forming the definite tenses of verbs, 

are to denote the 



I was. 

y thou wast. 


^ %Syhe was. 



fjb we were. 

M) ye were. 

^^ they were. 


\hSn) ^jytb ^^^ I am. 
(^hai) ^Jb y thou art. 

^ 9 

(^i) ^ Scheie. 

{hain) ^^ ^ we are. 


II (,hd)yb |J ye are. 
(Aain) ^jJb 4^^ they are. 

Aorist or Future. 

^o ^ 

(A5ii) ^yb or, (Jhffun) ^3^ ^js^I 

u 9 

(fio) yt or, (Ao?) ,^yb or, (jAwe) i^^y^y thou 

O 9 

(ho)yb or, (Ao?) ^^yt or, {howe) g[j^ Sj he,she 

>-3 ^ 

* Which are, alao, the substantive verb, answering to the English be^ 
amy artj isy arcy wasy wasty were. 

f The above is for the masculine gender : with a feminine nominative, 
it would be ^ (Mi), and in the plural J ^ (thtn) or ijW (/hVan) ; 
in Dakhaniy the latter only. 

§ Dakh. Sj (wah) or j\ (o), &c. ' 

^ 9 

I Dakh. ^^ J (^tum hain) as in the two other persons. 


44 A Grammar of 


(Aori) ^^ or, (ho*en) ^^*^ or, (hdwen) ^^ ^ we 

• (ho) y> or, (Ao'o) j y> J ye 

(Aon) ^^ or, (hffen) ^^^ or, (AoM^eA) ^^yb ^^ they 

+ {hunga) \CjJb or, (Ao'finga) ifij^b ^^^ / 
(Aoga) l>yb or, (Ao'cgS) \x» jJb or, (A5i(?ega) ^^.jj^b y tAoi* 
(Aoga) \Syb or, (Ao*5ga) Iwyh or, (Aotrega) &^yb ^ Ae 





o c 

% (jionge)^ybox{hffeng'e) ^SiJjtb or {howenge) ^Icj^yb ^ib we 

§ (Aogc) ^^ or, Ao'ogc ^ yb jj ye J ^^ 
ihSnge)^^OT(ho*enge)^^^^ or {howUge)^^ ^^ they 

Conditional or Optative. 



(Ao^a) tfyb 

^jf^ I become. 


J thou becomest, 
a^ he becomes. 

Aib we become. 
(Jtote)^^ ^ jf ye become. 

(jTj they become. 

o / 

* Dakh. ^^ or ,j^ ^ or ^j^ >J like as in the other two persons. 
Remark that the ^ in all these forms is the sofl nasal letter (n). 

+ For the feminine, the termination IT \jga) becomes ^ (gt) in the 


X For the feminine, this termination ^jT (ge) becomes ^ (g«») or 
^J^\Siyon) in the plural; and the latter only in Dakhani. 

§ Dakh. l5^tjfJJ^ (jidw€nge\ &c., like as in the first and third persons. 

the Hindmiam Language. 


32. The intransitiTe verb UU- (jam) to go, is much used in form- 
ing the passive voice of transitive verbs, as well as in other compounds 
and it is conjugated as follows, for the masculine gender. 

Imperative for the second person singular^ or The Root. 

(Jo) U go. 

Infinitive and Gerund, 
(jane) ^U. or, (jana) liW. to go, going. 


I^LS or, (gaya) \S\ 
(gay a hVa) J 

Past Participle. 

s^y^^5^^or, (gal) ^ \ 
(ga*e hffe) J 



(jata hSa) J 

Present Participle. 


Past Conjunctive Participle^ 
Singular and Plural. 

CO ^ 

^f^ <>r \JJ^J^ \J^ S? W having gone. 

Past Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

(gaya) U ' 

^^ I went. 
y f Aott wentest. 
5j Ae tr^^. 

a7 ye ti^en^. 
(^ Mey went. 

Pluperfect or Pcw^ P(w^ Tense. 



^^ / wojs gone. 


thou wast gone, 
he was gone. 

^ ^ 

Mib we were gone. 

w ye were gone. 

4^ they were gone. 


A Orammar of 

Past Definite or Poit Present Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

ui^ - tt^ ^^^ S^^^' 
^\S y) thou art gone. 

^Jh ^^i J^ tt?e €ir« gone. 
♦^ ^ ^ ye are gone. 
^ ^ 4^j <% arc goii«. 

Past Future Tense. 

7o ^ ^ 

mat/f shall, or 
. wiU have gone. 

^ / imu nave y a 

f y ^W^c. or mv 
?^ Ac J^c. go. 


*<. / 

may, cAaU, or 
wiU have gone, 


^* j^c. or i)i^A/> 
theM^e. go. 


l^^Lfir^Ac Jgo. 


*^^ / 



Pa«^ Conditional OT Optative Tense. 

If, would to 
^ Gorf, J, ^c, (^ 

v^ had gone ;0T, 

or, m^A^y ^c. 


should have 
gone, ^c. 




If, would to 
"S Ood,we,^c., 
^had gone; or, 

^ should have 
gone, ^c. 


^ *<. f 

*<. / 

^-c / 

But the conjugation of Dakhani verbs varies in many particulars from 
the proper Hindustani, as may be seen in the ^ Short Grammar of the 
Dakhani," appended to the author's more extended ^ Grammar of the 
Hindustani Language.'' 

the HindiutSm Language. 

Present Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 



y thou, goest. 
tj he goe$. 


Mib toe go. 


f y« go- 

Isft <% go- 

/ ^ 


Imperfect or Present Past Tense. 

I W€LS going, 
thou tcast going. 
Sj ae was going. 

K hhe 



toe were going. 

<^ ^Aey t06re going. 

Present Definite or Present Present Tense. 

VSf^ ^V c^ I am going. 
^^ U^- i^heis going. 

jjb ^l^ |iJb we arc going. 
^ (^ V (^ y« «»•« going. 
^ v^ V s^'; ^% «^« «^*«g- 

r ttje^ -'^ I may, «AaU, 
sfiy^^Vy**^ >or will be 

s4yf^ UU- i[^ Ae 

Present Future Tense. 

Uiil^ ^5^ W- f> «^« I nuiy, shall, 




i/H:^^ (^V (^ ^'^ shall,will, 

/" " -1 ,1 \go«^' 

* This form of the verb, if a conditional conjunction or an adverb of 
wishing accompanies it, may be used in the sense' of a conditional or 
optative^ like the tense immediately preceding : see paragraph 24, note *• 


A Grammar of 

Future Indefinite or Aorist. 
Singular. Plural. 

(ja'un) ei^Vui^ ^ 

N. fc< -• 

o S> 

(jawe) t/j^-y thou 
(jawe) i^^U- ^ he or she 

(Jawen) ^^^ V f^ tve 


(Jawen) ^ jW ^^j t 

« IT 

Future Indefinite Tense. 

(Jawega) uj^U- J thotu ^ ^ 
(jawega) ^^j^ *j Ac J -| 


(jawenge)^JLj^\o. (^ ^e \ ^ ^ 

(ja'dge) ^^ V j^ ye 
{jawengl)^^i^^^ they 


(jdwhi) ^j^i^W ^ we may go, let 

us go. 

(Ja'o) 3^ ^ go ye. 
(jawen) ^^jU ^?5 let tliem go. 

^r ^ 


(Ja'un) ^\^^^ I may go, let 

me go. 

(ja) ^ y go thou. 


(jawe) i/j^ {j let him or Aer 

Respectful and Precative forms of the Future and Imperative. 

\j y J ^^ • I « I y(,t^^ 5i,.^ or your excellency, Sf*c. may, 

■r^^ \ shall, or irtZZ go ; or, may you, Sir, go ; 
{JaHyega) €J\^ I c^.^ I »^y y^"^ excellency, ^c. go. 

\jdHye) jP'U- ii?c may, «AaZ/, or will go ; or, may we go. 

yi thou mayest, shalt, or unit go ; or, go thou, 

x^ he may, shall, or will go ; or, may he go. 


fj ye may, shall, or will go ; or, go ye. 
i^j they may^ shall, or will go ; or may they go. 

For the feminine gender, the masculine singular final \ (a) of the 
infinitive, the participles, the auxiliaries, and the future, as above 

0«'*y5)^V ' 

the Hindustani Language. 


described, must be changed to 4^ (?) in that number, and to ^ ^ 
(m) or ^^b ^ (jyun) for the plural ; but, where two or more feminine 
plurals come together, it is usual for the last only to take the numerical 
sJgii (i> (^) or ^ (5^)> ^e preceding participle or participles being 
constructed in the feminine singular form : sometimes, however, the 
plural termination is repeated, as shewn at note to par. 24. a. 
33. Conjugation of a regular transitive verb for the masculine gen- 

der, exemplified in U^U (jmrna) to beat or strike. 


Imperative for the second person singular J or The Root. 

(w5r)jU heat y strike. 

Infinitive and Gerund, 
{marnt) ^J^ or {mama) l3jU to beat^ beating. 

Past Participle. 


\^ \J^ or, {mora) |^U beaten, 
{nwra hVa) 


% 9 

^9^ ^£;U or, (iware) 4^U beaten, 
{^re hvTi) 

Present Participle. 

\yb \jjVc or, (marta) IJ^U beating, 
(marta hi'a) 

^jU or, (fmrte) iJj^'^ beating, 
(mdrte hVe) ^^yb 

c o 

Past Conjunctive Participle. 
Singular and Plural. 

j^U or ^^J^^J^ {^J^ ^)^J^ having beaten. 

Piw^ Indefinite Tense. 

{fnara) |^U 

^J y <A<m beatedst. 


{mar a) |^U 

t iV u' ^^^ beat. 

* See the note to paragraph 23, for the reason of this particle in con- 

stniction with the past tenses of transitive verbs. 



A Grammar of 

Pluperfect or Past Past Tense. 


I had beaten. 

thou hadst beaten. 


\ hehadbeaten* 

^J jtibwe Iiad beaten. 

Vbu < 

iJ (^y^ ^^ beaten. 
jj ^\ they had beaten. 

Past Definite or Past Present Tense. 



I have beaten. 

^ y thauhastbeaten, 
^ ^Js^ he has beaten. 

1^ fjb we have beaten. 
iJ (Pye have beaten. 
,(V {£}^ *A^ *^^^ beaten. 

Past Future Tense. 

k/e;^^ hTwillh 

win have 

lv^Cr'*« ]beat. 


K^ ^^^ ovwillhave 

beaten; or, 





\^ l^u 

shall, will 
or may have 

Jythouf>^^^> or, 
f ^hould,^c,y 
^y C/-< he Jig^f^ 

\^yb \jVc i 

shall, will 
or may have 
beaten; or, 
. ^ J ^^mbeat. 

Past Conditional or Optative Tense. 

\!^ \j\^ 


• M 



If, would to 

'S God, I, #-c., 

yT" had beaten ; 

J then I, ^c, 

^ would have 

beaten, ^c. 

U 4jh \J^ 

M ■ 

7/*, would to 


^^had beaten: 

.® would have 

the Hifu&stant Language. 


Present Indefinite Tense* 

^^ I beat. 

* t;U y thou beatest. 


Sj he beats. 


ifib we beat. 


fj ye beat. 
(^ tfiey beat* 

Imperfect or Present Past Tense. 

\^ \jX>c 

^^ I was beating. 


y thou wast beating. 


sj he was beating. 



ijb we were beating. 


ij ye were beating. 
^j they were beating. 

Present Definite or Present Present Tense. 

9 O ^ 

^ U^Uy thcu art beating. 

^ U 9 

^ \jjVc ifj heis beating. 

^jjb t<^te *ib we are beating. 
yb ^j\^ fS ye are beatify. 

Present Future Tense* 


uJD^ Vr^U ^^ I 

o c / 

ijj^ \jj\^y thou 

c c / 

may, shall 
or triZ2 ie 

may, shall 
' or will be 


c / & 

&^ \j;U ^^ / . 
oyb iJ^U ^ thou 

D^h U;U 5j he 

shall, will 
or may be 

shall, will 


* When a conditional conjunction or adverb of wishing precedes in 
the sentence, this form of the verb is often used in a past conditional or 
optative sense, like the tense last described : see the note to paragraph 24. 



A Grammar of 
Future Irid^nite or Aorist Tense, 


4^Uy thou 


^jloii^he ^ 

may, shall or 
will beat ; or, 
heat J ^c. 


^^jU fjb we 

may, «Aa/2 or 
wiU heat ; or, 
heat, ^c. 

i^tt^ttre Indefinite Tense. 

shall, mil or 
may heat; or, 

J:oJU^we \ shall, will 


heat, ^c. 


jU y &6af thou. 

(^U 2r^ A6 may heat, let him 

^^U fA we may heat, let us heat. 

j^U w heat ye. 
^jte (^^ they may heat, let them 


Respectful and Precative forms of the Future and Imperative. 

(mariye) ^<ijU[ LJ\\!/o^f Sir, or your excellency, ^c, may, 

I , I shall or will he pleased to heat ; he pleased, 

j t ( ^^^f ^^ heat; may your excellency, ^c, he 
(mariyega) ^J^[^j^^] pleased to heat. 

(mariye) ^j\^ we may, shall, ^Tc, beat ; may we heat. 

y thou mayest, shalt or wilt heat ; or, heai thou. 


^ he may, shall or will heat ; or, may he heat. 


fj ye may, shall or will heat; or, heat ye. 
. v/9 they may, shall or wiU beat ; or, may they beat. 


9 J* ' 

* Dakhni ^^^jU ^ and ^/yJ^ j^. 

the Hindmtani Language. 



Imperative for the second person singular^ as The Root, 

l>- \j\^ be beaten. 

Infinitive Kad Oerund. 

^l>- or \j\ff^ \j\^ to be beaten, 

being beaten. 

jJUf- or UU- 4^U to be beaten, 

being beaten. 

. Past Participle. 
l^t^U been beaten. \ kS^ ^J^ ^^^ beaten. 

Present Participle. 
UW I^U being beaten. \ ^^V ^J^ being beaten. 

Past Conjunctive Participle. 

having been beaten. 
Past Indefinite Tense* 

was beaten, 
thou toast beaten. 
x^ he was beaten. 


AJb we were beaten. 
jj ye were beaten. 
(^^ they were beaten. 

Pluperfect or Past Past Tense. 

^^ji^ I had been beaten. 

i«j \^\j\.' 

y thou hadst been 


iy he had been beat- 


^ fib we had been 

fP ye. had been 

^^ they had been 


A Grammar of 

Past Definite or Past Present Tense. 

UJ^ t^ |;U ^^ I have been beat' 

f <. 


• -». 

^ Ls t;Uy Mem Afiur^ &«en 
^ LT I^U Sy he has been beat- 



^jjb ^-T fc^^ >^ w?^ Aapc been 


jto ^ t^U w y« Aat7« been 


^ ^jS^^jU »/j ^A«y Aarc Jce» 


Past Future Tense. 

usr- > J U=" Utvoiahaoe 

«- , i, , ' Iheenbeaten; 

^}S^^h^y f^U, might, 

^ , , beat' 

»/»» Us \jU *, he ^ 


o *< 

tt;ij»*v^H^^ (^ ^^ 

99uiy, «/iaZZ 
or will have 
^ -^ - ybeenbeaten; 

3^^^J^fy^ for, migAr, 


l^'; il KU ' r \shallj will /. ^ V i . .^^ |«AaZ/, triH 

oimayhave ^ ^ ^^ » ormayAav^ 

v/^ ^55^^-^^ (^"y^ (or, should. 

been beaten; 

^ "U ' foeenoeaten; 

^c. J6 Jea<- 

P6»^ Conditional or Optative Tense. 

tf^ ur i^u, 


ijr, would to 

^ God, I, §rc. 

%^ had been 

^i beaten ; or, 

^ then I, Sfc. 

, would have 

been beaten. 

y - IkX 



If, would to 
^ God, tr«, 

^{beaten; or, 

M thenwe^^c. 

t-^would have 

been beaten. 

the Hindustani Language. 


Present Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 


^«^ I am beaten. 
y thou art beaten. 
Sj heis beaten. 

we are beaten, 

ye are beaten. 

t^j they are beaten. 

Imperfect or Present Past Tente. 


\fi l-U V,U 

J thou wast ( *^ 
s^ he was J r£ 


jjb we were 

J ye were 

1^^ they were 

Present Definite or Present Present Tense. 

^ bU- I^U y thou art 


jJk UU. I^Lc Xj heis 


iji^ 4^ ^J^ (^ ^^ ^^^ 


jJb (Jl>- v^U J> ye are 


Present Future Tense. 

^^ ^\S\a,\jl» ^^ I ntatf 


gr^^ IjI>. I^U 2r^ A^ may 


uiSJ* JW t^U ^ we may' 


t£yb UU- |;U ^^^-^ / shall 
b^ UU I^U y ^Aoti MaZ^ 
^^ UU 1;U ^j A6 shall 


^Si^ d\p^ i^te *ft we shall 
t^yb (JU- 4^^U ^ ^A^y sAaM, 


> ^ 


A Orammar of 

Future Indefinite or Aorist Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

. or idU be 

(^jl»- I^U y thou /beaten ; or, 

I 1 1 ' . I ^ beaten, 
\f}\^ ]j^ "J he j^^ 

may, shall 

or tt^'U £e 

^ beaten ; or, 

&e beaten. 

\Jj^U- I^Loy Mom 

Future Indefinite Tense. 

^AaZZy unZZ 
^or may be 

shall, will 
o beaten. 

^^U- tjU ^^j-^ fe^ me be beaten. 
U^ l^to y &e ^Aotf beaten. 
4^jlf»- I^U ^^ Z<;^ him be beaten. 


uijW* ^£/^ fillet us be beaten. 

^l>- 4^^ /^ ft« y« beaten. 
crfJ^ ^^ sd ^^^ ^^^^ be beaten. 

Respectful and Precative forms of the Future amd Imperative. 


yoM, iStr, or, your excellency shall, will or may 
> be beaten ; be you, Sir, beaten ; may your ex- 
cellency, ^c, be beaten. 

L<i V S^^ ^^ w?ay, shall or w?iZZ 6^ beaten ; may we be beaten. 


y thou mayest, shalt, ^c. or be thou beaten. 




gm he may, shall, 8fc. or may Ae 5e beaten. 
. \ fi ye mmf, shall, ^c. or be ye beaten. 

^^ ^A^y may, shall, §fc., or may ^A^ be beaten. 

For the feminine of both the active and passive voices, the singular 
masculine final \ (a) of the infinitive, the participles and theBuxiliaries, 

the Hindustani Language* 57 

where it occurs in conjugation, must be changed to ^^ (?) in the 
angular, and to ^^ (in) or ^b^ (jyan) in the plural : when, how- 
. ever two or more words are constructed together, each of which might 
assume the feminine plural sign ^ (») or ^ (a»), as in many of the 
definite tenses, whether active or passive, that sign is usually omitted in 
all such words but the last; so, ^^Uljj,^ or ^jJoj^yb ^\^ ^^ they 
{females) shall be going; ^^^ or ^^^ ^U. ^^U ^ we {females) 
shall be being beaten. Sometimes, though but rarely, the plural 
termination is repeated : see in paragraph 23, d. also paragraph 24, 



To words of this description, answering to our prepositions, advert&, 

conjunctions, and interjections, the word <— ^ {^^^/) borrowed from the 
Arabic, is generally applied. The preposition, which in Hindustani usage 

is mostly a postposition, may be termed^^ ^j^ {l^orf-i jorr) : and, 

this is of two kinds : the simple {^^y^ mufrid) which follows the noun 

it governs without the intervention of any other word; and, the com- 

pound {i^^j^ murakkab) which usually requires ^ {ke) or ^^ {ki) 
to intervene between the noun and itself. 

34. Of the simple postpositions some notice has already been taken 
at paragraph 6; to which reference may be made: and, the most 
usual postpositions, which become compounds by taking ^ {ke), or 
the inflected masculine genitive of a pronoun, in common before them, 
are — 


A Granmar of 

4^b near, at the side, by. 


cl^<3p near, about, toith. 
ti)ki (yaAa^l) at the iibode, with, 
j^^krf|^ on account, for. 
j<J (%i) on account, for. 
4^U by reason. 

--w Jy reason. 

lL^[) by reason. 


\m^0^yc by means. 

^\ in fronts before. 
^^y^L in front, before. 


Jjli« in front, opposite. 
^jfscu in the rear, behind. 
J^ after (in point of time). 
y^}i over, upon, above. 

^G beneath, under, below. 
,^ beneath, under, below. 


jJJt within, in the inside. 
jib\j or^b without, out. 

* ^- 


9 - 


to, up to, till. 

(£J3 near, to, as far as. 

^L^J between, among. 

tM among, in, between. 

^^Jti^^^ among, in the midst. 

(j»,\^\ round about. 
ji\j) equal to, opposite to. 

(jiifit, suitable, worthy.^ 

JblS capable, worthy. 

(^\y^ according to. 

j;j\k« conformable to. 

jjo without, besides. 

^jjj besides, without. 

^^L) in company, with. 

{jo%R instead. 

J Jj (badai) in exchange, instead. 

^U into the hand. 

j\j over, across, through. 


S^Vj J 


9^ 9 

^Ji^jfojee to face, in the presence. 

the Hindustani Language. 


The most usual, too, of the postpositions, which become compounds 
by taking ^ (jn), or the feminine genitive of a pronoun before them. 

^^^^ in relation, in respect* 
^b on the suJyect. 
£.^i^ by means, by. 

ijo on the side, towards. 

^J^ in the manner, like. 

jB\s^for the sake, for. 

36. Adverbs admit of various divisions ; and are too numerous to 
be here fully detailed. The adverb of time or place is often derived 
from the demonstrative, interrogative, or relative pronouns, though 
many are of other sources ; and, a few of the words before described 
as compound postpositions, are of frequent use as adverbs : so, — 

^ \ in front, before, 
y^^f^ in the rear, back. 

jtA} or^lj out. 
»t now. 

CJ^ <mA or vl^ imjf\ till now, yet. 



ever, sometime. 

/ o /of 

o c 

^^^ ^ ^^j^ some time or other* 

m^S since when? how long ago? 


ur^V' ^ never. 

, or j^ or 



« /•• 

(till when, until, 

>■ perpetually^ 
y or y or JJ or i.^ then. 


^^l^ here, this place. 

till then, so long. 

jj^ exactly here. 
or CSj J^ 

or C^ J^^ 
^Uj there, that place. 

hitherto, to this 


A Grammar of 

^jj^j^ exactly there. 

^\^ where ? 

^^^ somewhere f anywhere. 

\J^ ^ cTV^ tfom^toA^e or other. 

s*fi^J^ every where. 

' \:fi^J^ elsewhere. 
jjly>- where, which place. 

(i)l^ \J^^ wherever. 

c) V \J^^ ^^^ ^^ there, every- 

[ja*^ \J^^ wherever. 

jjlyl there, that place^ 
Jbdj\ ovjbS\ here, hither. 
j^^ or^bjl there, thither. 
^ju? OTjbt^ wliere? whither? 
jJ^Juflj- or Jb«^>- where, whither. 

JbXj or^JJ Mer^^ thither. 

^jbi^ &c. whence? 

•- ^ 

j^iSj jibtSp^ here and there. 

»lS^ every toAere. 

i^^ on this side, near. 
i^ on that side, beyond. 
jb^ij on fto^A «u2es, across. 
^t ^o £2ay. 

Ji^ yesterday or ^o morrotr. 
Ji^ ^t nowadays, shortly. 
^^^ ^o days ago or to come. 
^^«d^ ^/iree (2ay5 ago or to come, 
C!M/ /oMr days ago or to come. 
^J^ a^ ^Ae dawn of day, early. 
ijjtsf^ in the morning, early. 
^JL^k^Jb always, ever. 
fJL^ always, ever. 
f^*x< always, eternally. 
^^ a^ some time or other. 
jyjb yet. 
^ also, too, moreover, even. 

The most common adverb of interrogation is ^^ (Jcyun) or ^yS 
(Jkyunkar) why? how? ox ^^a,^yS (kiswaste) wherefore? why? 

the Hindustam Language. 61 

The adverb of cause or reason^ iijyi (jkyunkt) because that, or 

^luJyJ (tswasfs) for this reason. 

The adverb of similitude, l-^i^ (jaisa) as, like as, or ^yigoya) one 
might say, as it were. 

The adverb of explanation, A^ Li^ {jaisa ki) or ^^ (chunan» 

cit) Zifte a«, «o £», or )Ll<« (mi«2an) ^br example. 

The adverb of peculiarity, Jb (At) or ^^ (Ain, used iis an afiix or 

a separate word) or ^^ ^ (t, as an affix only) very, exactly. 
The adverb of assent, ^U (Jian) or ^^yb (Atin) or ^Jj (6aC) ye«. 

The adverb of negation, <U («a) or ^j^ (jiuKin) no, not, nay, nor, 

neither, ^U1 (aAa^) or \^j^^ (jmhun) nay, no, do not. 
The adverb of prohibition, cii-vo (mat) not, do not. 

<* / 

36. The Conjunction (<d.4»^ ^j^ harf-i-jumla) may be — 

Conditional—^ {jo) if, when, ot ^\ {agar) if 
Consequential — y {to) then (answering to the conditional). 
Of exception — jj {par) but, moreover, ^^^ {lekin) but, yet,^ 

{magar) but, unless, except, ^^ {balki) but. 
Of explanation — ii {ki) that, because. 
Conjunctive— j^ {aur) orj (o) and: or (dakh.) jyb {haur). 
Disjunctive — b {ya) or, if\y>- (kkwaK) whether, or, ^ {ki) 

that, or. 

37. The Interjection may be — 

Of addressing or calling to— ^^1 {ai) or tj] {e) or ^\ (o) or 
1^5?"^ (a;7) O ! s^j\ {are) or ^\ {abe) you fellow ! 8cc., 
jS {id) lock I see I there now I 

Of astonishment or of applause — if\j {wah) or if\y s\j {wah wah) 

well done I bravo ! \^\ {achchha) or (^^ {khub) well ! 
excellent ! 

62 A Grammar of 

Of grief or pain — if\ (ah) or ^^ U (Aa*?) or 4^ ij (wa*e) or \j 
(too) or h^\j (tcawaila) or 4^ U 4^'ljb (ha*e Aa'e) wo ! alas ! 
lackaday ! 

Of applause or exultation — ^bl& {^habasK) bravo ! Ji'^ ^^ 
(jaijai kar) huzza ! 

Of blame or censure — ,«f>- (chhf), djy ijy (jauba taidni), 




38. The Cardinal numbers, from one to one hundred, with Indian, 
Arabic, and European figures representing them, are as follows : — 











••• ••• .•m(nau)y 




• •• ••• ••• (d5)jt3 




••• ••• (das) ^^ 








(igarah) Sj^\ 








(jMrali) s^ 








(terali) Sj3 




(chha) ^ 




••• (chavdali) 9*^^ 




{sat) ci^L 




• •• (pandrali) ^0^ 








(i^laK) ^y^ 





































































^A^ Hindustani Language. 







• • • (satrah) sji^ 




... (of Afi») y^ 

(afharah) Xj\^\ 




• •• CuTUs) imj\ 




... {chaRs) (,/«Jl>- 






... (fA<aff«) ^tii 

• •• (ikkh) fj^ 




••• (bal8)fjJ'\i 





> f \^ MM 




(chaulls) fj^^ 




•••{paintaRs) ^^Icu^ 

(pachts) ^^^--csfj 




...(cAAi'SS^) (^r^Uf>- 

ichhahhts) ^^--^ 







... iafhtoRs) trJ'sH^' 








{pachas) ^Ififj 

(fis) fj^ 








(datran) ^l> 







.. (cAatttran) ^^^ 




(^pachpan) ^^^-af; 

(painits) (j-ci-i 




... (cAAoRpan) j^;-^ 

(cAAaf ^f«) (j-r^i^f^ 




••• (sattawan) ^^^ 




• •• {afkawan) i^^\ 


A Chrammar of 


m m M 











• •• \unsaVli) ,^.^)\ 




••• ••• (assi) ^J 





• •• ••• \saVhj «f>Ls 




(ikasi) ^^ 







• •• ••• (be'ast) ^<-»^ 







• •• • • • (rirosi) ^^^^ 













• •• (pachasi) ^\af 




O C X 




... (cAArow) ^5^^-i?- 




(chhTasafh) .^?.,.iUf^ 








«. o 




(afkasi) ^\^ 




o ci* 







• •• (unhattar) j:^\ 





(nauwe) v/jj 




• •• ••• ($attar)ji^ 








{ikhatiar) j^\ 




... (ftanatrc) c/ylj 




• •• (bahattar) ji^ 







{tihattar) j:^ 




(cAai^raitatre) i/y];^ 




• • • (chauhattar)j:Jby>' 




{pachanawe) i^y^ 




• •• {pachhattar) z^ 




(chhl'dnawe) c^yV*^ 




.•.(chhihattar) >:^v^ 




... («a/anati?e) i/yls.*) 




• •• (8afhattar)ji^ 




• •« (a^'Aanatre) u^ylfl 




m CO 

. . • (afhhattar) jx^\ 




• .. (nindnawe) i^y^ 





{unasf) ^Ij' ; 




{^sau) y^ or (*ai) ^^ 


the Hindustani Language, 65 

Some yariations from the above occur in the dialects, even, of 
Hindustan and Bombay ; and still more in the Dakhni of Madras : 
for the latter, reference may be made to the appendix of the author's 
Hindustani Grammar ; but the most striking differences discovered in 
the former are here subjoined. So, ifjS gyarah, 11; \j\^\ afhara, 
18; fj^\ unnts, 19; fjmJj\ ekls, 21; ir-ip^\ ektts, 31; ^ ». ,f * Vj . 7 

taintis, 33; ^j^^ chauntls, 34; ^j^j^ artts, 38; ,^;--5\a5^1 

vncAaH^, 39; ^_^.-Jlsij\ ektaRs, 41 ; ^-Jlai-J toinfafis, 43 ; ,^1:;^ 
chAatalis, 46; ^^^-Jl^^ ar talis, 48; ^^^l^^I efcat£?an, 61; ^^;i^ ckaupan, 

^ ^ O O 

54 ; e;^^; p€u:hav)an, 55 ; -^LJL>1 eksafh, 61 ; lIL-^1^ chkdchhat 

O CO w o 

or ^^ ckhorsafh, 66; -^II-,! arsaVh, 68;j^\ ekkattar, 71; 
jiifc;? tirhattar^ 73 ; ^-fj^ chha-hattar, 76 ; ,<-»^' cA5«, 81 ; ^b 
Jaw, or i<-»|^ hirtm^ 82; ^^Ui panchasl, 85 ; i<-»^ chhastj 86; 
4>y nautoad, 90 ; i^y^^ ekanawe or &/y^V ikanauwe, 91 ; c/^b 
iaizatare or i/y|/ biranauwe, 92 ; «^y}/ tiranauwe, 93, &c. ; i^y l^ 
panckanawe, 95 ; 4jr^l^ c£Aanat£?e, 96 ; c/y jy naz^'amxti^e, 99. 

a. The series after one hundred is continued thus, d^J ^ clX^l 
ek sau ek, 101 ; ^^^.^^ jj do «att pachlsj 225 ; tl^^ jj^ j]^ d^i^ 

«> X o 

c/c hazar aur ek, 1001 ; ^^^^1 ^ ^l» j\jib CJj\ ek Aazdr pdnch sau 
iUas, 1521. 

b. When the v^ord CJ^} is immediately subsequent to another 
numeral or other numerals, it may convey the meaning of near or 
about, one more or less than such number or numbers ; as, cl^l ^ 
about a hundred ; c^^l j J y^ jJ near two hundred and two : and, if 
a noun is used, it generally precedes the numeral, when this sense is 
intended ; so, CSj\ (^ J ^iM about ten men ; Jju CJ^\ ^ J g^J^ two 
ghafis or so afterwards. 




39. The Ordinals are— 
1st. ^i pahld. 

l^jJ dusra. 



A Grammar of 




Iff^ chauVha. 

6th. \J^jB^ panchwan. 

6th. 1^2^ chkat*ha or ^^^S^ 

7th. ^^yU> satwan. 

8th. vi;|^i aVhwan. 

9th. ^;^y nauwan. 

10th. ^|^*«»J daswan. 

And so forth, by adding generally ^^^^ (ti^an) or occasionally ^^^ 
(an) to other cardinal numbers- 

40. The common aggregate or collective numbers 

c • 

\j^ saikra, 100. 
Jjib hazar, 1000. 

^ lak^h, 100,000. 
jj«^ ftaror, 10,000,000.* 

41. In a distributive sense the numerals, whether cardinals or 
ordinals, are repeated; as, CSi} tl^J one by one; (j^O ^^J by tens ; 

{Jyt^i U^y^V ^^!/ twelfth Proportionals and reduplicatives are 
formed by adding Lf gwna, or, more especially vnth regard to the folds 
or rows of any material, ly taha, or \^ lara, or by parta to the 
modified forms of the cardinals as used in composition, and in some 
cases to the unaltered forms ; so, \^\ single, |^^ double, \jJ treble, 
liiS^ quadruple, ly^ quintuple, \^ <)^ sextuple, ^j^ septuple, 
\S^ octuple, lyjy nine fold,\S ^0 tenfold. With Persian numerals, 

* In the decimal arrangement of number^^ the rank or degree of 

units 19 termed 4^ IG\ ekd*t; that of tens, (^ Uj daha^t ; that of hundreds, 

I^Cmi saikra (or at Bombay, | ^C :yt» f enArra) ; that of thousands, \M!b 
hazard ; that of tens of thousands, \j\jJb ^jmd das-hazdrd ; that of hundreds 

of thousands, \^ lakk^hd, &c. 

the Hindustani Language. 


i.>- is much used for the same purpose ; as^ '^^y^ twofold, twice as 
much; jcj>- ^ treble; Jcj>- j'ir?* quadruple; J^i>- ^ ninefold; 
»Xi>- *J tenfold: whilst ^|^ or AJ may be subjoined in a like meaning 
to the simple forms of the cardinals as before given, or to the Persian 
nouns of number; 80,^^^j4> twice as much; iJ ^ threefold; ji\ji (JL^^ 

or ij Ls.*>afc seven fold, 
42. The usual terms for fractionals are — 

li r 

1 ju pa 0. 

f ^^^yj> derh pa'o. 
\ UjT adha. 

\ \j\^ y^ dJo tihal. 

f ijy, /wtww * or jb ^ tin 

y^ sawa (with a 



ir«)j dcrA. 
^•* • • 

jfc3 ^«3^ l^at^n^ (quarter 
less) do. 

3i ^;-^ ^yjU «ar'A^ (with a 

half) dn. 


And with the aggregate numbers, these terms are used as follows — 

lb y^ ijy paunesau (100--^). f 
125 y» \y^ sawa sau (IOO+-7). 
150 jJ^ »5i5 derh sau (lOO+i^). 
nSy^tt^yjyjpaune do sau(200'-^) 
226 j-» j*> \5«> 5air5 rfo 53^(200+ -^ ) 
250 ^ t5 li^J^ arA57 sau. 
760 ^ ci^U ^J'--a «arAe «5^ ^att. J 

1 ,260 jUib 1^ ^atra hazar. 
1,600 jijJb i»jj cferA Aa2rar. 
l,760jU^jJiJ^j paund do hazar. 
2,260 jj^jj \y^ sawa do hazar. 
2,600 j^^ u^ Uj^ ar'Aa'f hazar. 

76,000 ^ J^^paune lak'L% 
126,000 ^H ^;-. satra ZaA'A. 

* At Bombay, UjJ pauna. + At Bombay, ^Uypaufia sau. 

i At Bombay ,jUib \j^ pauna hazar' ^ At Bombay^ ^ l}y pauna lak^h. 


A Grammar of 

o o 

150,000 ^ ^J derh HKh. 
175,000 -ffllj^ fj^^paune do lak'h. 

225,000 ^y 1^ sawa do lak*k. 
250,000 ^ J'\i^^ afha't HVh. 



43. Abstract nouns are often obtained from adjectives by subjoining 
1^ , (i)* as u^ \j^ hreadthf from \j^ broad. 

t \jIaJj old age, „ Ujf^ old. 



b (pa«a) „ 





1:j1^ widowhood 
f ^^l^ sweetnessy 


llj^ bitterness, 
l:Ju«^ softness, 
^u^ deficiency, 








1^ widow. 
a!^ little. 

Sometimes, though but rarely, by subjoining to primitive nouns 
substantive — 

C^ ^ {at) as Ls. '^■»> < t3l humanity, from ,<^^T man. 


* When the original "word terminates in ^ silent, (^/ becomes substi- 
tuted for that letter before the aflBx i// (i) ; so, ^Sji\j freshness^ from 
ifj\jjre8h: and, in Dakhni, ^\ (agt) or ^^w^ (a'cg^i) occurs as an affix 
to form abstracts. 

+ A long vowel is sometimes shortened before the affixes, as in these 

the Hindustani Language. 69 

Abstract or verbal nouns, moreover, are abundantly derived from 
verbs ; some having the same form as the imperative in the second 
person singular ; others resembling the past or present participle in 

either gender ; so, JjJ speech ; jt^fear; jU heating; Uy the faculty 

ofspeechy from ^}yi speak; ^^^ a reckonings from ^ count; L^a 

saying or order y dictum^ from ^ say. They are, also, to be obtained 
from the second person singular of the imperative, by adding — 

J (o) as ^ b J pressure, from Uj prew dbtTTt. 

yi (fl'o) „ ^'^/?* ascent, „ 2(5>- ascend. 

v/ / (0 >, s?V « finding, „ l^feed. 

S?^ (a?) „ c^^tjj a sowing, „ .j «ott7. 

U (an) „ ^^Isr a burning, „ ^V *"'^- 

1j (ti7a) „ yi^ deception, „ Jl^i deceive. 

vJL^Jb (Aaf) ;, ij^%ib3b a calling, „ \ call. 

And, to Persian adjectives, or to imperatives of verbs, ^ , (ish) is 
often added to form nouns of this description, not unfrequently used in 

Hindustani ; so, ti>^*hi production, from ^ Ju» produced ; iij\*> know^ 

&clg6, from ^fj ftnotr. 

44. The name of the agent or doer is commonly obtained by sub- 
joining ^tlj (traZa) or \J^ (Jtdra) each liable to change for gender, num- 

ber, and case, to the inflected infinitive of a verb ; as, "iS^ if^ writer, 

I^^JjU smiter : nouns of the like use are, moreover, sometimes had 
from verbal roots by affixing — 

il^(ak) as ilJ^ a writer, from ^ write. 

^^ («*) w <-;^l;-i « swimmer, „ ^ 




Ul (aAa) „ WjjO a runner, „ jy run. 


A Grammar of 
\j^ (pro) as \j^ a deserter, from ts/l^^ee. 



k^{waiya) „ I /a singer, „ \fsing. 

And, words denoting the manager or agent in anything, are occa- 
sionally formed from nouns, by the addition of — 

Jlj (real) 
j\j (war) 


/fl wharfinger y 


cl^l^ a wharf 




ly-^J a trotter, 


^J^^ a trot. 

j\a> {har) 



jlyjj^ bracelet-seller. 


i^j^ bracelet. 

j\ (5r) 


^U^- a carrier, 


aW> leather. 

!j W 


l^ff^ a fisherman, 


^ a fish. 

J (5) 


jj^ a watchman, 


^ a watch. 

U («•«) 


1,.u«:.m9 snake-batcher. 




^^«») JCiMd a messenger, 

(^jc»i«) a message. 

V ' (*yo) 


L;^C»< butter-man. 


^^^^ butter. 


l>^ / (»yoro) 



fjj^ grass. 

:w ' M 


cuJlfi spearman, 


5tl|i spear. 

J»e (p5/) 


Jb^a cowherd. 


f cow. 

jj^lj (tp5») 


U^)fj^ a carter. 


,jj€ cart. 

Wj (tra^a) 


Ul^ ploughman. 


Jjb a plough. 



^^bj J a porter. 


jJ a door. 

JCJ (Jband) 



*3c»JjO a farrier. 


Jju a horseshoe. 

ji 0>^r) 



ii\j a way. 

jb (6a;r) 


jUi^ cockfighter. 


4^ a cocft. 



i5?VJr^ a drummjer, 

— •• 


jj^ a drum. 

jb (d5r) 


j^jjMr<J a landholder, 


cr*J ^^^' 

the Hindustani Language, 71 

^J (^zan^ as iz^jjiP ^^ archer, from j^ an arrow. 

9 / 

jU (soz) „ jU ^^^iK^ an oratory „ ^^^ speech. 

j\^ (fcar) „ j^*^ evildoer, „ Oj criZ. 

Jo (gar) „ jSjb\:^ sinner, „ i\:^ sin, 

^ (gar) „ ^Jy*i a merchant „ Ij^ trade. 

45. The noun of place is sometimes the same in form as the infini- 

tive of the verb; as, in i^\^j ^ {^j^ it is a range or park for deer ; 

hut, it is more frequently formed from substantives by affixing — 

^\i^^ (istan) as jjls«»;-i burying-place, from ^ a grave. 

^l:u«j («^an) „ ^J:^^XJb India, „ ^^icjb Indian. 

J^.f^(sthan) „ i^W^*^ I . , . ^ 

CO, )a temple, „ ^j^ a god. 

JfUrf (sthal) „ Jf^ji*3 J 

SI (a/a) ^y S|^ Siva's temple, „ y^ Siva. 

J ' (o^) .. Jji«> o /empfe, „ )i>i a god. 

"> Of lO flower-garden, Jj^afl^ 

JL» («aZ) „ ^yu^ a stable, „ \j^ ahorse. 

!tL» (sala) „ ULijS a coW'house, „ JS a cow. 

jC (nagar) „ J^d^A^\ city of Ahmad, „ 
oM (dbad) „ c\}]j*x^ city of Haidar, „ 


^\j (dan) „ ^^Jw4i5 a pen-case, „ Ji a pen. 

j\j (zar) „ jIj^S a tulip-bed, „ iHi a tulip, 

^(shan) „ ^j!:^!^ a rose-bower, „ J^ a rose. 

i^ijgah) „ »^\j\ a resting-place, „ ^\j\ rest. 



72 A Grammar of 

46. The noun of instrument may be the same in form as the infi- 
nitive of a verb ; or, it may be obtained by adding ^ {an) or ^J (m) 

to the second person singular of an imperative ; so, UIj or ^Lj a 

rolling-pin f fi-om Jlj roll ; tJj^ d pair of scissors, fi-om^ clip. In 

the instance of )^ a ball, this noun seems formed from the adjective 
Jjf round, by the addition of \ (a) : and, from substantives it may be 
had by affixing — 

J\ (al) as Jlj V «» hour-bell, from sjj^ ghafi, 

Jj (eZ) „ JbjCj a camePs nose-stick cl/lJ a nose. 

2^ (a) „ ^bL«M) a handle, „ L::.^«<«a4> a AaTirf. 

<U\ (aTia) „ ^lilxil a thimble, ur-^wx)! a finger. 

CS(ak) „ L^t*^ spectacles, „ a^^ an ^^• 

47. A diminutive noun is obtained from the common noun by 
adding — 

\ (a) as USb a little daughter, from ^^JiJ a daughter. 

L (?K) „ hli J 

\l ^ (iy5) „ U2^ asmallbedstead, „ cil|^ a bedstead. 

CO ** 

1^ (w?a) „ \jJ^ a manikin, „ ^ a man. 

CJ (ak) „ uXy a musket, „ L^y a cannon. 

Afltr; , {tcha) „ Aa^b a little garden, „ i\i a garden. 

^ (cAa) „ iJi. 


j^ («^0 " i,jf^ 

>a kettle, „ clioO a caldron. 

Or, by changing a final \ (a) to (^ , (?) ; as, ^j a string, fix)m Lj; 
a r(?pe ; y^f a bullet, apill^ firom "iji a ball. 

48. Adjectives may be formed fixxn substantives by prefixing — 

U (no) 
J (nir) 








tfie Hindustani Language. 

Ji)\ fruitless, from J^ fi^it. 


U^t impossible, 


su^lU hopeless, 

jl>-S helpless, 

jSj fearless, 

jt>|y disrespectful, 

iJaj undefiled, 

.. ^^ticu incautious, 
y, ci;l3 JJ illrbred, 









\jJb to be, being. 

^jT respect. 
;- care. 

CL^l J nature. 

fS (kam) 


Ls^ck;^ wretch. 

„ kj:.^ fortune. 

fjb (^Aam) 

W i 

^Scj^^Sb concordant. 

99 (^Aj^T sound. 



c^^ wellformed, 




<^<t;»i,x^ ill-mannered, 

99 (£J^i^ 9nann€r« 

Or, by affixing- 




4^1)^ <?/* ^^^ market. 

from jtjb market. 

c;i ^ (««) 


..y^^ wooden. 


*j , (?no) 


Av,>4>1j^ silken. 

y> r^^J ^^' 

AjU ^ (lyana) 


djUL annual. 

„ JU year 



99 uvJ^^^' 

Xi C5fi) 


Ib^ domestic. 

ff j^ house. 



Jui3J tusked, 



O u • 

Jc^jJ wealthy. 

^9 c::JjJ wealth. 

^U (man) 


9^ ^J^ wisdom. 



ui^jb powerful, 

„ Jj pou?er. 

J (a) 


^]f^ qwirrelsome. 

w l^ytttirrc/. 


I (a) 

JU ' (aA/o) 

U (no) 

J^j (wan) 

A Grammar of 

as \^^ Awngry, 
^y djl^j biennial, 

^^ golden, 
if^ hindermost, 
jjUj jrfg/irfy, 

1^1 single, 


,, l3jJ double, 

91 ^y«»0 tenth. 

o ^ 





from ^^ hunger* 
„ JLyJ ftco year*. 

99 ^«f^ the rear. 
„ jt JjJ view. 



iJ ^tro. 

J f Arc€. 

99 i^;?' 

99 C/"*^ ^^'^^ 



ly^ aquatic, 


^<Jb water. 

Sfr (jog) 

c2J^L52Jblj marriageable. 


Liblj marrying. 

j\, (war) 

' 99 

j\fy^ grievous. 


Cfy^ grief. 

XJ (band) 

99 < 


Jcj jUfJ^ armed. 



Jo^ (mand) 


JCMtJif intelligent. 


Jac intelligence. 

dj\ (ana) 



Jit a cAt2d. 

jU (dar) 


jblij /at<A/«/, 


\ij fidelity. 

jL» (sar) 



Jf^ a mountain. 



^^^-X4x sorrowful. 


A^ sorrow. 

Lf\j (nak) 


tl^y^ terrible. 


Jyb terror. 

Jj («^«0 


j^l3 renowned. 


I*l3 a name. 


jh^J strong, 


jfjj 5^cwgM.[iry- 

1; (^5) 


Ird ^ foreignrborn. 


^^^^^ foreign counr 

2?j|j {zada) 


IjL-^^-bfls^ noble-bom. 


—^'is^ no&2e (man). 

^ (g5») 




JJ &/tte^ indigo. 

the Hindustani Language. 75 

Ji ifam) as Ali^|^icj sajffron-coloured, from ^\jiAj saffron. 

JjU (ot5' tV) ffJil^i^^yn yellotvish, „ i^JjJ yellowness. 

^ >- 

Ujf (fto?i5) „ \j^y>^ four-corneredj „ ^incomp.ybur. 

^f {goshcL) yy U^^yJJii hexagonal ,, {JLi» six. 

49. Adjectives of intensity may be obtained from verbs^by afRxing 
to the second person singular of the imperative d/t {ak) \i\ {aka) or 

liil (anAa) or b^ {yoaiya) \ as, cS/]?j^ « great runner, from JjO n^n ; 

lilil^ quarrelsome, from j! fight; b^ eloquent, from^ speak. 

50. Adjectives, as well as adverbs, of which latter some notice has 
already been taken at par. 35, may be derived from pronouns in 
various ways ; and, like their originals, they are used demonstratively, 
interrogatively, or relatively : so, from ^ (or Dakh. ^ yah) this, 

I* C - '^ • 

are deduced Uji or \isA orl^l or \sj\ this-much, so much, so many ; Lj\ 

this-like, such; ^j£ ^^j^^ ^^ ^^^ manner, thus : from x^ (or Dakh. 
9^ t£7aA) that, \:J\ or l7l or \:cjj or Isjj that-much, so many ; Lj^ ^Aa^- 
/ife, 5o ; jjji^ QX^^y in that manner, so : from ^ who ? what ? 

O (« » ^ 

which ? \is£ or Ucl^ or Is^ or l:;^ Aou? mucA ? how many ? ^ how 

many .^ L-o whaUlike ? irAa^ «or^ o/*? Aotr 1 ^yS ovjjy^ how ? in 
what manner ? why ? ^-^ somewhere, anywhere : from ^ or ^^^ 

who, what, which, Ui»- or \:l»>- trAa^ quantity, as much as, as many as ; 
^^^ €U many; L-^c^* whatAxke, as ; ^^^ or (^^->- ovjjyc*- as, like as : 

and, from y^ or ^y that, come l:cJ or IsJ^ so much, so many ; ^ so 
many ; L«Jf such, so ; ^y or ^^ or ^^ so, in that manner. 

51. Transitive and causal verbs have been already noticed at para- 
graph 27. They are generally formed from other verbs by the inter- 
position or addition of 1 or^ or ^^ or |^ or S. The letter \ is frequently 
inserted after the first consonant of the root; and sometimes, (hough 
but rarely, it follows the second ; in other cases, it is added to the 

76 A Grammar of 

last : 60, U5\^ to cut, from US^ to be cut ; U\C to take out, from UKJ 

^o issue; l3\a^ ^o 5^96^ from li^a^ ^o escape: ^ and 4^ are used imme- 

diately before the last consonant of the root ; as, U!^ to open, from 

Ul^ ^o be opened ; 1:»m«j to pound or grind, from U«»4 to &e ground : and 

Ij or J is always subjoined to the root ; so, ^^^j^ to cause to frighten, 

from \jj^ to fear ; bS J to cause to give, from Uj J to give. When the 

root, moreover, is a monosyllable ending in 1 or j or ,^ , the last letter 
IS commonly dropped and J mserted before the causal sign t or |^ ; as, 

\jt^ and \j\^ to feed and to cause to feed, from \j\^ to eat ; OLj and 

\j\^ to cause to sleep and to cause to put to sleep, from 13^ to sleep ; 
ULd and UUms to cause to sew and to cause to be sewed, from Lm.9 to 



62. The terms usually applied to grammar are ja^ ^ <.J^ isorfo 
nafiw) which may be translated inflection or accidence and syntax : 
the first has already been treated of, in Chapters II., III., and IV* 
especially ; and the latter, with which practice in the language will 
give the best acquaintance, seems not to require here any very minute 
or lengthened explanation. 

53. The noun in the genitive case usually precedes that with which 
it is constructed, as does the adjective its substantive: vnth these 
exceptions, and unless a conjunction occurs, a relative pronoun, an 
interjection or vocative, or some word which by way of especial dis- 
tinction or of emphasis takes the lead, the nominative case to the 
verb generally presents itself first in a sentence ; nouns in other cases 
if required, a participle or adverb, may follow almost promiscuously *, 

the Hindustani Language. 77 

-^ * •«• 

but, the verb generally finishes the whole : so, ^^ -^ x^ \J ^^joi (jJ 

«/ary ^£e advantage this is, that of the low bred the society (makes) 
the free horn a slave, and the slave ruined makes. In poetry, how- 
ever, but little regard is sometimes had to this arrangement: as, 

' J^ U^j^ r^ L5^ L5^ ^ ' ^^"^^ i:^ ^^ yJ \J^ Studious of 
language are the intelligent ; by language is the name of the good 

» 64. Nouns of various genders, coming together in a sentence, re- 
quire the adjective, verb, or participle, governed in common by them, 
- - -- - o^ * f 

to have the masculine form ; as, i^^^^ ,X-»' {^y^ t^^ ^ ^^ ^ u^^ 
L5^ c;^ J^ l/ ^ mother, father ^ brother {all) the three in the 
meditation of the marriage of her were. With regard to inanimate 
beings, however, the adjective or participle usually agrees in gender 


^/ with the noun, nearest which it is placed ; so, 4«^t$ ^ ^^-j ^A^W* 
^jJBb gfjj ^^\^j[ <xcl^ J your son^s book and paper are lying here. 

65. Two nounSy having reference to the same person or thing, may 

stand in apposition without any word intervening ; as, (^Jj i^l^ ^ ij^\ 
his brother Bikram. 

66. Notice has already been taken, at par. 6, of the changes to 
which the poi^tposition \^ is liable in construction : and, though this 
particle serves generally to link together words of various import, 
yet on certain occasions it seems to be idiomatically dropped, and 
especially after a noun of weight or measure ; so, ^^ ^SJS Oanges- 
bank'on; l3^ ^y j\ji> a thousand tolas (of) gold: and, on the con- 
trary, its use in some cases may appear to us redundant; as, in 
kfll \^ jijfikr*s word, or the wordfkr. This postposition, moreover, 
is adopted to denote purpose, worth, size, possibility, totality, 8cc., as 


well as mere relationship ; so, \^j^^ ^ iV^ ^'^ eating room ; 

78 A Grammar of 

\j^ \^ ^j ya ^1^ of two hundred rupees a horse ; ]j^yi>- ^ j^ i^ji 
of a large head a boy ; ^j^ ^J 15^ -^ ^^** (female) cannot live ; 
(juw^ \^ yJL^ the whole field; i^^^^ l^ \^^^^ all together; fi>>- 1^ pj>' 
all a picture; ^^ lz>\j ^ d^j^ in ^/ic dearf o/* ^Ae ntgA^; ^ CL^U 
^^ CL^b in ^A« wiere word; L^ l^ l5»^ totally concealed. 

67. The nominative case is very often used when it is the object to 
a transitive verb ; and, indeed, no inflection of a noun, except for the 
nominative case plural, can take place without a postposition or pre- 
position immediately expressed or understood; the latter circumstancci 
however, not unfrequently occurs, there being many expressions which 
from use are become idiomatical without the postposition : so, l^ (j^ 

j\ijy i%U do tell me the name of this; ^ jp house go^ go home; 

lx-> (jyl^ ^ V^«^ a!^^ ^ neither seen (with) eyes nor heard (with) 
ears; ^fJcS l^ Ganges bank (on) ; ^Jo ^^^\ (in) a good manner; 
{ija^ jJLi jJ ^ i^\ (at the abode) of him were two daughters, an 
ellipsis of some word, perhaps ^lyj occurring in this and generally 
in similar sentences. The nominative case, moreover, supplies the 
place of the accusative, when another word with the dative postposi- 
tion occurs in the same sentence ; unless both words happen to be 
pronouns, when each may be followed by its casual sign :. so, ^^^ y 

y^a / j3J ^j^ ^^ thou thy own daughter to my son give; ^\ ^^ 

iCj J ^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ '**^ ^^ y^^' 

,' 58. When two or more words in the same oblique case are used 
together, the postposition is usually subjoined to the last only; as, 

^^ yj, ^J^ ^ k/"} l5^^ L5ii^ ^5^^^ ^"^^^^ of gold, silver, copper, 
iron, 8u5. : and, if they are in an oblique case of the plural, though 
even a conjunction intervene, the plural sign may be omitted in all 

such words but the last; so, ^^ Li^*^ ^ 15^ u^y^ J!^ ^)y how shall 
we give a description of the elks and deer? 

the Hindustani Language. 79 

69. The simple postpositions follow immediately the nouns they 
goyern ; but, such nouns, participles, or adverbs, as are in common 
use postpositively, may sometimes precede the words with which they 
are constructed: so, ^S^\ ^U or ^ffU ^ ^ with him; i^U 
^ cj^lJbJ or 4^U ^ i^n^.,M through fear (stricken of fear) ; 

[$ ^j^u\ ^^ t/-^ l/ sg?j/»««^ ^A« horse. 
[ 60. Adjectives, if immediately preceding or following the substan- 
tives they qualify, must be made to agree with them in gender, case, 
and number ; but, when separated by any other word, they may be 
used in the uninfected form of the masculine singular, whatever the 

state or gender of the substantives may be ; as, *j^ JIS^ ^ -^ ^ ^^\ 
make his face black. 
< 61. With numerals, the singular form of a noun, whether in the 
nominative or any other case, is generally preferred to the plural ; so, 

I^UjI? Jj^J^ ^ <<J^V^ ^j;*^ three soldiers heat four men; i^j}p j]}^ 

Sy^ A^ .^^^ there may be something less than a thousand horse: 
yet masculine nouns capable of inflection usually take the nominative 
plural form, as feminine nouns may occasionally take the latter, when 
more than one in number is to be denoted; so, L^jy^ ^ three 

horses; (^\i^, J^ four daughters, 

62. When the feminine genitive of a pronoun or adjective, or even 
some feminine form of a verb, is used without any noun expressed, 
such common word as ob affair, matter, is generally understood ; 

W / X GO 

so, ti-j i/ J»y ^ ^^ ls^^ ^ ^ neither mentions his own {affair) 

nor attends to {that) of others; i^yb ^ ^ ^db ^f^^ whatever 

was to be, that (^has) happened, 
,f 63. In speaking of one's self with another, it is customary to give 

* Yet jji Ho may be regarded a» a compound (nominal) verb : see 
par. %. 

80 A Grammar of 

the firet person the precedence, and, for that person even the plural 
is often adopted, though an individual only is intended ; so, ^ ^^ or 
^^Jcj^ (^ (t^ I and you mil go. 

64. If the saying of a third person be reported, the same pronouns 
and the same words, in every respect, are commonly retained, as were 

used by the first speaker ; so, ^j^- <w ^^ ^^ l^ u^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ 

I shall not go, meaning in our idiom, that he should not go ; \^\j 

' «** 

C^l/* jU \>^\4 ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^g wished that striking the sword I 

will die, meaning, that he would die, 

65. The second personal pronoun is rarely used in the singular, 
unless from motives of adoration, endearment, familiarity, or contempt: 
in speaking respectfully to any one, the plural of this person at least 
must be adopted ; but, when a dependant addresses his superior, or a 

great d^ree of deference is intended, c^l self, ^*.«>>U master, (JL 

the presence, rr]j\^ great prince, or some other such term of honour, 

must b^ used, and generally with a verb in the third person plural. 

In mentioning a third person, moreover, respectfully, the plural is 

substituted for the singular, as it is not unfrequently done in the first 

person ; yet, when any one speaks of his own actions or circumstances 

with humility to a superior, or seeks even to address his friend with 

great respect, it is customary to substitute such words as ^jcj or a^ 

slave, i^^di devoted, J»-U tveak, jM beggar, jcn^l^ sinner, &c. ; or, 

in the latter csse,j\j&M^Jriendl]/, uAss^ sincere, if\^»y^ welboisher, 

&c. for the first personal pronoun. 

66. When a possessive pronoun, referring to the same person or 
thing as the subject of the sentence or the nominative case before the 

verb, is required, the common or reflective UjI &c. must then be used; 

O ^ O CO/ 

as, b (%U m tell thy name; W ^^ ^^ ^ d^}j^^ ^b the prince 
began to say in his own mind: and this reflective possessive may even 

the Hindustani Language. 81 

be used substantively; as, J<^ J U^Js^i^Jv^^^ w>=jj yr 
(f y<>« *Aa'' *»VZ yoter r«ry own^ then the protection of whom will 
you make? In a second member of a sentence, however, the peculiar 

poBsessive, and not the common, must be adopted ; as, c^b \j^j^ ^^ 
/ and my father. 

67. If used in a respectful sense merely, as noted at paragraph 65, 
the word c^T does not admit of inflection before postpositions; so, 

y^ 4^ sjk^ ^ ^5^ Ji"^ l/ V^ I have pleasure, Sir, in your 
living a long life : and, to (mJ\ when used as a term of respect, the 

Persian J^ {khud)^ of similar meaning, is at times subjoined ; or, 
even the word i.^^ people, or ^^^ if plurality be intended. 

68. The interrogative, L^ what ? which ? seems not immediately 
applicable to persons. It is often used by way of scorn, as well as to 
express satisfaction, astonishment, or desire : and, in these senses it 

may be followed by the appellations of human beings ; so, aaVj^^ L^ 
what a scoundrel ! It may be, also, adopted discriminatively ; as, 
^UL«« \J ^JcJb L^ whether Hindu or Musalman. 

69. The interrogative adverbs ^l^ and k-^ are very emphati- 
cally used to denote non-existence, dissimilitude, or difference ; as, 

\^\) ^J U^ ^)j *^ U^ where (w) that prince ? where that princess? 
meaning, that they exist not ; ^J-J IxiS ^jl^ — .^ \p^\j fj\^ where is 

king Shqj ? where Ganga the oilman ? importing that there is no 
resemblance between them. 

70. Though the indefinite pronoun i^j^ is generally applied to ani- 

mate beings, as ^^^ is to inanimate, yet this distinction is not always 
observed ; as, in J:^ i^4 any thing, ^^\ 'ff^ some man. 

71. The verb commonly agrees in gender and number with the 
nominative or subject of the sentence ; except, however, that to a 
number of irrational beings, taken collectively, a singular verb may 
be attributed ; and, that in general a plural verb is used with such 


82^ A Grammar of 

terms of honour or respect in the singular as are often substituted for 
the second personal pronoun : so, \t^ Ij J 15^^ '^ ^^ makes a practice 
of guarding ; ^ v^ji <J^ i/j' ^^ 5*''^ ^^ reading a lesson; 
\A ^j^ y^ or ^ T i^j^ y^ o. hundred horse or horses came ; -^bV* 
^^ i^ I ^^Ja-)|^ s^^ 15^ L--^?.ff^ t^Jj t->T your majesty has with 
great labour come on my account. And, when two or more nomina- 
tives of diiFerent genders come together in the same member of a sen- 
tence, the verb and participles usually accord with the masculine in 
this particular, as exemplified at paragraph 54. 

72. Transitive verbs in any past tense of the active voice, in con- 
struction with which the particle ^ must follow the subject or agent,* 
if actually expressed, are made to agree in gender and number vriih 
the object of the sentence, provided that it is a noun, either understood, 
or stated as is most usual in the nominative case ; but if the object be 
placed in the oblique case, or if it be a member of a sentence, the verb 
has invariably the form of the third person singular masculine. In 
this construction, the subject or agent, if actually expressed, is gene- 
rally inflected by ^J if capable of inflection ; the first and second per- 
sonal pronouns being the only words liable to change for case, that 
retain the form of the nominative, whether in the singular or plural, 
before this affix.f With the verb US to bring, however, which is in 

fact compounded of ^ take and l3 ) to come^ or with U^ to speak, 
though the former seems in all cases to convey a transitive meaning 
and the latter sometimes so, this construction is never admitted ; as, 

\Si dJjs^ ^JLj •jVc ^^ ^ ^ ^ Brahman purchased {and) brought 

- / 

an egg-plant ; ^ "iys^ he said that^-. 

* These remarks do not apply to the Dakhni) in which dialect the 
particle _) does not interrupt the usual concord of the verb with the 
nominative case. 

f See, moreover, the note to paragraph 23. 

the Hindustam Language. 83 

73. The form of the infinitive serves for the gerund or verbal noun, 
and in many cases for the noun of instrument or of place^ as has before 
been noticed : but, it is also not unfrequendy used as an imperative, and 

imports the absolute necessity of the action intimated; so, JiU ^ f^\ 

Uj^ yjL'*^ (it is necessary) not to remain neglectful of him ; c/od^ Ji 

l:^lyj you {must) arrive quickly ; \^ ,^^ ^j^ SrL;V*^ ^ir^^ -^ ^^^ ^V 
no means obey your (word) ; l^ ^^jJbj ^^ ^ this (is under the ahso- 
bite necessity) of Tiot remaining, 

74. The past and present participles, whether in the simple form or 

compounded with \^ , are much used in the state of the inflected 
masculine singular, whatever the gender or number of the governing 
noun may be, to denote some action incidental with, or preceding, 

that which the subsequent verb declares ; as, ^-J ^JLjI (in the) taken 

of him or ^fbr his sake; ^g^U jX-«5j- (in the) stricken of which or 

** " ^ > ' . ' 

by reason of which; ^ lT?"^ ^^ ^'^ {iJ^J^ *— ^^J^ ^-;^^ 

having made to accord all the instruments in one tone (she) was 
dancing ;y_jl>jA iij^ \]^ii dj^Jr'ji W^ ^ V ^-4 ^J^ J^ 'j 
on going away he had kept saying that (on) becoming mounted on this 
do not use the whip nor strike the spur. With ^ the adverb of pecu- 

liarity or identity, or with ci^^ time, subjoined, the simple present 
participle, too, is thus very frequently brought into use ; as, 

*^ CO / 

^^ Sj ^ d^^ ^ Lf^"^ ?j immediately on seeing that she 
rained' ^ one aghast". 

75. Both the past and present simple participles, moreover, are 
often used absolutely, and sometimes substantively, in the invariable 
state of the inflected masculine singular, when constructed with a 
preceding noun, or even with a postposition or preposition, or with a 

genitive case ; so, 4^^ aLI (on) the become evening ; ^^ ,^ (on) 

the becoming morning ; ^jto J^(in) the striking an eyelid; ^j^^^ W 

84 A Grammar of 

unthaut having understood; ^^^^ fJ:A) \ij without having heard a 
word ; ^rxte; j^^ (in) the remaining of me or before me ; ,«^4> vS^ 
{at) the sight of which ; ^^j4^j^ i/ S-^ C*'*) ^^^ ^g*^ ?f «^^ > 
\:Jbj ij \jf J^ LS^T* l5^ i**^ ^"^^^ ^'^^ mom^n^ u^i^Aoti^ the meditation 
of deceit he rests not. It should be remarked, too, that both these 
participles are occasionally used as nouns in either gender : and, by 
the repetition of a participle, continuance of the action is frequently 

76« The indefinite future or aorist may not only convey a present 
meaning, but it may be constructed with an auxiliary verb as a pre- 
sent participle even ; yet, when used in the latter way, it may be 
often understood as retaining its future sense : so, ^^*^ ^^J*^ c/-^ 
j^-Tyb a\J^ J ijlfi*^ ^ J^ i^ ''*** (space of time) he went forth 
(many) kos, (when) he looks then evening is become ; ^^^j ^*^^ ^ 

A^ ij jJb neither cold nor hot pleases ; ^^ \^^}^ ^ ^'"^ openings 

' •• 

or / am about to open, 

77. The adverb of prohibition c:.«v« as well as that of negation ij 
or ^^^ may be used either before, or after, verbs ; but, ^^^ though 

unfit for construction with an imperative, is more emphatical and in 
more general use than A} with other forms of the verb ; so, k:i.v« 

^^^ do not ask; ul-v* jJ^ by no means forget ; ^l>^ ^ do not 

suppose. And, when the emphatic ^«^ is adopted, it frequently 

supplants the present of the substantive verb at the end of a sentence ; 

as, ^^^ ^lii aU? ^ ^JJi» i^j^j acts of cruelty (are) not becoming thy 


78. The conjunctions ^i and ^ that, are used at the beginning of 

one member of a sentence, which explains the object or reason of 
another generally preceding. The conjunction jS too may be used 

in the way of comparison or distinction ; as, ^ ^^ ijj^ l/**^' <-^^ 

the Hindustani Language. 85 

j^ aUJ ifhai) one man die is better than a whole city ; jC>l i^ ^\ 
i^y^ y thou mayest take either this or that: it may, also, convey 
the sense of saying that ; as, CS^ ^^ j^ V^^ ^f^^^^^^^ ^f-^ -V^i 
4^yh vj;.^ '> "^ c«^1 a7 ii ^^^ U^ J^J^ saying this, he called for the 
throne, and having given him pan and tilak seated (him) on it, 
(saying) that you are now become invincible. At times, though but 
rarely, 4^ may be adopted as the relative pronoim, after the idiom of 

the Persians : and, in some cases, the application of it seems intended 
merely to connect the members of a sentence, the meaning in other 
respects appearing redundant. 

79. The conditional conj unction j^\ or ^ if requires the conse- 
quential J or fj^ then in the following member of the sentence ; as, 

should interrupt thee in this, then (fail not) to bring him to me : yet, 
the conditional is sometimes idiomatically omitted ; so, ly^ ^ ^\ 
l6j l^ ij ^y^ y ^/y^ rl^V* ^*** (person) said. Sir, (if) you wiU 
give, then why shall I not eat? 

80. The adverb ^^ or ^ypr ^^^ in general be answered by the 
correlative ^^ or ^^ and ^fr u^ ^1 u/ U^ > ^ ^*® manner, 
the emphatic adverb of time ^j^j^^ is followed by yj^^^} ; so, 

it, at that very moment he tossing dbout expired. As adverbs of 

/ f U 9 f ^ 

manner y^ypr and ^^ frequently assume j^ ; so, ' J^ytPT uy^ (jr* 

09 S-^ ^ O 

' JjjiP ^ji» vjji> ^ \j^ f^^ as I may say, so it is incumbent on 

^ •• • 

thee to perform the business. 

81. The usual term of affirmation or assent is ^U (hati) yes; but, 
this may be understood, and 2r\d AJ or ^j^jjt^^ or U;^A>-ltf or some 
other appellation of respect only be expressed, especially in the reply 
of a servant to his master, or of an inferior to his superior. 

86 A Grammar of 

82. The residence of any one is often denoted by ^lyj and, if more 
than one place is meutionedi ^bb^ may be used distinctively for a 
similar purpose ; as ^ ^Uj ^ c-^^U ^U- ^l^ ^ u-^U go to 
Mfi genilemarCs house here, not to that there. Sometimes, however^ 
the mere genitive case is adopted, the adverb being understood ; and 

the postposition (^b may be applied in the same maimer as ^J^ : so, 

m m tm ^ ^r 

servants, who ran to her house, seized and took her away from it. 

83. Two words of similar meaning, which resemble each other ia 
sound, are often brought into use where one alone might have sufficed, 

as in the instance of p^^^ exemplified in the last paragraph : one 
of such words, however, seems frequently to have little or no meaning, 

and to be adopted for the sake of the sound chiefly ; so, ^yo ^^^^ 

falsehood, j^^ j^ a whisper. By a repetition, moreover, of nouns 

or pronouns, as well as of some other words, individuality may be 

intended ; as, ^^ \^ JbJjJ \^ CSi\ ilJ^\ ^^o\ {1^\ J^ each man 

•»v '* o c o 

having filled each a pitcher of milk; ^^J^i^ li*x; ^^ i^^ l^t us 
each try his own skill : and, when two past participles of the same 
transitive verb come together, the latter of them being in the feminine 
gender, reciprocity of action is intended ; so, ^,y^^ IssL^ pulling 
and hauling; -t^ l^ altercation; ^^U IjU scuffle; ^^^*^ V^«^ 
competition, emulation. Here, too, may be noticed such idiomatical 
repetitions of participles as Wcj \ij ready made ; blC IC» ready 

O Ox 

cooked; ^^i^\^ ^JLj in sitting still: or, of nouns; as, ^ ^^^^saj 

in the very midst; <^|;(^y|; in the dead of the night; ^ ^y^^ vnth 
all {his) ears, 

84. To the names of different classes or sects of men, different 
appellatives are by way of distinction prefixed or subjoined ; thus 
Brahmans take ^^,^ or ijj\y or ^^j^J or i/J^lj; Musalman Fakirs 

the Hindustam Language. 87 

are addressed with jrl& or ^^ or ^ ; Hindu devotees or religious 
people, with j^or u:.^ or ^J\^f ox ^^ U ; Rajputs, with ^^^ ; or 
Rajpiits and Sikhs, with i^t; or »^L^ ; Moghuls, with \jj^ before the 

•■ ^ 

proper name, or (^^L) after ; Saiyids, with j^ or Ju^i ; Shaikhs, with 
^J^ ; Pathans, with ^^U- ; Doctors, with cjjcj or 4/^^ or lU ; 
Merchants or Bankers, with 2fU or .^2^ ; Ladies, with Jt^\:L or JIj or 
jjjjjU- or yU* or ^U^U or ^ , which are placed after the proper 
name, as ^\^ ^U^l , <U>-U u^^J : and, some of the most common 
terms of respectftil address, used generally, are 2^1:j ^J<^ or '^bV^ 
or JU ^ your Majesty ! JbSy«ji-j or 6^^S^ Sire ! u^^o-U or j^L« 
or ^jj- orj^ or X) or^b iStr / Master! j^ S-^;^ cherisher of the 
poor I 

PART 11. 





God, Deity, ^J^ khuda. jy^^^y^ parameswavy ^\ allah. 

Lord, j^l istoar, c-^ rabb. 

Creator, ^dU^ khfllik, JgJ kartar,jZjjjs\ afridgar. 

xswarta^ ls.^J1 ildhiyat. 

".5 X 

A god, a deity, ^ J dw, j^ sur, \j^J devta. 
Goddess, «^ji4> dewif ,<-J*3 d2K, ^^ji*3 de^otin (f.)«* 

Angel, ^sJ^Ji Jirishta, C^ tnalak, CJ'j J dut, cJ7ljb Aa^/. 

Heaven, (.^^ swarg, ^Um}| o^man, ui-.-s;!^ &tAi«&^ (f.). 

Sky, Firmament, Atmosphere, (^^^ akas (or ,^-.1^1 aft&), ^.UJT 
asmdn, ui3i /aZaA. 

Devil, Satan, ^Ua^ sAaitin, (^/^^-Jj^ t&2t«. 

* For the convenience of the learner, feminine words not terminating 
in ,^ (?) will he marked (f.) generally ; as masculines ending in i^ (t) 
will be marked (m.). 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 89 

Demon, j^\ (xsur, aj J dev, ^>:i^^M ifrit. 

Ghost, Goblin, Fiend, CJyj hhut^ \^^ bhutna, O^^ pret 

HeD, M^ jakannamf ^jJ dozakh* cJfji narak. 

Fabulous beings. 
One of the Genii, ^^jinn. 
Fairy, ^^ pari. 

&>m6 general Terms. 
Thing, J^ chiz (f.), ^^ «Aat (f.), cu-*mJ ftos^, ^.{;fc> c2ar&. 

Mode, Manner, u^J dhab, jj^ faur^ u, >j )u 4 t^/iii, wJ^ tra:^^ (f.). 
Kind, Species, j^-J^ Jiw* (f.), fjJ nai**, *«J /bism, ci^U §a^ (f.). 

Whole, A>k>-jumla, ^^jam^ (f.), c.^^^ «a6. 

' "• ** tt* It** 

Part,j5»^J«2r, ^IU3>. ^i^sa, ^\ an«, Jjl^ AanJ, ti^ khand. 

Cause, i^ -/.o sahabj c^..^^ mujib, ^J^ karan, l1^\j bSis. 
Nature, cl^U sa^ (f.), ^^Jj^ prakrit (f.), ^V &A5t;, J^3 niAac?. 
Essence, yb^jauhar, C^^J «a^ (f.), cs^U makiyat (f.), <*s^^ ««^' 
Element, j^ioifr un^ tir, f,^ tat, (proper sphere) UlC^ thikdna. 
Fortune, Lot, \^ n,M nafib, (^l^ bhag, C'^a.^a Idsmat (f.)> o^C baldit. 

w GO 

Fate, Destiny, \^ likha, LS ka%a (f.),jt^ takdir, s^-j^ Idsmat (f.). 
B^inning, IjcjI i&^u2a (f.), J^ paAaZ, jlcT aghaZy ^jJ^ shuru\ 
End, ts--3^ antfjti^ dkhir, Li3l tn^iAa (f.), **^V '^^^^ya^ (f.)» 
Time, j^Uf ^raman, Jl^ kal, ,^^«^ samai, ls^j wakt,jibi^ dahr. 
Space (absolute), ^j1 acPhar, (jJ^ okas. 
Order, -j jJ ^ai&ir (f.), l^*^ dhabj u-^y <arfift (f.). 



90 Vocabulary.-^ Nouns. 

Number, JiX& adad, jl^Xiu ^i^c2a(2 (f.), W^ sankhya (f.). 

Form, Figure, c:-?;^ ?2ra^ (f.), JjI^ «AaAZ (f.), C^V^ Aai'af (f.). 
Matter, )^ hayula, Jtb^ jauhatj art^U madda. 
Body, ^^^^s^jisMj ^^^ katkty ^Jj badan, ^J ^A (f.). 

World, ^L*:^^ sanmr^ Jlf aZam, {J^^jakany IJ J dunya (f.). 
East, <-->^^ purahy yXr^ mashrifs, ^jJ^ sharlc. 

West, *f9^ pachchhamy« ma g hrah^ ^T^ gharh. 
North, yf tt^^ar, JU^ shamal (or sAtmaZ). 

o • / 

South, ^^J dakhan or ^J dakkhan, c,. y> > janub. 

Spirit, Soul, ^^j r5A (f.), ^^^ wq/i, ^^U>- J5» (m, f.). 

Life, i5>-J? (m.X *^^->- Aaya/ (f.), ^Jo^jan (m. f.), ^I^jpran or paran. 

Light, 1\pA ujaloyjy nur, (JL^^jot (f.), ^^ ^Jt; rasAn57. 

Darkness, ];:Jb«x3l ancZAera, ^^J^ tarlkty ca.i^]i f> zulmat (f.)- 

Heat, C^l^ hararaty ^ tapan (f.), ^^ garmi. 

Cold, Coldness, <Xi^ <Aa72^ (f.)^ s^'V* ^^^^^ ^J^" J^f^- 

TAe Elements. 

Ether, (j^-lTT afra« (or aA5«), -J! ojjlr. 

Fire, tifT og (f.), Ji\ atash (f.). 

Air, |yb Aatra (f.), ^y^pawan or paun (f.)o*V ^^'^ (^O- 
Water, t-M 5ft, J:»- ja/, ^b pant (m.),^ mr. 

Earth, ^^J zamn (f.), ^ miffi, d/U^ lAak (f.), (♦j^ iAww (f.). 

Heavenly bodies, signs, appearances, Sfc. 

c / 

Sun, 0^jya surqj, ci^lii! aftab, J^ji^ khurshaid. 

Vocabulary, '^Nouns. 91 

Moon, JjW chand, ^to mak,j4J kamar,jS:^ ckandar, 

New Moon. jJU^XU bdlorchdnd, jitb hilal, jjU» U naya chand. 

Full Moon, jJ^ Jorfr, a:j punim, j^-jto ^y puran-masi. 

Star, |;U *5r5, ^r^tu^ sitara, ms^ najm. 

Constellation, j&fiS^l aJOUaVy s^jf kaukab. 

Planet, i[;L.« saiyara. 

Saturn, /f^ samchar, J»-; zuhal, ^yS kaiwan. 

Jupiter, tj: ■.;... ty brikaspat, ^jr^^ mushtari. 

Mars, JxL« mangal^ ^^ mirrlkh. 

Venus, jCi sukTy tiJ^ «IA, ^J ariiAra (f.), *XjfcU naAirf. 

Mercury, af Jj ftttcfA, J^Ua* utarid. 

Comet, yj^jharu (m.f.), c^ *«^ 1;^ ^ (**^ rf«»» *5 ^5ro. 

Meteor, <-.^^^ sAiAa^. 

Falling Star, vli3 /wA, M^^ «AiA5ft. 

,^ 99C^9 O 

Zodiac,/^ crb ro^-cAaftr, ^^^1 ^Sk^ mintaiatu-l-buruj. 

Sign of the Zodiac, ^^ ftwr;, u-b ^^• 

Aries, the Ram, Jaj>- ^^ji burj-i-hamal, 4^ "*«**• 

Taurus, the Bull, jy ^^ burj-i-mur, 4ji *^***- 

C^ ^<' 

Gemini, the Twins, \jj>' ^, burj-i-jauza, ^^ wizMttn. 
Cancer, the Crab, J^j^ ^y. burj-isaratan, CSJ kark. 
Leo, the lion, Ju^l ^^ burj-i-asad, *^i-» «ngA. 
Viigo, Jui-j sumbula, Ui ia»iya (f.;. 
Libra, the Balance, ^^|;*^ wii^ran (f.), ^ tula (f.). 

92 Vocabulary.^-^NouTiS. 

9 • 

Scorpio, the Scorpi(»i, c-^;Ac a^rabf jfasr. bichchhu. 

Sagittarius, the Centaur, ^y kaus (f.)> ^^/^ dhan or dhanu. 

Capricomus, the Goat, ^^J^ ^^jj burj'i-jadi,jLc makar* 

Aquarius, ^ J ^^ burf-i-dalv, -^ kumbh. 

Pisces, the Fish, \ZJ ^ ^y butj-uhuty ^^ min. 

Milky way, Galaxy, ^\tL^ kahkashan. 

Mansion of the Moon,jS^:^ nachhattary ^^y>^ manzih 

Zenith, (j^])\ l::.--v4m9 samtvrr^asyjai^\ kj:^^a^ samtu-n-nazar. 

Nadir, Ll^,4^ J i\j^ nazlrw-s^amty ^^j\j2ej fumrurr-rifL 

Sunshine, i^f^ dhup (f.), f\^ gham (f.), ^Icft sku'a^ (f.). 

CO b 

Moonshine, _3jJI»> chandni, c«^\s;bU mahtab. 

Eclipse, ^^gahan, (of the sun) cJ^ /nt^/, (of the moon) 

9 ^ 

Rainbow, -j5 ^^y kaus-irkuzah (f.), ^^y 65r5. 

Cloud, ^1 a&r, J jb hadaly w^ mgg'A (m. f.)- 

Rain, .^Xm« menA, ^^^jb barauy Jljo barish (f.), (dakh.) ,j>j-f« mAyiiii. 

Shower, ^jjp- jAan, ^^^y^jklsi, ^J&^J daungra, ^^L^jhapas (f.). 

Fog, Mist,^^ /roAar, ]yb^ ftoAra, LA^ An^Ao^a. 

9 9 

Vapour. jLc ghubar^j^e^ hMuLV. 

c c 

Lightning, ,i«r fttj'n, jj Jarit (f.). 

•» ^^ ^ 

Thunder, '^fgarj (f.), jJcJ tundaVy Js^j roNL, 

Dawn, Daybreak, 2r^ /?oA (f.), \^ ^arAa, jjij JAor (f.), y^J\ aruuy 
^ subh (f.). 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 93 

Twilight (evening), ^fidf godhuUj ^jiL shafalc^ \;t^^ '^ muikh" 

Things relating to Fire, 

Flame^ A^J^ shu^la, l^^ lahaby (of a fire) ^1 anch, (of a candle or 

lamp) n-j tern (f.). 
Flash, uXyS lahak (f.), CJ^MJ bhabhak (f.), lJkai^ chamak (f.). 
Blaze, l^^ff^ bkabhuka, CSja bharak (f.) : see Flame. 
Spark, L^J^^ chingarl, ^S^ chingt, ^^^^ parkala, Sj^jA sharara. 

9 9 9 

Smoke, i^f^ dhVan, ^ybJ dhum, J^ dud. 

C • 9 ^ 

Soot, \jyA saunra, ui3\^ kalik, Ht^jt^ duda, ti\y>^ sawad. 

Ashes, ^\j rakh (f.), j\^ chhar (f.), a..^ bhasam (f.), 
khakistar (f.). 

Cmders, (cold) Ib^ *o'cZ5, (hot) |^\&^ angora. 

U 9 O 

Embers, Jfj^ bhSkbhal^ \^\ angora. 

Firebrand, is^^ sokhta, ^^ lukiiy (dakh.) ^^ k^lti. 

fireworks, i^j\) ^JLj\ atash'-bazu 


Firewood, Fuel, ^yjb Kezam (f.), ^^Jcj\ tndhauj *^ htma. 


CSoal, Charcoal, L^^ kffela, Jli) zu gh aL 

Things relating to Air. 

Wind, jb fta'o (f.), jb 65rf (f.), |^ hatoa (f.) 



Squall, \ ^^J^T ondAt, ^^lijt tufany^^ jhakkar. 


94 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Whirlwind, jb J^ gird-bad ({.), )yj bagula,jJjy^ bawandar. 

Stormy Wind, JcJ jU badirtund (f.). 

Hot pestilential Wind, ^y^ satnum (f.), ^^^^ j\) baddrsamum. 

Gust, Blast, Breeze, yjtf^ jhalwraj ^jp^-jhoka, lJ^^ phunk, 


Fair or favourable Wind, j|^ Jb badri-murad (f,). 

Contrary or adverse Wmd, i^Ur« Jb badrirmuMtfllif. 
Zephyr, morning breeze, U^ Jb bad-i-^aba (f.) 

Things relating to Water. 

o / 

Drop, Jj^ fttiwd (f.), if^ katra, (of rain) UL5 fop/ra. 

Bubble, LL bulbula, h bulla. c^U>» hubab. 

Foam, Froth, Scum, ^^^phen, i^ kaf(f.). 

Vapour, steam, jbkr buldyaT^ ^b 65pA (f.), -^Ifi 6A5pA (f.). 

Dew, ^/-jl o« (f.), j>i-A shabnam (f.), ijr^'wj^ «f (f.). 

<* / / ^ 

Fog, Mist, jibjf kohar, \jSb^ kuhra,j\aBr bufdl^r, U^ kuhasa. 

Frost, Hoar-frost, Sb pala,j\^ thar. 

Snow, uJ;J barf{m. f.), 21b j7aZa,j\fl Mar. 

Hail, 2ljt o2a, ^]; zhala, i^ffi ^^g^^g* 

Ice, -Sr y«Mf *— i;? ftflrf (m. f.). 

Wave, Billow, ^^ iwaw; (f.), <l>j^ mauja^j^ lahar (f.). 

Ocean, jS^a^ samundary jdA^ samudr, ^usu^ya^ baftr-irmufuL 

Sea,^;^ ba^r,jSiA^ samundary bjJ daryayi\^ sagar. 
Lake, J-^JAi/ (f.)> j^j^ sarwary t-jjlj talaiy j^y^ pokhar. 
Bay, Gulf, J^ *o/,^ Ja^r, .^J^ Ma/i/. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 95 

Creek, Cove, J^ kol. 

Abyss, Gulf, j«5 ita*r, ^\di^ girdaby lA lujja. 

w. o / o 

River, i^Jj naddi, b^J darya, Jjj rfirf, U^ «ar^a (f.). 


Rivulet, Brook, Canal, ^^^ nahr (f.), )U naZa. 
Pool, Pond, xS kundy c^SlJ taHb. 
Deluge, ^j;lijt tufan, JLit tughyam. 

Inundation, IfiT aAZa, m1m«i saiZaA (f.) : see Deluge. . 

Whirlpool, Eddy, Vortex, ^->1Jp girdab, j^ bhanwary (dakh.) 

\ji^ bhaunra. 

Harbour, Haven, Port, jJcj bandar. 

Tank, c^^l? ^a/a&, j^j^ sarwar, ^jo^ hauz. 

Quagmire, J Jj daldal ((.), il^\j pank, ^;«JbJ dhasan (f.)* 

Bog, Slough, uiob panky JjJj daldal (f.). 

Fen, Marsh,^lf^ JAaJar (f.), (dakh.) jj^ marfi. 

Spring, Fountain, it4^^ chashmay Ijyi «ofa, JcJ^ /c«n^. 

Well, Ij^ /ru'a, 2(l>- cAaA, (large one of masonry) \j\tij\ indara, ^^ U 

Pit, f W cAoA. 

Ditch, Moat, 4^ l|^ AAa't, JJc^ fAandak (m. f.). 

Shore, Strand, Beach, Coast, Bank, ^ Ar, 2[^\:i^ kinara, c^ ZaA, 

Things relating to the surface of the Earth, 

/ « • 

Land, Ground, Soil, ^^ bhum (f.), JU jni<<i or ^JU ma^tZi, ^^^ 

zamtn (f.), ^^j bum. 

96 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

o / 

Dry land, ,X^x^ Mttishkt (in opposition to ,^Jj tart, water). 


Island; y \S fopu, s^^^^j^ dip, ^J.'Pr joxira. 
Peninsula^ ^jl^ jazira, «i-^*> dip. 

- / 

Plain, Level, .J^"*^ musattah, j^^Ju^ maidan. 

Field, u:..^ khet, ^;f Ju^ maidan. 

Park, Chase, ^^ ramna, if\Sj\Ll^ shikar-gah. 

Mountam, jl^ pahar, nf koh, J-sj- ja&a/, v^-^ parbat, (dakh.) 
jC^ dongar. 

Hill, Mount, L5 fiZa, JJ tall, i^f^^ pakafi, n^ kok, (dakh.) %^f^^^ 

^ ^^ ** 

Hillock, L3 fiZa, JJ ^aZ/, (dakh.) ^jLS iekra, u5j^ /enftr?. 

Rock, J-rf rfZ (^O^J^l^flA^r, y^ /coA. 

^\joiQ&, j^ patihxir, i^J^ sang, j^ hajar, (dakh.) ji^ phattar. 

Block of Stone, fj^ chatan or chattan (f.). 

Pebble, ^jij^ sang-reza, ^jij^ J^ goZ sangreza. 

Gravel, Grit, i^j^ patthri,J^ kankar : see Pebble. 

Sand, cu>j ret (f.), jJb 65/u (f.), ^j rcg (f.), J^ ^««^. 

Mould, Loam, ^1« wiifff or ,^U »ia<f7 : see Clay. 

Chalk, i^J^ khan or ,JL« ^^J^ kkau-mitfi, ^j y^ chhVi. 

Clay, i^ gil (f.)> LjS^ l<^ cAtfcni-miffi. 

Mud, Mire, Dirt, j:f^ luchar (f.), ^/ fttcA, 1^ ckahla or chihla^ 

Dust, JybJ d/mZ (f.),jf^*^ ^Aw'' (f-); ^^g<^rd{f.). 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 97 

Turf, JW char (f.), tij- chakta. 

Clod, Li^ fifAeZa, ^ji^ kulukh^ Sj da2S, tJCJ pinda. 

Minerab, Metals, ^c. 
A Metal, Mineral, Ore, ci^U J dhat, jli ^fiz^f. 

Gold, U^ ^nifjj zar, ^^^^^ kanchan, SU? tila. 

f CO o/ 

S3ver, b^ rupa, a^ «im, ^JJl>- chandmy XjSj nulcra. 

Tin, ^«l5 i^aZa*!, \x>U ranga,jijj\ arziz, ^\^j rasas. 

Copper, L«l5 tamba, ^j*^ mis. 
Brass, J:u^ ^itoZ, .^bT); birinj. 

Pewter, \^^ ^y jasty \^ ^^mpc^^j rup-jast, ^\j ranga. 
Lead, Lmmms ^isa, ^-^M) ^urft, (j^^lfi roso^. 
White Lead, IjuAm* safeda. 
Black Lead, ^ ^l^ ftaZi »it«I. 

Red Lead, j^OCi^ sendur,J!:j\ Ingur. 

Iron, Up loha, ^\ ahan, «X>,«X>- fiadid. 

Untempered Iron, ^Jt^^^ kach-lohi. 

Steel, Si^fulad (or faulad). 

Zinc, Tutanag, Lapis calaminaris, \z,^ dasta. 

Lapis lazuli, c>;j>-) Idjaward. 

Mercury, Quicksilver, c-^U*-* slm-db, \j\) para. 

Salt, ^^jS Cti, uX«j namaky ^y ndn. 

Saltpetre, Nitre, Xjyi» shora. 

Brimstone, Sulphur, ^^f gogird, ^^:^^j4 kibrlt. 
Coal (fossil), Xj^ \^^ patthar ka ko'ela, h^ ko'eld. 

98 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Alum, L^fjiil phitkari (m.)j OuLj ^j zajA-sufaid. 
AmbeFy bj^ kah-ruha. 
Lime, l3j»- chutm, (quicklime) ui^l ahak. 
Marble, j^«^ marmar,j^^ tg^f- * «ang-i marmar, a 

Alabaster, /•U^ ruJdum. 

9 O 

Porphyry, jU.«» (^j^ sang-i sumak. 
Ochre, ^ ^ pin mitfi, ^j^ geru. 
Loadstone, Magnet, ^^^^JbUi^ t^^- » sang-i mikna 

UP m 9 

na{i£, ijj^f aAanrTtt&a, UiC><.^ chumbak, uX«^ chummak. 
Jewel, Gem, jtb^jauhar, jib\y>^ jawdhir, ^ man, ^j ratan. 


Diamond, Ujb Aira, (^Ulf almas. 
Ruby, JjJ Za^Z, CJ^yb yakut, v^U mantX;. 
Garnet, C-y l> yaii;i<^ : see Ruby. 
Carbuncle, 9]/^}^ shah-cktragh. 


Emerald, t^j zumurrud, \iJ panna. 

Sapphire, JuJ ntlam, ^ J^ nil mani,jJu» saftr. 

Topaz, '^j^^ pukhrdjy ^jij zabarjad. 
Turkois, Beryl, ^^^ flroza. 


Amethyst, A^^jahalkum. 

y 9 O 

A6:ate, Onyx, . ^UJywi i^J^ sang-i sulaimanl. 

(,^Jj^ sans-i yashm. 

o / 

Opal,^^ U^J^ dudhiya patthar (?). 
Cornelian, j;^ a^tiS^. 
Corundum stone, OJ^S kurand. 

Vocabulary* — Nouns. 99 

Crystal, jj)^ billaur, cl^S^ phatak. 

Glass, 41^ shls?ia, ^^ kanch. 

Talk, Mica, ^^1 aftrai^: or (Jj^l aftroA, jit toZA, JJfyb horal, Jj;^ 

Arsenic, >0 ij zarmldh^ jUl \ |»«s sammvA-far. 
Orpiment, -Vi^jij zamtkhj Jl^ hartaL 
CiDoabar, Vermilion, cJ^Ji-l shangarf, jt^j*^ dardar. 
Blue Vitriol, Tutty, Ljy ^5%5. 
Naphtha, Bitumen, iaiJ nq/][ or laA) ni/l. 

Red Earth or Ochre, jj^gerii. 

Annenian Bole, yj^)^ J^ giU armanty ^JU ^y^ mttZ^ant matti*^ 

Natron, ^i5-» «ayi. 

!ZVecs, Shrubs, Plants, and Herbs. 
Tree, u:^j4> daraldit,^^^peT (f.), -^ifgacAA, (dakh.) J^-jA5r. 
Shrub, jVrjAar, \5^ huta, ^^^jhafi. 
Plant, Herb, CJ\J nabat (f.). 
Oak, i? Ji^ balut. 
Chesnut, LjL 2(l2i sliah balut. 
Cypress, Cedar, ^^ «art?. 
Pine, YiTfji^ §anaubar. 
WiUow, JLJ Jcrf (f.). 
Poplar or Plane Tree, jU>* chanar. 
Teak tree, Tectona grandis, ^f\^ sagaun (f.) or ^;|y L ^agtran (f.). 
Bassia latifolia, \y^ mahVa. 

Trees, foreign to India; and, 
bearing foreign names. 

100 Vocabulary. ^^Nouns. 

Mesua ferrea,^;--^ tS/U ndg-kesar. 

Nauclea orientaliB, |*J^ kadam or l-^v««>^ kadamb, 

Xanthyocymus pictorius, JUj tamdL 

Dalbergia Sisu^ %m0^ sisu, 

Lagerstroemia regina or Flos regina, Roxb, Jfj^jiral. 

Mango tree, Mangifera Indica, /b\ am^ S-^^ ^^^' 
Embryopteris glutinifera, Roxb. l^^ gab. 
Melia Azedirachta, aJ mniy l-^-^v^J nlmb. 

Melia sempervirens, (^^ bakayan, 

Michelia Champaca, ^^;'T~ champak, 

9 O 

Cratseva Tapia, or Capparis trifoliata, ^^ barun, \jjf bama, 
Amyris Agallocha, JS^ gugaL 

9 9 

Mimosa Arabica, J^ babul ({,)fj^^ babur (O 

W* / 9 . 

Mimosa natans, ls^^J ruthnJ, ^ W Iqjalu. 

Mimosa pudica,jILr Iqjalu. 

Mimosa scandens, iS geld. 
Mimosa Seris, c^r^ siris. 

Mimosa Suma, ^^^^^^ samt. 


Dillenia Indica, \sl>* chalta. 
Echytes caryophyllata, lJ^^ mdlath 
Shorea robusta, JL» sal, ^}\J^ shaL 


Ficus glomerata,^;«^Jl udumbar. 

Ficus GxjXemfJf gular (f.). 
Ficus Indica, c^ batj J) bar. 
Ficus religiosa, J^ ptpaL 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 101 

Picas venosa (or infectoria), J^ pakar. 
Zizyphus Jujuba, ^jj^ berl, 

Laurus Cassia^ Cassia or wild Cinnamon^ ^ teg. 

Salvadora Persica (also^ in the Dakh. Careya arborea); jLj pilu. 

Mimusops Elengi, v4j»^y^ mauharu 

Mimusops Kauki, yjj$ khimi. 


Cedrela Toona, ^ tun, or ^y tun. 

Celastrus (staff-tree) ^jS:J][< malkangnt. 

Morinda citrifblia, J I al. 

Urarialongifoliaij^JcjJ dsbdar, j^^^j^^ devdaru, (^i|L>1 asog. 

Webera tetrandra, \j\^ kara. 

Butea frondosa, (jJL paHs, C/Uj dhak, 

Tamarix Indica,^ l^ jhSu. 

Acanthus ilicifolius^ c::^^ harkat. 

Terminalia alata or glabra, ^^J^ arjun. 
Terminalia alata or tomentosa^ ^T asan. 
Terminalia Belerica, Beleric Mj^obolan, tj^ bahera. 
Phoenix sylvestris, wild D^te^jyeP khajur. 


Justicia Adhatoda, {jmj^ arus. 
Justicia GandaruBsa, C/^^ bakas. 


Justicia nasuta, ^^ u^^ palakjuhu 
Achyranthes aspera, b?t/?" chirchira, lj\i T agara. 
Tamarindus Indica, _U1 imH, \jj^ tintifi. 


iEgle Marmelos, u-^ bilb. 
.Sschynomene paludosa, S^ shola. 


102 Vocabulary Nouns. 

^schynomene Sesban, k^-^ jaiU 


Hyperanthera Morunga, IxsrV** salutjna, ^Jj ban. 

Jack fruit tree, Artocarpus integrifolia, J^ kafhal. 

Chironjia sapiday ^^efj^ chironjlj JIj piyal. 

Plantain or Banana tree, Musa sapientum, Wj/e nu>ch^j ^ kela. 

Bombax heptaphyllum, J^^^^r* ^^^ol, J^^ sembaL 

Bauhinia variegata, J^ kachnar^ J^^ kachnal. 

Palm or Toddy tree, Borassus flabelliformis, jt? ^af* J^J^ haUar. 

Pinus longifolia, (^ saral. 

Sappan wood, Csesalpinia Sappan, *i; bakam. 

Papaw tree, Carica Papaya, ImJ papaiya. 
Cane, Ratan, Calamus Rotang, u:.^ &e^ (f.)* 
Creeper, J-j 6eZ (f.), U /a^a (f.). 

Agrostis linearis, c^ J du ft, |^«:^ janewa. 
Alangium hexapetalum, J^ akol. 

Aloe perfoliata, jiyL^g^iftuti^ar. 

Alpinia Gkdanga, Galangal, ^lacihsL kholinjan. 

Andropogon muricatum, ^^mS- khas (f.)> jr^^ tt^r(f.)* 
Anethum Sowa, Fennel, Sy^ so^a. 
Annona squamosa, ciT at. 

Argemone Mexicana, Julf^^ij bharbkand. 


Artemisia vulgaris, \^jf^ marVa. 
Arum campanulatum, J^l o/. 

Arum Colocasia, i^«;1 artrt, ^ kachchu. 
Anmdo tibialis, iS^ji narkat. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns* 103 

Aflclepias gigantea, Swallow-wort, cl^l ark^ JJ^ akwand, 
Asdepias rosea, ^J^y^ dudht. 


Barleria longifolia, Ul|C« JU ^aZ moAAana. 
Boerhavia diffusa, \jjy Uj^ gddha-purna. 


Bryonia grandis, Linn,, Momordica monodelpha, Roxb., Cg^ &tmi* 

Callicarpa Americana, |^i«J bastara. 

Cannabis sativa, Hemp plant, \^^ gO'Tyha, CL^^ bhang. 

Carissa Carandas, Corinda or Caronda, ^JJj^ karonda. 

Cassia alata, ^;«>/« «^^«3 dad-mardan. 

Cassia fistula, ^^liiLel amaltas. 

Cassia Tora, f«3J>yl>> ckakaunda, (or obtusifolia?) jlyj ^antrar. 

Cassia Sophera, ^^djy^ kasaundt. 

Chrysanthemum Indicum, (^^'^4> J^ gaVirdJXiiidi. 

Cissus quadrangularis, ^j^j^ har^ora. 
Cleome yisco6a,^^ib^ hurhur. 
Clitoria tematea, ^^^^J^} aparajita. 
Cordia latifolia, \jyJ \^ bafa lasora. 
Cordia Myxa, \jyJ Ui^a. 

o 00/ 

Crinum Asiaticum and Zeylanicum, ^^j^ sukhdarsan. 
Crotalaria juncea, ^ san (whence, a kind of flax). 


Cucumis Colocynthis, ^j!}j*^\ indrayan. 

Cucumis Madraspatanus, JCi^ send (£.)• 
Cucumis momordica, y^^^phufiy iJby^^'phui (,f.) 
Cucumus satiyus, ^^^ kKira. 

104 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Cucumis utilissimus, s^)^ kakfi. 

9 O 

Cucurbita citrullus, J^ tarhuz. 
Cucurbita lagenaria, ^J^ kaddu, \t^ ghij/a. 
Cucurbita Melopepo, jJ^ i<^^ mithl kaddu. 
Cucurbita Pepo, ^J^ kadima, U^ kamrha. 

Curcuma reclinata or Zerumbet^ j^ kachur. 
Curcuma Zedoaria^ L/**i^ nirbui, j|;J^ jadwar. 

Curcuma Zerumbet^ ^Vl;J ^rurumftaJ, j^ kachur. 
Cuscuta reflexa, Air plant or Dodder^ ^ {j>^ \ akas-pawan. 

Cyperus pertenuis or juncifolius, If^e ^\j nugar-motha. 
Cyperus rotundus, \^yo motha. 

tA*? U*9 

DolichoB biflorus (kind of pulse), .^^ kurthi or t<fJ^ kultht. 
Dolichos pruriens (Cowitch or Cowach), ^|/ kiwanch or ^1^ 

Dolichos Sinensis (kind of bean), \jji Rbiya. 

O 9 

Echinops echinatus, Globe thistle, \JSi katara or \J3^ {JL^^\ unt- 

Echites caryophillata, JU malatu 


Eclipta prostrata, p|/^ bhringraj. 
ElsBocarpus serratus, i^^^jalpdl. 


Epidendrum tessellatum, Mistletoe, !jJU banda, !«x:j banda, \I:j 


Euphorbia antiquorum, ax^ sehund, |;lftjj tidhara. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 105 


Euphorbia hirta and thymifolia, i^'^*^ duddhi. 


Euphorbia neriifolia, ^^ thuhar, 

Euryale ferox, Ul^Ce makhana. 

Feronia elephantum, ^^^ kait. 

Flacourtia cataphractai SUj paniyala. 

Gsrtnera racemosa, \s!ybjU madhdlata, ^ ^^^ ma/fi /a^a. 

Gardenia florida, .^y^J^ gandhrqj. 


Gardenia latifolia, VjA^ papra. 

Gofisypium herbaceum. Cotton plant, u^^ kapas. 

Grrewia Asiatica, Ul^^Aa2sa. 

Grislea tomentosa, srl^^^ dhari. 

Hedysanim Alhagi, Ls|^jatoaja. 

Helianthus annuus. Sunflower, 15^ TJ^^ suraj-mukhu 

Helicteres Isora, ^J^ j^j^ mardr-phali. 

Hibiscus Phoeniceus, ^ \^*^^ sadasuhagan. 

Hibiscus Popukieoides, J^ ^^U paras-ptpaL 

Jasminum auriculatum, \^f^fi^- 

Jasminum grandiflorum, great flowered jasmine, ^W" jO'd* 

Jasminum Zambac, ILj htla. 

Jatropha Curcas, ^ Jcj ij bagrendt. 

Jonesia Asoca, C^yA a^ok or Ci^l ashok. 

Ixora undulata, jJ^^ (.l^U palak-juhl. 

Kaempferia rotunda, Li>- ^j^ ftAun-cAampa. 
Lawsonia inermis, 4^>Xf.^< menA^, Lf>- ^inna (f.)« 

106 Vocabulary. — Nouns* 

Linum usitatissimum, 15*^^ atasiy ^<«<tJ tisi. 

LufTa acutangula, ^xU;^^ jhlnga, 

LufFa pentandra^ 4^ ^^ \^ ghiya-tora^, 

Lycopodium imbricatum, ^jy^ V^ hdtka-jdrJ, 

Menispermum glabrum, ^^ gurch (f.), ^JS gurach^ jL giZatt. 

Menispermum hirsutum, ^y iSy^farld-bufi. 

M enyanthes Indica or cristata, ^^^ kamodinl (or kamodant). 

Momordica Charantiay Ib^ karela. 

Myrtle (Myrtus communis) ^^T & (in Arab.), J^ mure? (Gilch.). 

Nelumbium Speciosum, Lotus^ aJj padatn, J^ kamal^ Jy^ kaiiwal, 

Nerium odorum, sweet scented Rosebay,^^ kaner (f.), J-i^iancZ (f.). 
Nerium oleander^ Oleander or Rosebay, ^j^jj^ khar-zahra. 
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, jUjl^L^ singdr-har. 

. Cp 

Nymphsea Lotus, i^S kol, j^jtijU sdrang,ji^ nllofar, J-iS^ kamalf 

J^ kanwal, ,^\ ambuj. 
Ocimum basilicum, sweet Basil, aj^ sabza, 1^}^ sabzu 

9 c 

Ocimum pilosum, \^ja marVd^ \^^^J rxhan^ yjU 71^2:60. 

Ocimum sanctum, ^c-i^ tulAy IjJ^ Irinda, ^^J^ ^^ kali tulsl 

Oldenlandia biflora, |^b uu^ pit-paprd, XjJ yll shdh-tara. 

Orange tree, )b^ kaurild. 

Origanum Majorana, Ij^ martra (?). 

Ovieda verticillata, ^iia ^^b bamdn-hatti. 

Pedalium murex, f^y J^ 6ar5 gokhru. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 107 

^ . - 

Phamaceum MoUugo^ U^ gfima. 

Phyllanthos Emblica, Emblic Myrobalan^ lL«l amla. 

Physalis flexuosa, 2fJcJL»1 asgandh. 

Piper Belle, Betel plant, J*; <«/l3 nag-beL 

Piper Cubeba, Cubebs, i^i-^ mV^ kdbdb chtnt, ij\J kababa. 

Piper longum, long pepper, J^ plpal, ^ pipit. 
Plumbago Zeylanica, l::^^^ chitta. 


Poa Cynosuroides, ^ Aw A, c-^l J d5& (f.). 
Pteris lanulata, ^^L&^L*^ parisiyawashan. 

9 '-9 

Rhus coriaria, jU.«» ^maA (prop. jUmj ^mmaA). 

c c c ^ 

Ridnus communis, JJ^l arandy JJ\ a?!^, i^^j rendi, JJ^ raTz^. 
Rosa Chinensis, c,.> ^ ^2^ kathgulab. 

9 jjO 

Rottlera Indica,^l<Xjp{nfifaZu. 

Rubia Manjith, -^SLat* majlth (f.), lI^^cU wian/if (f.)- 

/CO . 

Ruellia longifolia,^^jS goMrif. 


Rumex vesicarius, ^^ chuka. 

9 9 99 

Saccharum cylindricum, j!( ulu^ ^j[ ulu (f.). 
Saccharum Munja, ^j^ mun;. 
Saccharum officinarum, ^^\ ukh. 
Saccharum procerum, C-^ «m9 sarpat, 

CO oo 

Saccharum Sara, jM» $ar, I^Sxm*) jr^n^Aa, ^f2:iy>> senthi. 


Santalum album, Sandal wood or tree, ^tX:^^^ chandan, 
Serratula anthelmintica, |<f^ bakcht. 
Sesamum orientate, JJ tiL 

108 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Sinapis dichotoma, a species of mustard, \j!^j^ sarson. 
Solanum Jacquini, v^ IS^ iJU^J bkat-katSl. 

Solanum melongena, ^?lo baingan, ^^ baigan. 
Solanum nigrum^ Nightshade, ^U ma/co, i^)^^ tuUdun. 

Sonchus, ^|/«^ kamrqj. 
Sphaeranthus Indicus, h^i>^^ mundi. 

Strychnos nux-vomica, )Lsr kuchla. 

Symplocas racemosa, 2rj^ todh. 
Thymus, Thyme, jV>\ ipar. 

Trapa natans, \j\^La singhara. 


Trianthema pentandra, \j^ ^ bis-khapra. 

Trichosanthes dioica, jj^ parwar, J^ palwal. 
Trigonella foenugraecum, ,<^SL« me^Ai. 


Trophis aspera, Ij^ sPora. 

CO o ^ 

Typha (a species?), ^d^^ gondnt : (elephantina) 5lSy5 hugla. 

Valeriana Jatamansi, Spikenard, ^^-^^ or ,<^U) \:x»^ Ja^a-mo^i or-manjrt. 
Vallisneria spiralis or octandra, j\y^ Biwar. 
Vangueria spinosa, ^Xe madan. 


Verbesina prostrata or scandens, *^fijii bhringrajy \^xu^ bhangra. 

CO 9 

Vitex Negundo, i<5\;J^^ indrant, jJU«» samaZii. 
Vitex trifolia, ji\A^ samalu. 


Volkameria infortunata, ci^\^ ft^an^ 

c o 

Urtica interrupta, stinging Nettle, Ijlfo^ bichhata, Hjb^ anjira (?). 
Xanthium Indicum, ];^l^ ghaghra. 

Vocabulary* — Nouns. 109 

Esculent Roots and Vegetables. 

9 ^ 

Potato^ j! \ alu. 

Yam^jjT aluj ^j ratalu. 

Sweet Potato, Jci jLJ^ shakar-kand. 

Tunup, J(LS» shalgham. 
Carrotj^t gajar (f.)- 
Radish, ^^ muR. 

Onion, jIj ;?iyaar (f.), \S)^ kanda(j), J^ basal {(.), \^ gattha. 

Leek, UjcTgandana. 
Garlick, ^^jm^ lahsan^ji^ sir. 

Beet, ljk:»:s?" chichtTida, j«3^:^ chukundur. 
Ginger in the undried state, vi^Jl adrttk. 
A Vegetable, i^l^ tarkaru 

Egg-plant, ^jXj baigan, ^^^Lj baingan, l53l^ bhanta. 
Greens, t«/L sag or d^b v*/Li sag-pat, ^^\ii bkaji. 

Cabbage, K ^ karam-kalla, ^^ kobl. 
Cauliflower, ^f J^ phul-kobt. 
Cucumber, L^ Htra. 

Gourd, Pumpkin, ^J^ X;a£?tf. 
Pea,yU matar, (dakh.) Ul2b batana. 

Bean, llib bakla. 

Kind of bean (Dolichos Sinensis) Lj^ lobiyd. 

Spinage, ui3U palak. 

Mint, ^4>^ podina. 

1 10 Vocabuhry. — Nouns* 

9 O 

Parsley, ^y^J>-\ ajmud, 

Endiye, ^J^^ kasnt, bJcJb hindba. 


Lettuce (Lactaca sativa) ^\^ kahu. 

Portulaca oleracea, Purslain, UjJ Zow5, L)^ lonij/a, \Jy noniya, ^*^^ 


kandR, ti^ khurfa. 


Cresses (garden), C^ 2^^ tara^t€zak,j>mij>- chansuVj Jlft halim. 
Cresses (water), U5^ tijJ tot-putiyajj^^^d de'dkandar. 


Arum campanulatum (root), ^^^ ^ran. 
Arum Colocasia (root), jJLsr kachaluj ^Jiy^ ghoyan. 
Amaranthus Gangeticus, ^L» J) lal-sag. 
Amaranthus oleraceus, l^ marsa, 
Amaranthus polygamus, i/^^ chauWi. 
Basella alba and nigra, 4^^ jpo'e. 
Chenopodium album, Ijfu hathVa. 
Convolvulus repens, ^-4!^ kalmt, 

Dioscorea fasciculata (root of), i^y^ suthm. 

DoUchos Sinensis (kind of bean from), UjjI tobiyUf ^])j rawans. 

Hibiscus esculentus, i/J^ bhindt, ^jj m\j ram-tura^. 


Hyperanthera morunga (the root used for horseradish), \t>^C^ zahajna, 
Lathyrus sativus, \^}^ kisari. 

^ X 

Althea rosea, L»e>- l]^ gtd'irkhaira. 

Vocabulary. '■^Nouns. Ill 

Bassialatifolia (flowers of), ^^^^ J^ gul chikan. 


Chandnl, i^*^^ • 

Chrysanthemum Indicum, t^t^j^*^ f^ gulri-dffudi. 

Clitorea tematea, {j/^^aV |^ katowa^thenthi. 

Cockscomb flower, Amaranthus cruentus, ^JlJ^ gul-ktshj ^^j^ -^-^ 

Globe Amaranth, Gomphrena globosa, J^ir* J^ guUi-makhmaL 

Hibiscus mutabilis, \^\s^ JT guIrirSja'ib. 

Hibiscus rosa Sinensis, \^jawa. 

Hibiscus Syriacus, Jjb^ gurkaL 

Impatiens Balsamina, 4^«^^^ ^^ gul-mihudl. 

Jasmine, ^o^i^V yasmin or ^i^^i^lt yasmin. 


Jasmine (white), a lily or an Iris (?), jpjj zamhak. 
Jasmine (a sort of), b/ji\^ niwafi, 


Jasminum auriculatum, yj^fr j^^^* 
Jasminum grandiflorum, ^X^fi^^ chambeU. 

Jasminum multiflorum or pubescens, )U ^ kath-beG. 
Jasminum Zambac, J^ bel. 
Jasminum Zambac, var. fi, \Jjyo motiya. 

Jasminum Zambac, var. y, \fyc mogra, 


Kapur.j^ . 

Lily, ^ya sSsan (f.), (of the valley) ^^4,^ saman. 

Linum trigynum, i,^/J^jafariy ^A^ J^ guU-ashrafi* 
Madan ban, ^b ^J^ • 


1 12 Vocabulary.^Noufis. 

Mango-tree (blossom of), j^ maur. 
Marigold, \di^ genda. 
Michelia Champaca, L^ champa. 
Mimusops Elengi, t^j^y maulsari. 

Mirabilis Jalapa, Marvel of Peru, (jJ^ J^ gulrirabbas. 


Nafarman, ^J^ji^ . 

Narcissus, Narcissus Tagetes, ^jSy nargis {(,), i^ ^y nargis-u 


Nelumbium speciosum, Lotus, aJj padamy J^ kamal^ Jy;^ kanwal. 
Nerium odorum, sweet-scented Rosebay,^^ kaner(j.), J^ kanel (f.). 
Nerium Oleander, common Rosebay or Oleander, ^[;^^ khar zahra, 
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, j\x;«^ harsingar or juL^U Iiarsingar. 

Nympheea Lotus, ^^'^ /ro'e, J^ kanwal, {^S^J^ sarang, j^j^ ritlofar. 
Pandanus odoratissimus, \jy^ kVora, yS^ ketakh 

Pantapetes Phoenicea, ^j^*^ dupahriya. 

Plumeria, ^^;:*>*^ gulrochin. 

Poinciana pulcherrima, t^ ^^ gul-irturra. 

Polianthes tuberosa, ^ ^^ guUi shaMo, or y u-^ shab-bo. 

RaHe-btl, J-J ,^^j . 

Ratanrtnala, Ho ^Jtj . 

Ratanrtnanjarij ^J^^ ij^j • 

Rosa centifolia, uJi^ gulab, iJ^ guL 

Rosa chinensis, t^^^ katkgulab. 

Rosa glandulifera, ^^ se^dity (^fji J^ sad-barg, ^;j2«J nastaran. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 1 1 3 

White Rose of India, Rosa glandulifera (?), c^r^ nastaran^ ^^j^ 


Sinapis ramosa, uJtM^ sari^n. 

Sunflower, Helianihus annuus, ic^ '^^ surc^mukKi. 

Tagetes patula, L^ji^ ^^ gul-ija^fart. 

Tulip, £i ma, JiUA shaifffi' 

Vinca rosea, (^i^ J) gtc/-i farang. 

Violet, <Cli:j banafsha (f.)- 

Zizyphus Jujuba (flower of), i/jf ^ khichfi. 


Mango, aT am, ^m^\ Smb. 

Plantain (fruit), ]L^ /r«/a, ^ J^ kadati, jyo mauz. 

Custard apple, J^ Is^ sttorpbalf \j\ atd, ^J^ sharifa. 

Annona reticulata (fruit of), l3j) tona, \jy nona. 

Jack fruit, J^ kathaL 

Barhal, Jfcji . 

Rose apple, ^;^^- jaman. 

Hog Plum, 'y«l amra. 

Guava, tiJ>jj^' amrutf a\ ^^g^ «a/ri 5m. 

Date, ^^Vy^ cAAnAara, U^ Miurma. 
PomegWMaate, jW anoTyJj nar, ^^J darim. 

Pineapple, (jJ^\ anannas. 
Cocoa-nut Jj lU nariyal, J-ft-;l3 nar/i 


] 14 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Lemon or Lime, ^ ZtmS, ^JkJ ntmbu. 

Grange, f^Jj narangt, ^Jo ndranj, J^ kauld or hjf kaurUa, xjSi^ 

Citron, ^Jt turunj, Juf galgaly \j^ kama. 
Pompelmoose, Shaddock, ^j^ chakotara. 


Grape^ jijxil a^igiir) c, -^'^c tnai. 

Mulberry, c:^;:^^ shahtut, CL>f tut. 

Musk Melon, ifj^J/^ U^rbuza, JUsj- jamati, .^Ja^ HtGMi. 

Water Melon, J^ farftfi^r. 

Kind of Melon (Cucumis Momordica), ^^^ |iA«/i, ti^ jpAiif. 

Gourd (Cucurbita Pepo) \i^^ kamrahiy Ujj^ kondka. 
Gourd (Cucurbita lagenaria), j J^^ Xratffi, or jJ^ kaddu, l^^ 2att/ra. 
Gourd (of uncertain species), l^ pethd, j^j> parwar, (j^y>>^ 

Apple, c,i>%y>rf ^d&, j^ «ev. 
Pear, ^L«2»l3 nashpatt. 


Quince, ^^ JiAt, ^ ftiA, Js^^^ safarjal. 

Peach, jllaiA shaftalujj^ aruj )}s^,^\ alurlulchara, 

9 fc 

Apricot, jiT i^jj zard alu. 
Cherry, j!T i\L shah alu. 
Almond, |*bb badam, Jj) /au2r. 
Olive, ^^jw| zaitun, ^ U^ jalpa*l. 

Betel nut, from Areca Catechu, t^V^ «upari. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 1 IS 

Cashew nut, fruit of Anacardium orientale, j^-^ kyu. 
'Suijys^jauz. Filbert, ^^findulc (f.). Pistachio, <!a--J pista. 

Tamarind, «^«XJb yiJ tomr-i j&in^. 
- ^ • ^ 

Emblic Myrobalan, JUT amJA. 

' n ** 

Rottlera Indica (fruit of), j!\«\:j pinddlu. 
Scytalia Litchi (fruit of), (<^ ZicAi. 

VaDgueria spinosa (fruit of), J^ ^^^ main-phaL 
Jujube, Zizyphus Jujuba (fruit),^ ber. 

Phyllanthus Cheramela (fruit of), s^jij^y^ AarpAare'on. 

Cordia Myxa (fruit of), \j^ lasora. 

Cordia latifolia (fruit of), \j^ \ji bara lasora. 

Averrhoa Carambola (fruit of), ^j^ kamrakh. 

Mimusops Kauki (fruit of), tJj^ khirm. 

Chironjia sapida (nut of), iff'^J^- chironjji, 
Flacourtia cataphracta (fruit of), Sloj panit/ala. 

CrrainSy Seeds, 
Rice (in the husk), ^libJ dhan. 

Rice (cleared of the husk), Jy^ chatiwal, ^ birinj, JiJ tanduL 
Wheat, (^j^ gcAfin, |«Jad gandum, (dakh.) i^y^^ ghyaun. 
Barley, ^Jaa. 

CO <^ 

Holcus Soighum,^1^jo'ar, j^jJ^JflMwrfri, (dakh. also) i^j^jiurtj 

-/ o ^ 

Maize, Zea Mays, Indian com, l!l^ bhutta, ijj^ kukri, (dakh.) 
t^W iL« makkijaru 

y' ^T • 

116 Vocabulary JVauns. 

Magee, Elusine Coracana^ \^ manru'Oy or k^j)i^ manrul, (dakh. 
TEL.) ^\j ragi. 

Millett (kind of), Panicum Italicum, Uj^ chena, ^^J^ kangiUy 

(dakh.) 1\j rala. 
Millett (kind of), Panicum colonum, Uli shdmd. 


Millett (kind of), Panicum frumentaceum, \yL$ sanwa, UIm* shama. 

Millett (kind of), Panicum miliaceum (?), U-j- chaina. 

Millett (kind of), Panicum piloBum, ^jj\ arzan. 

Millett (kind of), Panicum spicatum, \j>Xi bqjra, ]^ laharra. 

Pulse, Vetches, Jb dal. 

Vetches, Lentils, -^^ moth. 

Vetch or Pulse, ^^,;m^ fwcwin. 

Pulse (kind of), Ervum hirsutum, j^-i^ mamr. 

Pulse (kind of), Cicer arietinum, U^ cAa»a. 

Pulse (kind of), Phaseolus Mungo, vSio^ mung (f.). 

Vetch (kind of), Phaseolus radiatus, ^U mash. 

Vetch (kind of), Dolichos biflorus, ^j^ kultht, ^J kurthJ. 


Vetch (kind of), Vicia sativa, ^L\ ankri. 

— > 

Coriander seed, Lj^J dhaniya^W.tiS kishmz. 

• X 

Cumin seed, ^j zira, ]j^jtra, ^^ kammun. 
Anise seed, \^y^\ amsan^ \^yA saunf (f.). 
Cardamoms, ,-^Sl ilacKt, ^lilS kakula. 

T^ ^ " 

Serratula anthelmintica (seed of), ^)/«%«> somraj* 
Sinapis ramosa (seed of), lS \j ral. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 117 

Food in general for Animals. 
Grass, Hay, Straw, (jA^ ghas (f.), ^^ giyah (f.). 

• o 

Leaf, ^^patS, ^js^^. banaspattt, {^jf barg. 

Root, 1^ kand, j)T a/&. 

Flower, Jjfj j>At«Z, JT gttZ. 

Fruit, (Ji^ pAaZ, 2[^ mewaf iSS^ fawakih. 

Grain, Com, ali ghaUa. ^l3l ana;, ^1 J ciana. 

Milk, J^J^J eS<<fA, j-J* shtr,j^^ chhtr, ^jf go-ras. 

Honey, Jl^ shahd, J«»& a^a/, JbXc madh. 

Sugar, ^C«« shakar (f.). 

Insects, Reptiles, Grubs, Worms, v,^^ Aire, i^jj^ ^5^ A:ire makore. 

Fish, . J^^K* machhR. 


Fowl, 2rjJy parandayj^\^janwar. 

Flesh, ^^U manSy ^^U ma«, k^^^ gosht. 

Wormsy Reptiles, Insects, Spiders* 


Worm, Grub, Ma^ot, Reptile, Insect, \j^ kira, ^^ kirm, \j/^ \^ 
kira makora. 


Earth-worm, \fSxS kenchwa. 

Small Worm, ulJU^ kirmak, \j^ kira. 

Snail, Ixl^ gkonga, \LA ainta. 

'" f ^ 

Leech, CSi^ jonk (f.), ji]j zalu (f.), ^^ jalauka (f.). 

Snake, Serpent, u^l>oi samp. 

Kmd of Snake, ^Llyb^ gohuna, u:-^.^ karait, jy^ dowr, ^Ij^ cIAa- 

min, y \^ sunkatar, f^jji barwat (f ). 

118 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Boa constrictor^ ^»\ ojgor* 
Coluber Naja, v^U nog. 

Dragon, jiij\ azhdar, \ibjj\ azhdaliu. 

Viper, i-*il af^ (ni.)> u^L» «amp, ^«/l5 «5g. 

o o c 

Lizard, ^M;i'^ chhipkaliy <uUl>> chilpasa, ^S^^ girgiL 
Tortoise, f^fs^ kachkffay Ub bakha, ui.'^Ij ig,^- * sang-pusht 

of o 

Crocodile, Ji^J^ ghariyal, jff^ kumhtrf (^it:y niAawg. 
Alligator, ^;X« magar, »\f grah, -fss^jCo fnagar^machh, ifi^ gok. 
Chameleon, ^Jl^ girgit, f^y^y bukalamun. 
Frog, (^JCm^ mendak or nienduk, ^ j1 J daduTy iSJ^ ghuk. 

P O 9 

Toad, jK^jP *i|S^ kath'birukt, tl$lc gAufe. 

Salamander (fabulous inhabitant of fire), j4XX4»«9 samandar. 

Centipede, ];^j?^^ hankhajuraj ^f gojar. 

Beetle, ^<^j^y gobarbnda, \jjjS gubrauta. 
Fire-fly, Glowworm, ^^J^^jugni. 

Grasshopper, Iju ^idtfa, Ix^^f) phanga. 

Locust, t^j5 ^t^, 4/*\y firfi, til-S /In, jl^ jar ad. 

Bug, i}A5^ khatmal, \jJ^^ kaihrktra^ l[l:J ntnaya. 


Bug (green), ^'^ gandhh 

Cricket, J:^jhtngur, J^ jhilti. 

Mole Cricket, Gryllus gryllotalpa, \j^j^ ghurghura. 

Butterfly, i^ji^ tttrt, *j|jy partoana. 

Moth, l^ojj patangd, ^|j/ parwana. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns, 1 19 

Caterpfllar^ ^^(^"^^ jhanjha, \^ Idra, 


Silkworm^ m^ cI^Ij pat-kirm, A^j a>S Mrm-i-pela, 

Hornet, j^J zambur, (dakh.) 4j?5^*> dikofi: see Wasp. 

Wasp, J^ birnz,j> barr (f.), IjJb hadda. 

Bee (honey), ^<^U* mttma&Ai or ^^Ujb Jt« madhumakht, ^j^ *Xy-Si 

shakd'tnakkAt or ,^5^^ ^ <3^ ^AaA^f X:I makkhu 
Bee (humble or large black), jX rfJ bhringi. 
Bee (large black), jju^^ bhanwar or [^y-H bhanwra or |;J>^ bhaunray 

iJt aZt, iSj^jH bhring. 


Ant, Pismire, j^ mor, ^Jaj naml. 

Ant (black), l53^-^ chyunta, (large) tlil?J 1^?^*^ (small) ^<3^-^ 

Ant (large), ^^ chunta, \j^ makora, (dakh.) ]j^^ makliora. 

Ant (small), . cS3^>. cAunft, . Jbi.^^ cAInft. 

Ant (white), tlXw J rfiwiaA: (f.), Cili4> rfiiraA (f.). 

^y> i5^ makkKij \jS^ magas (f.). 

Gadfly or large Mosquito, (^1j£fan^,(dakh. gadfly) i<^W gomacAt. 

Mosquito, Gnat, Midge,^;^^ machchhar, ^JLj pashskaj ^Jc^ kutkt. 

Midge (that flies into the eyes at night), fjf^ «^T ankh-phbra. 

Ix)use, ^^jun (f)fj^ chillar (f.). Lice, ^jiyr ju'en^ &c. 

Nit, ^ ZiAA, (f.). 

Flea, ^ j7i«^, ^^ psAfi, clC^ XratA. 

Weevil (small insect in rice, com, &c.), ljuj-» mnda^ ^jH P'^^* 

120 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

c c 

SpideFi k/f^ makfi, ljC« makra. 

Scorpion, jfs^ lichchuj d^js^ji brischikj ^^ kazhdum. 

Fisb, yj^fs^ machhii, ^^54^^ tnachchii, ^J^^ maht, ^^ 

hut (f.). 
£el, fX) bam. 


Mango fish, Polynemus paradiseus, ^J^ff^ 

uc /o 


Bikti, ^e^ ftAiWAi . 

Species of Herring, Clupea alosa, Ujb hilsa (f.). 

Species of Herring, Clupea cultrata, \j^ chaltca. 
Cyprinus denticulatus, ^j rohu ((.). 
A species of Silurus, yc^ tengra. 
Silurus pelorius, i^^ maguri. 

Silurus pungentissimus, ^J^ £ngi. 

Silurus sagittatus, (^\mj pangas* 

Mullet, ^^jfejj parhin (f.). 

Porpoise, jUmi^ susmar, (j^y^ sus. 

Sprat, or fish resembling a sprat, \jfj^ khaira. 

Prawn or Shrimp, ^iL^^ jhlnga (f.). 

Crab, \^ kekra, ^^^gegta. 

Oyster, \jf^ kastura (f.). 

Muscle, \jJ \^ ,--*-» stpl ka kira {shell-worm). 

Vocabulary Nouns, 121 


PhcBnix (fabulous), Uft huma, iLf anka, ^j^m kukims. 

Griffin (fabulous), fy^^ simurgk. 

Eagle, c^Uc akab. 

Vulture, Jbii^ giddh, JbiXS gtdh, \jS^ kargas,j^ nasr. 

Falcon (species of), if^ jurra or ^/^jurra (male of jb haz). 
Falcon (royal white), ^^-Jbll shalnn. 
Falcon (female), jb haz. 

Falcon (Falco calidus), ^^^^ hahrx or i,^^;^^ ioAri. 
Hawk,j\j &az, 2r^ shikra^ y^ jhagar. 
Hawk (Falco cristatellus), ^f koht. 
Hawk (Falco fasciatus or dubius), ^P^ turmati. 

Hawk (Sparrow), l&b hashayS fjLyc mush-gtr. 
Kite (Falco Cheela), J->- cAiZ (f.), ^j zaghan (f.) 
Owl, j}f tt/Zti, <^ ulagh. |*^ tem, Jui>- chughd. l^ peckd. 

Sparrow, ^jS gauriya (f.)> ]/?* cAira, (hen) bji>. chiriya (f.), 
-* -^ *^ #' 

LaniuB Boulboul (Nightingale of Persia, kc,\ JJl^ bulbuL 
Turdus salica or Gracula religiosa (Moina), l^L sarika. 
Swallow, Jt^bl ababiL 


Swallow (Hirundo apus Batassia), ^ob^ supabina. 
Lark, ]^J^ bhadra, ^ agin, (Alauda Aggia) Lf 1 agiya. 
Starling (kind of), ^jU faro (f.). 
Raven, Ij^ ^J^^j^^^gti kawwa, |^ JJbJ dhar-kawwa. 

122 Vocabulary.'-^Nouns. 

^ 9 

Crow, \f kawwa, {^f^ kag, c^ljg ghurah. 
Rook, Jackdaw, \tf katvwa, v*/^ kag : see Crow. 
Coracias Bengalensis, -^Sbilj ml-kantk. 

Hoopoe, Upupa, JJ^JUb htLdhud^jA ^Ll shana-sar. 

Hornbill, Buceros, ^^;--iJb4> dhanes. 

Woodpecker, |J^ ^ A«?A:P%5, J^ ^ patthar-phdr. 

Cuckoo (the black or Indian), J(^ AoAi/ (f.), Sj l^oyal (f.), dio 

Cuculus castaneus, l^^^ mahokha. 

Cuculus melanoleucos, CSj\^ chatak. 

' ' ^ ' 

Parrot, Uy ^5^5, 1^ «5'5, ui^ sukj ^^ f 5(1, jjr^y nfin. 

Paroquet, y» «i'a, b^ ^ga^ ^^ tuft, ^^]J^ Juraman. 

•4/ c f c/ 

c/ c^ 

Domestic Hen, ^^ ftfiAri, ^^^£^ murghH. 
Peacock, j^ mdVy Jbji barlu, (^j \t iff us. 
Peahen, ^Jjy momh Peachick, hj^ mureld. 
Fowl, g^ murgh. ^^IA« makiyan. 
Turkey, ^j^ />er5, i^ JJ fiUmurgh. 
Pheasant, jjjjJ tadarv. 

Partridge (Perdix francolinus),^^ fitor, «^|;4> durraj. 
Partridge (unknown species), ^J^J durraj, {ISJ^ kabk. 
Quail (kind of. Perdix olivacea), J^sj hater. 
Quail (kind of. Perdix Chinensis), \^ lawa. 
Pigeon, Dove, c^^ kapot, \^y^ parewa,JyS kaJmtar. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 123 

Pigeon (green. Columba Hurriala), Jj^ hariyal* 
Pigeon (tumbler), UtXL« mandaliya. 

Ortolan (Emberiza hortulana ?) J-^ bargel, v,^;-^ pargiru 
Ostrichi fj^J^ shutur-muT gh . 


Sort of Bustard (Otis Bengalensis), Jy>- charz. 

Crane, ij.f'^^ kulang, ,^f kuttj : see Heron* 

Heron (Ardea torra and putea), 1^ bagla or 1^ bagula, CXi bak, 


jUbJ^ hu&mar. 
Heron (Ardea Antigone), (j^J^ saras. 
Heron (Ardea Argala), Adjutant Bird, 1^ harglla, ^j^^S^ khages, 

Heron (Ardea Indica), J^ W janghaL 
Bittern (Ardea stellaris), ^JJj yk>" chamar-bagU, ^U-J^ ftu^imar. 

Stork, (2JW 2ag2ag, jdi! fa^Zait. 

Sandpiper (Tringa Goensis, Lath.), ^^Ji taiiri, yJ/^ taithri. 

Waterfowl, l^^r^ mttrgAa&l, 

Coot or Diver, 15;^ panduhi. 

Flamingo, ^^^.Ub ^Ij ra;-^an£ (?)• 

Pelican, Ji^l^ hawa§il, (Pelecanus onocrotalus) ^ ^^ gagan-bher. 

Swan, ^^U Aa7t«, (^^-JJb -^'j raj^hans. 

Goose, Duck, ^j«jJb hans, )ai bat (f.)> J^ ^^* 
Gander, Drake, UaJ 5a/a,y jli ^a2r-Rar, 

Beast, ^1^:^ haiwan, if*^j^ ckaranda, y^ pasu. 


124 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Horse, \j^ gh^a, ^^ asp, u^jfaras. 

Mare, ijj^ghort, ^boU madiyan (f.), (dakh. also) ^;|^oU madwan. 

Foal, Filly, t^j^^ bachheri. 
Colt, \fi:^ bachhera, JCi^U norkand, s^ kurra. 
Pony, Galloway, ^b yabu,yS tattu, ^Jfi^ tanghan. 
Gelding, <ti^T dJAta, \Z^ kutiya. 

Mule,ysr^ khachchar, j:^\ astar. 

Ass, \sbS^ gadhay (she Ass) ^SSgadht,j>^ Muir, Ju^- himar. 

Wild Ass, Onager, Zebra, jo^j^ gor-khar. ^«J» J^ khar-irdashtl. 

Camel, lS^^I tin/, ^i^ shutur, jJ^\ ushtur. 

Camel (female), ^^j^ iinfwi, ^jJLsaTirfni, (dakh, also) ^Jj^ sarnt. 
Dromedaiy, ^JjLa sdndnz. 

Camelus Bactrianus (camel with two humps) U^^ do-koh-d. 
Stag, l^ sjo bdrak^ngdfjLiX^ kandsdr, \jjtb hamd. 

Elk, Moose, ^L» sdmbar, ^jjf gawazn : see Stag. 
Spotted Deer of India (Cervus axis), J:^-^ chitaL 

Deer, ^g^ wiirg, ^j^b haran,^ aAw, -Jl^ kdlihar. 


Buck, Hart, U^ Aanrn, ^^ Aaran. 
Doe, Hind, ^yb Aami. 

Fawn, \^^J^ hamautd, ij) yb\ dhvrbara, 

Camelopard, or Giraffe (from Arab. ii\jj zarrdfa), cliLb j\f gaio- 

Antelope, fjjJb haran, j;^^ chikdrd : see Deer. 

Antelope (painted or white-footed. Antilope picta), -^^ rojk. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 125 

Goat (Caper segagrus), \Jj bakra, (fem.) 4,^ bakriy J^^ chhagal, 
(dakb.) L^ chhela, (fem.) ^X;^ chhelt. 

Kid^ \:,A>^ memna, ^li^ buzghala. uV^ Taiwan. 

Sheep, J-f 6Aer (f.), Jc^^^ gospand (J.), jJ^ gadar (f.\ (dakh.) ]^ 


Ewe, J-i; bher (f.), t^^-f 6Aeri, (dakh.) ^/j bakri. 

Ram, Ujjm.« mendhd, \j^ bhera, ^jt^ mesh, (dakh.) \jL) bakra. 

Lamb, ^ ^ J^ ^^'^f ^^ bachcha, lU S/a, 2r^ &ara. 

Cow, ^^ gcTe (f.),^^gaw (f.), (cow or one of the cow kind) jT go. 

Bull, J:^ jJJt andu'bail, O^ barad, ^ y nar gaw^jy saur. 

Ox, Bollock, J^ baxl^ LibJJ badhiya. 


I CO o <> 

Calf, \^fa^ bachhra or |)f9c:; bachhra, l^b ftocAAa, (female) Lfa^ 

bacJihiya, (dakh.) ]jfU />af a, (fem.) 4^b j?ari. 
Hafer, jjl^ fta25r,y^^f o^r (f.). 
Steer, young bollock, ^b^O dohan, L^ khaila, 
Buffalo (male), L«:>g^» bhainsa, ICy^ maiAi/ca, ^JL^ ^ gaw^mcsh. 

Buffido (female), (j--2i^ 5Aatn« (f.), ^Xv!^« ntaiAtAi, (./t^^ j^ gauv 

Buffalo, (wild, male), Uj^ amay (female) ^^1 ami. 

Buffalo (calf), l*^ 'porK^ \^ kara, ]fiy^ sungra, ]JU para. 

Bos grunniens, Yak, v/« ^ sara-ga'e ox^ Zj^ sara-gffo. 

Hog (wild), Ljb^ ftarAeZS or Ljb^ barhela. 

Boar, Hog, j^^ ^'ar, 2r|^l; barah, lL.^<- khuk.^y^ sukar. 

Sow, i^^^ «i'ari. 

126 Vocabulary. ^^Nouns. 

Pig, \i:^gkefUa, (female) ^J^^i:^ ghSnfi : see Hog, Sow, 

Rhinoceros, 1 Jcjf gaimfa, ^J^ kargadan, 


Elephant, j<f>li^ hat hi (m«), (female) ,<:^ hathm, J^fiL 

Elephant (large) J^^ kuvjal, (small) \j«x^ kumedya* 
Hare, Rabbit, IXJ lamkand, lf*S lamha, (J^y /^ ^har-gosh, lib^ 

Porcupine, ^U saAt, J^L «aAt/, (j:*^ jU khar^ptisht. 

/ / /o 

Rat, Ijb^ cAuAa, L*^ mii^a, jJcj^ tndur. 

Bandicote Rat, Mus giganteus, Jffardw., ^y^ ghusj Lij^ ghusa* 

O f 9 

Musk Rat, Sorex cserulescens, jtSJjfsff" cAAucAAtinciar. 
Mouse, 15^^ cAuAi , ^Sj^y* musriy fJLyt mush. 

Squirrel, tjj^^ gilahri, j^C^ chlkhur, y^^j rukht, (dakh.), u?r!« 

giZiri (?). 
Cat, L 6iZ/5, (fem.) ^ KZfi, ^5b hUSo^ (fem.) j^ Tb giZat, Aj*/ garbay 

jl2si« man/ar, yU ntano, (dakh. also)^!^ Klawar. 
Kitten, taf^ l^ ^ hilU ka bachcha. 

Lion, .^Cn^ singh, sJjmS kesan, \Jy\f^ kehari, jJ^ sher, ^xJi asad. 
Lioness, ^ ii^ tL i dnghinlf ^j^^ sKervii. 
Tiger, -^ i^h,jj^ shcTyjfJ bahar^JbSj nahar. 
Tigress, ^;^b haghan or ^J*^, baghnl, L<i/*** «ASrnt. 

<^ /CO J. 

Tiger's Whelp, 3L|S baghelij j)jy\j danwru, (dakh.) j^ Mr (?). 

/ o 

Panther, tu>- cAi^a, J^ ywjy, ^s/ib palang. 


Leopard, Lynx, ^^JCwJ tendu'a, (^jcL palang, (small hunting) l:u^ 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 127 

Persian Lynx (Felis Caracal)^ err ^W ^yo^h-gosh. 
Ryenn, ^f girir, \^ lakrd, j\ii^ kaftar, 

9 - 

Ichneumon or Mongoose, ^J^, biji, y^j ram^ J^ ncwal, (dakh.) 

r - 

4^jx^ mungus. 

Dog, \i^ Aw^^a, J^^ kukar, (^A* «ag, ^^j^ tftran. 

Fox, ^5V»jJ /omrt, *Ujj roiaA (f.). 

Wolf, bj-iJ bheriya, ^JJS landga, i£f^ g'^'^gj ^'^^ hundar. 
Jackal, Jou> gtdar, JlL& shagKaL JL«> ^yaZ. 

Otter, ^ J^t &i-Mia'5,j«r^U maht-gir. 

Weasel, Ferret, Fitchat, Marten, J^ netra/, j->}; row. 

Polecat, (^\2|^ khatas, JSi katar. 

Bear, -fs^j ric/#A, Jl^ AAaZ, Jl^ bhalu, \j^^ khirs. 

Mole, jJJ^fs<^ chhuchhundar (which is the musk rat). 

Hedge-h(^, c:^^ j\p> khar-pushtf ,^»^ sinh. 

Bat, JjuX4b^ chamgtdar,jO\f badur, ^ u^ shab-para. 

Monkey, Ape,^tX:j bandar, (fem.) 4^«X^ bandri, ijjy^ bozna. 

9 J* 9 4^ 

Baboon, ^jm) iangfir, ^^^^im^ maimun: see Monkey. 

Man, human being, ^U minus, ^^^ adrnt, ^^jan, ^tJt tn«a9t, 

^^^ purush. 

Man (in opposition to woman), «3^ marcl. 

Man (servant), ^y naukdr,yj nafar. 

Woman, v^Joj randi, ^^jf' aurat, i^j^\ istrt, ^jU fra'i/po, ^J zan. 

1 28 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Old man, \jbj^ burhif j^j jjir, J^ shailA, (dakh. also) \tbSi bvddha. 

Old woman, l^ hurhiya (f.), ^J^ j't^-^z^ani (dakh. also) Uibjj hud- 

A£ya (f.), ^^, buddht or c^Jj budi. 
Young man, \^f^^ naujawan, ^jSgabru. 
Young woman, ^^ juvatif (^j^^ ftfi'ar? , i^^^)^ chhokri. 

■• ^ ^ ^ 

Maid, Virgin, ^b bakira, i^j^^ ku'arif ifji^y^ doshizay ^^jS koru 

y ^ ^ y 

Boy, Lad, 1^ ZarXca, );!^^^ chkokra, (servant) \^ji launda. 

Girl, ,^^ 2arA:t, i^^^^ ch/iokrt,ji^ti duMifar, (servant) v/Ou|^ laundi. 

Child, Babe, InfSEtnt, ^ bachchaf (fem.^ ^^yac:^ ^acAcAt, clj3l; balak, 

J«^ Sl^> •^jy far Zand. 
Giant, Jl J cianav, ^>^:^^/^ ^fi^t: see Tall, Big. 
Dwarf, U^ &a«na, (fem.) ^^ baunif Cl) nafa, (dakh.) jxu^ thengu. 

A Human being by relationship may be — 

Husband, ft^ai- Miasam, jbyit shauhar, ^^j zauj. 
Wife, jjj»-j'5rM, i^^j zauja (f.), ^j zan. 

Father, c-^b ftop, bb &a6a, )^b &atra, bj |}£^a. jJj pidar. 

Grandfather, (paternal) ^jlo dada, b^t a; a, (maternal) bl3 nanij Jc» 

Great Grandfather, (paternal) bb^ par-ddda, (maternal) UUy par 

Father-in-law (husband's or wife's father), ^^«mi«( sasur (or «ii«ar), \ 


svxra^j»m^ Idmsar. 

o ■ 

Adopted Father or God-father, c^b ^%^ dharm-bap. 


Vocabulary. — Nouns. 129 

Mother, U ma, ^U maif UU mata, joU madar, iJklt^ walida. 
Grandmother, (paternal) 4^j\«> <2a^, (maternal) ^l) nSni . 

Gi-eat Grandmother, (paternal) i/*>^*>^ par-dadi, (maternal) ,v^ ji 


Mother-in-law (husband's or wife's mother), (jX^ sas, ^b tr^ 

Step-mother, C-^U^j iema^, \^^,^ tnaibha. 

Brother, ^^ l^ bhal (m.), jO\j biradar,j^^ blr. 

Own brother, ^ l^ \xi^ saga, bhSi, <^ \^jiiy^ sahodar bkffh 

Brother-in-law (sister's husband), i^y^. bahnorty ^^^^ bahrie^d. 

Brother-in-law (husband's elder brother), „^j^jeth. 
Brother-in-law (husband's younger brother), j^O dewar. 
Brother-in-law (wife's brother), %a sala. 
Brother-in-law (husband's sister's husband), i^ j*i^ nandol. 

Brother-in-law (wife's sister's husband), ybJU sarhuy uJ!j ^fb ham" 

Step-brother (brother by the father only), ^ \^ Lj^ sauttVa bKSi, 
Step-sister (sister by the father only), ^ lJ^t* ^^"^^^ bafiin. 


Son, ISLj &^/a, cu^^ |m^, j«iJ pisar. 

Son-in-law (daughter's husband), jUIj damdd, ,^ Ujj- Jama'i. 

Adopted Son or God-son, \2^ ^J d/iarm-beta. 

Step-son (son by a former husband), W----J; rabib, (or dakh.) l2Lj t-^j 

Daughter, ^^^trf btityj:^,^ dukfUar (f.), uf/^ |>te^f, ^^J dki. 

130 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Daughter-in-law (son's wife;, ^ bahUf ^J^ hadhu^ xfj patoJi. 
Step-daughter, ^ j ralnbaf (or dakh.) ^Xj ^j rabiba be(i. 

Sister, ^^ bahin or bahauj ^jS^, bkagint, yyf bubu. 
Sister-in-law (wife's sister), ^JLj salt. 


Sister-in-law (husband's sister), Jcj naiuf (f.). 
Sister-in-law (husband's elder brother's wife), ^l^SLsj-Jc^Aani. 
Sister-in-law (husband's younger brother's wife), 15^ W*^ de^orant. 
Sisteivin-law (brother's wife), ^j\^ bkawcg (f.), 1^^ bhauji. 

Sister-in-law (younger brother's wife), y^^ bhaihu, 2[^\^ bhawah (f.)- 
Grandson (son's son), l7^ jpo^a, (daughter's son) L)lj3 7tati?a«a. 
Grandaughter (son's daughter), ^y ^w^I, 4//^ pautrl. 

Grandaughter (daughter's daughter)i ^U natin^ ^j^ natnl, (dakh. 

also) ^li noRj l<-*V ^^'^^^i. 
Great Grandson, W^ par^td, Sp^^j^par^potra. 
Great Grandaughter, ^/^^ par-poH, i^y^^ jl por-potri. 

Uncle (father's elder brother), j\ji fa'ii, (dakh.) bU ^5y5. 

Uncle (feiher's younger brother), \js>^ chacha (or dakh.) Is?" cAicAa. 

Uncle (father's sister's husband), l^j^ phuphiy ^^^^ phuphu. 

Uncle (mother's brother), j^U mamti, UU mama, JjU matuL 

Uncle (mother's sister's husband), Jls^- khdlu. 

Aunt (father's sister), ,^^ phuphl, (or dakh.) ^^ phupi, 1^ 

pAtf'a (f.). 
Aunt (mother's sister), ^j-« mauAj H^ khala (f.). 

Aunt (father's elder brother's wife), (^'iJ /a7. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns* 131 

Aunt (father's brother's wife, or father's younger brother's wife), •<*?" 

chachS or ^/^ chachchly (dakh.) ^^^f^ chachanl. 

Aunt (mother's brother's wife), ^5-*^ maml, ^\a^ mumani. 

Nephew (brother's son), 1^15^ bhatija, * jlj jj]^ biradar-zada. 

Nephew (sister's son), latrl^ bhanja, 2fjlj^|^ Jdmahir-zada. 

Niece (brother's daughter), ^<a^la^ bhatiji. 

Niece (sister's daughter), l*^^^ bhanfi. 

Cousin (dakh. father's elder brother's son), ^^ \^ \j)}3 tffera bha*i. 

Cousin (dakh. father's elder brother's daughter), ^^ ,^jAj ta^eri 

bahan. * 

Cousin (fEither's brother's son), * i^ Itf IrJ'f^ chachcra bhal. 

Cousin (lather's brotlier's daughter), f ^^ s&sf^ chacheri bahan. 
Cousin (father's sister's son), !|! l5 W Ir^^ phuphera bhal. 


Cousin (father's sister's daughter), § ^^ ^jaifii pf^^P^^^ bahan. 
Cousin (mother's brother's son), ^ If; [^ti"^^ mamera bhal. \\ 
Cousin (mother's brother's daughter), ^^ f^ja^^ mamert bahan,^ 

* In Dakhni) said to be father's younger brother's son." 

f In Dakhni, said to be ^ fatlier's younger brother's daughter." 

j: Dakh. kff\i )jtt^ phupera bhffu 

§ Dakh. ^^ ^?r??<i P^^P^r* bahan. 

II Dakh. i^\; \j^^ mautera hhSu 

\ Dakh. ^^ ^j^y^ mauleri bahan. 


132 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Cousin (mother's sister's son)^ ^^'l^ \^y^ mausera hha^.* 

Cousin (mother's sister's daughter), ^^ ^J/s^y* mauseri bahan,f 

The Body and wliat belongs to the body. 
Body,^,^ sarir, ^^jj badan, djj deh (f.). 
Limb, Member, Joint, yde> azv, {^J^\ ang, \Jj tukra. 
Sense, i^-i^- Itiss (plur. ij^^ hatoass, senses). 

Sight, Li^jJ cimAj (f.), ^j li-^ Mnal, CJiLa; ba§arat (f.), ir-^b CJy 

kuwat-i-ia^ira, Joj nazar. 
Hearing, ^UccU CL^y kuwat-irsami'a, ui^i^Ui* sama'at (f.). 

Smell, ^l£* c^ ittiu;a^i-«Aamma, ^\J^ shamma. 

Taste, ^\j za'ika. A\j c^J kuwat-i'Za'ika. 

Touch or Feeling, ^L.^ lamisa, 2U^ CJy kuwat-i-lamisa, ^^r^ lams. 

Voice, Speech, i^^ natika, ^\j cjy kuwat4-natifca, j\^\ awdz» 

Colour, iSift; ^«»*gi (j^ fettw- 

"* "* M 

Stature, J3 ^a(f(2, c::..^\3 • jJ ^oc^ o kamatj Jj»^ ^/. 

Skin, Hide, vj:^.^y ;>05^, Jl^ AA5Z (f.), 5>«^ chamra, S^jild (f.)- 

Cuticle, Pellicle, Membrane, yX^jhilUy Ht^j) parda. 

Pore, aL^ mo^am, (Pores) C^UL^ masamat. 

Flesh, ^U mans^ \^J:»f gosht^ \y^ hera. 

Bone, t^JJb Aoditft, JU Aar, ^^^^ssLs^ ustvjdapanj Jae> azm. 

* Also, v^'^lf );-l:>" /Aalera bhfft. 
f Also, ^j^ ^jr^ khalert bahan. 

Vocabulary — Nouns. 133 


Blood, ^jS ZoAti, ^ lahu, (dakh.) ^ Ihau, fj^^j rakat or rakt, ^y>^ 

Chyle, crA^ ^i^^y U^y^ kaimus. 
Humour (of the body), lals^ M^'% u^j ^^* 
Serum, ff\^ manjj ^b |>a7it. 

Saliva, Spittle, cl^ ^Aiifc, Jj; raZ (f.), u-i? ^m/, mW Z^'aft. 

Urine, S->1^ peshab, J^ &av/, C^^ mii^, ^l& sAo^A. 
Sweat, LmmiJ pasina, ^^ pase^o, ^jr- arak. 

Phlegm, Jtb balgham. i^J^ kaf{i\ ^ kaph (f.). 
Bile, Gall, ui-o pi^, \Juc safra (f.), lx> pt^^a. 

Milk, JhJtJ Jii(2A, jJ^ shir. ,^4>^ chhtr. 

Marrow, \i^f^ida,juc maghz. 

Muscle, TendoD, l^ pattha, ^ pai, ^ nas (f.). 

Nerve, Sinew, u,-«flg a^aft, l^ pattha, ^^ pat, ^^ nas (f.). 

Fibre, 41j^ resha, 4^ rag (f.), jjJ' ans {{,). 

Membrane, 4^!^ khalfiy (of the foetus) i^^jhilU^ yj^ parda. 

Artery, ^,b^ sAiryan (f.), ^j rag (f.). 

Vein, <«J^ rag (f.), tH ^"w (f.). 

Great vein iu the arm, vena basilica, j;Ju*aU fta^aHA:, dSJ^^ shahrag, 

I*^«3j1 vj:^%Aib haft-andaxa. 

•mp 9 ^ f 

Gristle, Cartilage, ^^ kwrrxy^^joi. ghtmuf. 

Gland, .,J^ gilfit OSi ghudud, ^J^ guthli. 

Joint, ^^ ganth (f.), Jcj bandf jy>' jor, »^ girih (f.)- 

Hair of the head, JU bal, ^j^ kes (f*),^^ nm* 

134 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Hair^ small of the body^ ^\^j rd^an, ^^j rom, |%jS 25m, JLi pashm (£.)• 

Feather, jJ par, »ffjj pankh. 

Head,^ sir, Jc^ mund, t^^ sis, y^ sar, ^ kalla. 

CO & 

Crown of the head, 4/J^l>- chandi, u^ t^tf^f Jij^ tarak, J^ fne^ 

Skull, Pate, Pericranium, \^J^y4 khoprt,j^ X-»li^ kasa-e-sar. 

Face, .^ munh, ,^ mukh, (dakh.) ^^ mun, ifjj^ chihra, ^j rukh. 

Forehead, Front, l^U tnatha, Jl^ 6AaZ (f.), l*jI^ peshani, ^^jai^ 
jalnn (f.). 

Horn, A^Vjui ^ng, ^l& ^AaMy vtl/ ^^* 

Brain, l^V|j &AS/a, \i^^guda,jM^ maghz, 4teJ dimagh. 

Pia mater, Jff^ 2rj^ pardaA-maghz. 

Temple (of the head), ^A^ kanpafi, AJLiJ^ shalctka. 

Occiput, back of the head, Ui kafa (f.). 

• bO b 

Eye, ^T an/cA, ^ nain or nayan, JL:>' chashm, 2rjj J {Hcfa. 

Eyebrow, ^^^ &Aau72 (f.)>^^^ a^i* (f-)^ l/^ bhirkuti. 

Eyelid, Cy /Toja, clA^ jpafaft (f.). 

Eyelash, jfj^ mtJzrAa (plur. ^^ mizhgan), ^j> baranu 

o^ fo o /o 

Pupil of the eye, ^Jcj ptt/Zi, cl^ J^ mardumak, J^ a*^j^ mardumr 


9 1, /C V 

Tear, ^T atufi, j^T aiyAfi, diCfe^ asKkyj^ tor. 
Nose, <^li naA (f.), ^C-U na«/w (f.), ^AJ Inri. 

Nostril, Ufi naMna, jflsu minjduir (f.) 
Bridge of the nose, Ljb ftavt^a. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 136 

Snot, Mucus, \Sjy^ ponta or 6^ jwfa, \S:j j renta, ISJ nefa, c-^UI Ztc'a^. 
Mouth, 4:^ munA, «^ mu/cA, ^O dahan, ^T aiian. 
Roof of the mouth. Palate, j)ljf ^aZu, a\^ kam, J^(X« mozaA:* 
Tongue, .^^ jtbh (f.), (dakh.) k-^ Jib, Joj zaban (f.), ^^^U 

lisan (f.). 
Breath, i^J dam, ^L 5an« (f.), ^^^-iJ nafas (f.)« 
Tooth, u^t J d^nt, ^^Jj J dandan, ^0 dasan. 
Gums, Iji^*''^ mflwfira, i^ lisa. 
Lip, '^^ honth, «^ Zai (m. f.). 
Beard, i<^«^ darAi, ^j mA (f.), !>:>- M^^ffiS- 
Ear, jj\J ftan, (J^f gosh, i^^j^ srawan. 

Lobe or tip of the ear, Ji^f^, bina-gosh, (jt^^y narma^e-gosh. 
Drum of the ear, Tympanum, ht^y ^^J^ kan ka parda. 
Cheek, ij^gal,j\>^j ruJAsar, J^ kapol. 
Jaw, S^jabra, [^^^jabhra, (jaws) K AaZZa. 
Chin, 4^«Xf thuddi, (dakh.) <^Iff thuddi, ^J sai(:an, ^ zanaJA. 

Pit or dimple in the chin, ^ zanakhf (^^«Xa^ zanaMidan, c,,^y 2rl>- 

Dewlap, u,. ^ji.*r ghab g hab. 

Throat, ^ gala, j;l»- ^aZ^, |«;yil^^ halkum. 

CO /o 

Larynx, Throttle, Windpipe, Gullet, i^J^ narkhart, \jLJi 1 

^^jJ?^ narkaslf ^ nali, ^gulu, ^ gala. 
Neck, ^y gardan (f.), ^ gala, \yy griwa (f.), -^^ ghanch. 
Nape of the neck, i^Mguddi, Ui i(:q/a (f.)> 

136 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Shoulder^ UjjI^ kandha, Ijbjjj^ mondha, ^t^ dosh, (dakh.) \j^ 

Shoulder blade, ^\J^ Jthana, f^Jc^ katif. 

Wingy y par, .^^^ pankh, ^^e^pachh^ j|jb &a2ru. 

Arm, 43 b ftanA, ^U Aa^A. 

Arm (from the shoulder to the elbow), ^j\i bazu, ^. bhuj, jJj dand. 

Arm (from the elbow to the wrist), U^ pahuncha. 

Wrist, 4/ M kalal, 1^^^ pahuncha, (dakh.) cf. X*< mangat. 

Hand, ^U Aa^A, (jr^^J dost, J^^ changtd, (extended) JL»j panja. 

o - c . 

Palm of the hand, ,Juf^ hatheli, uJ^ kaff{{.\ l::..^,..*^ (^ kaff-irdast. 


Fist, ^4^ mutthly o«l^ mu^A^ 

Thumb, \fjM\ angufAa,y c:.%!Jj\ angusht-i-nar, /^^\ ibham. 

Finger, ^Jx*^ ungU or ,ii\ aTzgZi, (^■^^'Xl angusht (f.). 

Forefinger, c^jly-fi» (ji^.^jLSjS angusht-i-shahadaty ^lC\ ^ ^Ji AaAn? 

A:i ttngZf, ^L«i sabbaba. 
Middle finger, ^^JM^ ^ ^ btch kt ungli. 
Ring finger, (dakh.) ^Jij^ ^S <^<i>^ shahadat kt angli. 
Little finger, (Gilch. ifi\ ^l^ Aa» angli?), ^^ r^ chhingull (?)• 
Tips of the fingers, J^Ul anamt/. 

Nail of the finger, &c., ^;S^U naUkun, ^ nakh, ij nah. 
Claw, JJc^ changul, ^Ls^ panja, ^^\j nakhun. 

Elbow, L^k^ kuhnt, ^Jij« mirfak, ^J^^ kohnt. 
Knuckle, ^U ^ ^^^\ ungltyon kl ganth, dcJ band. 

Vocabulary Nouns, 137 


Armpity J«^ baghal (f.), ^j4^ kakhri. 
Breast^ Bosom, ^Wf^ chhatl, <U«^ slna. 
Pap, Nipple, Teat, Dug, ^tu-J ^ sar-i-pistan, ,<:»2^ iAi/ni 
jj/tya (f.), ^f>' chunchi. 

Breast-bone, ic^j^ sarstna. 

Back, ^^pith (f.), «j>Ij j)i«A<(f.). 

Backbone, «^ • rirh (f.), JJb dSn^, (dakh.) ^-Jb l^ -^ pif A AS baiis. 

Side, Ribs, ^;Sf^ panjar, ^Ju-j ^^o^Zi. 

Bosom, J^ god (f.), S^ AawZa, JcS kanar or fcinar (f.), cr^T 

aghosh (f.). 
Belly, l2^ pef, jLl shikam. 
Stomach, ^fJoc^ vn^dUy "^^^ jhojh, -p-^ o;A. 
Maw, Craw, Crop, <d^^ haustla^ V^jj jTofa. 
Point of the sternum or ensiform cartilage, ^^j^ /ram . 
Navel, uJU naf (f.), -^^ waJAi (f.)> t5*^y tondi. 

Co CO c^ 

Bowels, Intestines, ijiij\ antfi, or plur. ^jljj^l antriyan, ^^^\ 

an^e» (f.)- 
Mesentery, ,Ju^ ^ u^J^^ aniriyon kithaiU. 

o o 

Heart, \ JJb Airda, cJi kalb, J J di/. 
Liver, ^is^ kaUjafJ^jigar, Ju^ Aa&ui. 

/ CO 

Lmigs, Lights, iJj riya, or plur. Ci^bj riyat (f.), ^jiA «AtwA, l55«--«j 


phephre (?), (dakh.) L^^ phepsa. 
Spleen, Milt, ^ <iZZi, JUr JiAaZ (f.)0>^ supurz. 

138 Vocabulary, ^^^Nouns. 

Pluck, ij^ \,J^^ ^ c:)!^:^ haiwan ka antarya kaleja* 

Pancreas. <lJJ lablaba. 

' • • 

Kidney, ifJ^ gurda. 

Bladder, U^ phukna or U^^ phukna, ij\L< masana. 

Gall-bladder, Gall, Bile, \w |>i7^a, ^^ zahra. 

Abdomen, l1^ j^ef, X2» shikamy ^^ kokk (f.\ l^^ Ao/cAa (f.)- 
Loins, Waste, ^;^ kamar (f.), ^,L« miyan (f.). <i^ Aa/ (f.)- 

Flank, -^^ fcoftA (f.), J*j b agh al (f.) ; see Loins. 
Pelvis (lower part of the belly), jj^ peru, l^ kokha. 
Private parts, ^J^ (^\*^\ andamri nihdnl, j^ satr. 

• 9 9 

Hip, Buttock, Ham, Haunch, Rump, %f kuld, y^ chutar^ {jij^ 

suTin (f.), -^^ puthy ^i> putthd. 
Thigh, Jij ran (f.), -^U-JawgA (f.), \^janghd (f.). 
Knee, U^ ghutnd, y\j zanu, \j^ the'dnd. 


Kneepan, bj^ khuriydy ,J^ chakkiy <tj 1 a'lna. 
Lap, ^^ god ({.)y y\j zdnu. 
Leg, J^ «5^ (f-),y\i panw, j/ gor, J^ /'Ai^'*- 
Calf of the leg, Jocj ptnrfff, JlJ <iZi, (dakh.) li-I/l^ . Aj mnii 
X:a gosht. 

Shin, Shin-bone, t^JUb ^ ^Xi^philli kt haddi, (dakh.) ^Jj ^ ^jju 
2>i»n Ai nalli. 

Ankle, ^^ ghutiy w^ Aa% ^^Is-i skitdlangy (joint) Iije^ teMni- 

Pastern (of a horse), \j^ tke'ond, ^J^ ghuti. 


Heel, i^jA en, *i-lb pdshna. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 139 

Instep, li cuslj pmht'i pa. 
Foot, yb ;>antr, b ;>5,^ pair^ tS^ ;>ag, ^^^ charan. 

f c - 

Sole of the foot, ^J talVa or Uj talwd, b w^ &q^-i pa. 

l::^1i,v>^ ansuskt'i nar. 

U,P O C ^i 

Hoof, M sum,j^ khur. 

Hurts and Diseases of the Body. 

Blow, Stroke, Stripe, vi*--^ ckapet (f.), c-^ «ar6 (f.), jl^ war^J^ 
mar (f.). 

Blow with the fist, kjuwi^ musht, ,X« mukkl, \^yf ghusa. 

Braise, Blow, Hurt, ^yf- chot (f.)* 

Sprain, Strain, ^yc moch, (dakh.) \jyc mora. 


Cut, Slash, \ji^ chtray ^J zakhm. 

Scratch, small wound, ^^ charka. 

Wound, Sore, ^j zakhm, ^*\^ gha'd, i^^\^ g^^% ^^^^■^'^"Vr jarahat 

Ulcer, Abscess, jf^U nasur, A>-^ Jcartta, V^ pkora. 
Fistula, jf^U namr. 


Issue, Running sore, u:-^Jjj bandarkhat. 
Gangrene, Mortification, \jy^ khora^ ^y» saran. 

Imposthume, Bile, Blain, J^ dummal, \jy^^ phora. 
Whitlow, Felon, «j?;jJ^ chhatort. 

Pimple, Pustule, small Bile,J^ baltor, ^^jm^^phunsi, )l^ chhala, 

C Cf 

Blister, S^f^ phaphoU, )ll|^ chhala, \C^ phulka, APi ahila. 

1 40 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Kibe^ Chap on the foot, Chilblain, ,^ ly biwal. 

o «• o 

Scar, Cicatrix, Mark, 4b dJigh. -f^ chinhy ^j>' chittt, 1::^ chakta. 
Bump, \y<if gumra, .L^ gathiya, (from the bite of an insect) ]ji^ J 

Swelling, Tumour, J^^ dummalj ^j^ waram, ^j>Xc\ amasj ^y^ sty 

(*"•), Jhii phula'd. 
Wen, \yo^ gumrif (dakh.) ^y^j rasuR. 

Bronchocele, Goitre, ^^^ ghega, \^Lp ghegha. 

Scrofula, King's evil, IIU .^ kanth mala^ jlj^ khanazlr. 

Cancer, ^U?^ sarafan, iAJLf-Jijib hazar-chashma. 

Chancre, ,JjC tanki, c2^ chat (f.). 

Wart, Excrescence, L^ ma^a, t^j^^^^ masbird, 3\ ilia. 

Pain, Ache, Ail, -|^J £?uiA, t^^J dard^jfj pir (f.), ^Jco &eda». 

Sickness, Illness, Disease, Disorder, Distemper, ^cJ^?^ fttmart, ^^ 

marz or ^jo^ mara«, jljl ajzrar, i^^j rog. 

Contagion, Infection, cu^J^ sarayat (f.)* 

Sickness at Stomach, Nausea, d^f o/^ (f.), u-^ Ai/r, u^ jb^ matlfft. 
Indigestion, i^'^*^ Jo badrhaxml, i^jt;^^ ajiran. 
Fainting, Swoon, {JLL ghash^ ^JLi. ghasht. ^^jy^ murchha (f.). 
Fit, c^J^JsT j^ ^&>^rf Jiwari hi charhtlf vj:^jy nauftai (f.), 

M ^ m ^ ^ ^ 

Headach,yi«o J; J dard-i-sar, c^Jk-tf §uda, (dakh.) 4^^^^ sir^phori. 
Vertigo, Giddiness, Swimming in the head,^ c;l;j*^ dattran-i^ar. 
Ear-ach, ij^f'^j^ dard-i-gosh (?)• 
Toothach, -j VhI^J J dant-pir (f.), j^\jJ*3 JjJ cbircti dandan. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 141 

Ophthalmia, aI^^ ^-^t ashdlni chashm, ^jOj^ ^ ^T ankh ka maraz. 

Quinsy, J^^^ Jdiunak. 

Sore throat, J^J \^ ^ gale ka dard. 

Ringworm, Herpes, Jl J c^o^f, jl J W***^ bhainstyordad. 

Cold, JCi^ /Aan^ (f.), <^(iV« sardt, /^^J zukam. 

Catarrh, Rheum, alj3 naz^a, aI^j ztikam. 

Cough, 1^5^^ khansf, iij^ surfa^ (dakh.) (^Uj dhans. 

Hiccough, Hickup, ^Xf^ hichku 

Hoarseness, j\^t ^Jci^ giriftagl-awaz (f.). 

Fever, <^^ to/? (f.), t-^t tap (Sf)f ^ jar^ *^j)j^ hararat (f.). 

Ague, ij) L^ tap-i^arza, ^j^juft. 

c * « ^ 

Ague, quartan, ^<«^^ 4^U>» tiummare ri&'f . 

Ague, tertian^ ^J^ tijari, v^.^ u.^ tap^i ghibb. 

CO -^ 

Intennittent fever, bjCJl antriya, cs^y (^^ toj>-i naubat. 

Hectick fever, j J l^ ^op-i <2iA:it:, J«^ ^Z/. 

Quotidian fever, iJlio\yc t,^^ tap-i tnuwazaba. 

Burning fever, J i*^ «-^ top-i mu/iri^. 

Madness, Phrenzy, i^^^^ diwanagiy \d^ sauda^ya sir (f.). 

Consumption, Phthisis, J-» riZZ, {^^j ^j^ chhaUrog (or, vulg. 

Dropsy, Hydropsy, ^jJ^jaZandAar, \SLz^\ istisf:a. 

o o 

Anasarca, ^J ^<*U->"^1 i«^i«A;a-i ziAri^t. 

1 •• 

Tympany, ^JJ? ^^ Ui.,."m>i^ istis^i't tabli. 

142 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

C M'i' 9 

Pleurisy, c^^.isJTci.^^J zatu-l-jamb, ^Lij»^jirsam, aU^ barsam. 

O C ^ it 

Plethora, tUcJ-^ LU! ifrat-i akMat^ ^^ t|Jl (fral-i j^n. 
Asthma, cl^L sawt (f.), cr-i^J^ ziku-n-nafas, iJcJ dama. 

O ••, CO 

Palsy, tg_f '-" - sitang, (or hemiplegia) ^^ ySZy, <,s/iJbJl adhang. 

Paralysis, ^ lakwa, ^JLpj ra sha : see Palsy. 

Gout, (j^jfiJ nikris (improp. nakris), (dakh.) ^^'b L^ gathiyorbSJ. 

Rheumatism, ^^ U ia*? or da'e (f.), czjb &a^ (ni-)> J-^^ ^-^^ wqja^ 

mafa§ilj (dakh.) c/'^^ip- jlianakwal. 

•O xO o 

Jaundice, J^ kanwal or Jb J|^ kanwalrbad^ ^^ji yarJcan* 
Gravel, Stone, ^b^ t_g_^'' * sang-i inasana. 

A stone in the bladder. Calculus, t^jf»^ patthrt. 

To have a palpitation of the heart, U^J ^^jt dkarakna. 


Smallpox, ^Lm.j «itoZa (f.), l^U ma^a (f.) or (dakh.) l^U fnatka, ^^ 
goff, uXsc]L>' chechak (f.). A Pock, ^y goG* 

Measles, dj\t\^^ garmt'dana (?), i^^ pangoti (Gilch. ?). 

Chincough, i««J\^ kkdnsi, (dakh.) {^S^ khang. 

LCo O C« 

A sty on the eyelids. ^^>£if\ '4^\ ankh anjani, uJj\f^\ anjanKSari. 
Gripes, Colic, ^^/i^s^ peckish (f.), \j^j^ marora, ^^ kulinj. 

Tenesmus, ^^uto hagas (f.), ^,/i■?}J peckish (f.)^ j^ *«'»'• 

o/ y CO 

Vomiting, ^^ 1^1 f<5Aa7 ^^ kai, (f.), iy^-*^ istifragh. 

Cholera, AJJb Aatsa, bj tra&a (f.). 
Piles, Hemorhoid8,j^ly bawaslr. 

m f 

Stoppage of the nose, Coryza, ^Ju«9 sudda. 


Vocabulary, — Nouns, 143 

Hemorrhage, (from the nose) t^lc; ru*df, (from other part) ajJ\ J^ 


Polypus, Inflammation in the nose, \^\j nalcra. 
Obstruction of the liver, icj- 5Ju^ suddarijigar. 

Diarrhoea, Flux, Dysentery, jLj^ atisdr, ij»tp^ sltras, Jl^l is*hdl, 

^ ^ ^ 

aCa \J^^js^ jiryanri shikam. 
Constipation, Costiveness, ijoJ kahz (f.), ca.^j.g^'i Icahziyat (f.) ^«^^ 

Venereal, J y 65*5 (f.), ^S^j^ jU hddrifarangj C^^\ ataskak (f.). 

Gonorrhoea, cl/^j<^ sozdky ^y^ parnffo^ ^jl pramth. 
Diabetes, J«j J^i^Li silsil-i hauU 

Dysury, Strangury, J^\ ^^/-f^ habsthl-baul, JjJ^^;-^ usru-JrbauL 

Epilepsy, j^^[;^ mirgi, jU-j1 apa«?nar. 

Rupture, Hernia, f^U- jb iac? Myayaf ^Jzi fatk. 
Leprosy, JbJ^ AdrA, a^«^>. Jti^am, (^^ jpe^, ^/«JuL9 sufaidi. 


Elephantiasis, U JJ fil-pa, Jb?^ l^ maAa /^orA. 

Plague, Pestilence, Uj u^a&a (f.), ^^j^ Tnari. 

Epidemic, jUly^ mahormar, aU ^^^^ 9Kara;s-i-ai729ra. 

Famine, lac^ kahi^ ^L ks? ^ahfrsdli, Jl^ /raZ, ui^J dubhuk. 

Hunger, <^^ bhukh (f.), tS^^^ gursinagt, 9^ju^- 

Thirst, (^Vj j'tyo^ (f.)> cr)/ '^5* (f.), iX^ tishnagi, ^ji^ Stash (f.). 


Persons employed in curing diseases. 

Physician, ^S^ hakim, i^^^^ taKb, Jlj baid. 

1 44 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Sui^eon, Jij^jarra/i. 

Apothecary, Druggist, jlkfi agar, jL^^rfatra-saar, ^j\^pansdrl(\n.), 

Phlebotomist, ^j <«J^ rag-zan, oLsi fa§sad. 

Cupper, Ajsr^ hajjam, fi^ ^^S^ singl^vdld. 

Bonesetter, j^U^ kamdn-gar. 

Medical means. 

Medicine, Drug, ty dati^a (f.), jjb ddru (f.), yjJl»^^ aushadh (f.). 
Remedy, Cure, -JU ildj^ aj^ chdra. 

Emetic, ^-JU mukaiyl, IjJ ^ ^ A:ai Ai daM?a. 
Purge, (^'i>-julldb,j\^jkdr. 
Bleeding, d^fasd((,). 

» <* 

Electuary, ^^j^^s*^ majun^ ^j\i} JLy nosh-ddru. 
Ointment, A^b^ marham, l*.^ S|>. 
Plaster, Salve, Jb^ marham, t-^ lep, jU-^ aawiarf (f.). 
Fomentation, lIXw*^ «SnA;, jU^ Arimodf. 
Embrocation, jtJ tatdr (f.), jU^ zamdd (f. j, 5lt «/a. 
Poultice, yjy^^ ^n> jy3 til(m. 
Bandage, jU-^ zamdd (f.), ^^ ^affi . 
Clyster, ^La^ fiukna. 

The Hind and its Attributes or Affections. 
Mind, ^many -f?-^ %* (f.), ^J^ mudrika, ^yb A05A. 

InteUect, Understanding, J« o^J:/ (f.), j^y, kosk, Jkjo 6arfA (f.), *yi 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 145 

Reason, Jac akl (f.) ; reasoning faculty, ^^ nutk. 

Will, Wish, yjU iroc^a, \^^\ ichchha (f.)> J^^ bichar. 

Desire, jy« cAaui^, >U- cAaA (f.), (j-y^ Aototu (f.), u^^^ M?'^- 

Avarice, -^S lalach, Ja:^, ftt^MZ, (j«p- Airs (f.). 

Ambition, /j»^ hawas (f.\ CL^:^! umanfi: (f.). <(L0%>- hausila. 

m 9 

Affection, c^f*-"* muhahhat (f.), jU piyar, ^ rieh (f.), Jju) darrf. 

Love, j;.i-c tshky *W- cAaA, jU 2>y5r, Lib Aatra (f.). 

Hatred, Dislike, Aversion, d^ nafrat (f.), 15^^'^ «^ bad-khwaht, 

Disgast, Abhorrence, c>*tolj^ karahiyat (f.), d^ nafrat (f.)> ^^ 
gAin, (f.), u^'j-J Jcarar?. 

O O m / 

Anger, Passion, Rage, Jbt^j^ brodh^ JL^ fduxshm^ <Uac ghussa, (^•^ ^r 
ghqxah, (^j^ ris (f.), JL^i^ taish (f.). 

Pleasure, Joy, Mirth, Gladness, ^y^ Mttishl, ^jLj^ aish, d^o-y 

9 f -/ 

farhat (f.), ^^Jb &iZa«, JcJT anaTuf, j[jj^ surur^ s5>^ khurraml. 

O O i,^0 9 

Happiness, Felicity, ^|/«^ ftamrawt, jcJT dnand, t^j^y^ khush- 


Hope, Ju^^ umnied (f.), ^^JT 5* (f.), LT o^a (f.). 

Reliance, Faith, Trust, fjJi as (f.), jU;fi\ ^timad, L^;^ bhrosa, 4-0 
toAiya, jtcLfl i*tibar. 

Fear, Dread, Apprehension, jJ rfar, (j-.|^^ waswas, ^^ iAai, lC-» 
Doubt, Suspicion, uXl skakk, '-^^^^^^ sandeh, UjjJ dubdha (f.), 


^ifJ^ shtibha, 


146 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 


Courc^e, Valour, izAj^- jur^at (f,), c>w«Jb himmat (f.), t/J*^ diUri. 

Cowardice, ,^_^Ji4J^ ,^ be-kimmati, t/*^/^ l^ n5-marrf£. 

Shame, Bashfiilness, Modesty, ^^ sAarw (f.), Ji laj (f.), ^rr^** 

^aya (f.)- 
Jealousy, ^ «ann, J^p- j AaZ (f.), 2rb d5A (f.), uXl sAaH. 
Spite, Malice, Grudge, Envy, fjoiu bughz, C^j rashk, i^ Bna. 

Animosity, Enmity, ^ baity i^^i lag (f.), C-?^\i\ft addwat (f.). 
Vengeance, Revenge, aI&JI inti^dm,j^ bair^ ^Jo &ae^. 

Mercy, Compassion, Pity, ^j rafimy bj dayd (f.)?^/^*'* (^O* 
Patience, j-Mtf sabr (f.), i,j[j^ faJfiri, ^j-ibJ dhiraj. 

Morals^ moral and immoral. Actions. 
Morals, Manners, c^;-^ «ra^ (f.), j5U.1 aJMaJc^ c->Jl adaft. 

Ceremonies, Custom, Etiquette, t-^bT odad, m*^j rasm (f.), JU^ (f.). 
Politeness, good manners, j;L^ Mu/A:, <^^ murutra^ (f.). 
Civility, C/jLn suluk, j;LeL khulk. uuvJLjI insaniyat (f.)* 

Honesty, Probity, t^lf^ 5acAcA57, l<^|; r&^i, ^f^ sacJiautu 
Immorality, Dishonesty, ,^Wejj bad-ma'asht, a^^I adharm. 
Knavery, Treachery, 4^V^*> da gh d-bazu ^JUj^ ,p 6^-7m5nI. 
Falsehood, Deceit, 'i^j^jhuth, J^ makr, i^jO daro gh , 

c c •■ 

Temperance, Sobriety, JJ^ parhez, jfsLa sanjam, cj^ warc^. 
Intemperance, Extravagance, cfj-J^ J^ bad-par hezl, ^yaifazuR. 
Prodigality, Waste, uJj^l "^5/*, i^j>-j^ war-kharchl^ «— alj ^aZo/l 
Niggardliness, Stinginess, ^ji^^:^^ kanjusi, ^«>mJ tangdiU. 

Vocabtdary. — Nouns. 147 

Liberality, Generosity, CJ^jls^ sakhawat (f.), jy>- jud, ^f karam. 

o / ^ 

Beneficence, ^L^l ihsan, j^\ upakar^ ^j^ faiz, 

CO o 

Friendship, Kindness, ^vV/v^ miArfta?*?, \j^ kirpia (f.)- 

Professions, Occupations, 
Theology, Divinity, iSijikh (f.), ^^J^ ^U iZwi-t t7aA?. 
Medicine (practice of). Physic, ci^U? tdbahat (f.), c^ jU5& (f.)* 

Law, Jurisprudence, ^ ^A:A (f.), u:Jl«xc adalat (f.)i f/& shar*. 
Military Profession, ^^ tL^ sipdh-gari. 

Agriculture, Husbandry, -Md Hr^ i^j\isJL^ kishtkarij fj:^jj zira^at (f.)* 

Merchandise, Commerce, ^^J^ tijarat ({.\ 4^^J^ saudagari, 


jLmj baipar, ,J>j banij, \jyasatuia. 
Servitude, Slavery, ^Jcj bandagl, i^/^ chakari, ^4^f naukari, 


^<JU ghulamZf Jy <aAa/ (f.). 

People of Professions^ Occupations^ or Tirades* 
Theologian, <ua5 fakih, ls-J^ Jjb! aA2-t mctrifaty •rj^ achdraj. 
Lawyer, 6m fdlcihy J^ 1^ Vi:>,]tjic adalat ka wakiL 


Soldier, ^^ «ipSAi, C«j 15^ V^ sipaklpesha, fj^/^ laskkari. 
Physician, ^'^ tabtb, Jcj &au2, a«^ fiakim. 

Author (writer), u.^^ mu^allifj^ «fj^ granth-kdr, ^**a^ musannif 
Cultivator, Husbandman, ^L^ /^a», ^^UibJ dihkdn, ^^o muzdrC. 
Merchant, Trader, ^Jy» sauddgar,^\j tdjir, v^U-j baipdrl (m.). 

Grain-merchant, );ls^ 5an;ara, (ji'jj ^ ghallorfardsh. 


148 Vocabulary,^^Nou7i8. 

Banker, Moneychanger, u;^ V* fnaAa;an, lJ^j^ ^orrafj .^1m«» seth. 
Broker, Salesman, J)|J dallal, a^ mukim. 

Artificer, Artisan, ^Jjjl^ karigar, ^^r^ kcL8Vi(jn.^y ji^iJL^^ peshorwar. 
Draper, Linen-draper, Mercer, Cloth-merchant, j\ji bazzaz. 
Silk-mercer, (jt^ji ^ jj^jaJLJjA abrtshmiTiarfardshy i^^/Jt^ fiarxr-farosh. 

Weaver, ljb)b>-JtiZaAa, i^^ ^an^i(m.), ^rjcib &a^nc2a. 
Embroiderer, J^fc>^ zar-dJbZyjy^^^f^ chikan-doz. 

Carpet-weaver, uJU ^^ssr^kA shatranji-haf. 
Tailor, cj0^fc> rfarart (m.), jVT^ ^^"^ (^O* ^^-^ khaiyai. 
Shoemaker, Cobbler, yj>-y^ mochl (m.)fj^dJLii kafshdoz. 
Saddler jWjj ztngar, ^^y^ mocht (m.), ^1^ sarraj. 
Tanner, Currier, jU>- chamoTf ibj dabbaghf Jjj dabgar. 
Grocer, JU; bakkal, i^l--J pan^arl, jlLc a War. 

Druggist, Apothecary, U^j^'^^ pansdri (m.), jUa^ aj[£ar. 
Ironmonger, j^y ^1 ahan-farosh. 
Blacksmith, jlib^ Idhar,^f:Jb\ ahangar, j\j^ ^addad. 
Farrier, joJju nc^lrband, i^y^^ saXotarl : see Horse-doctor. 

Coppersmith, Brasier, Tinker, ^^Sw« misgar, \j^ kasera, U^ip^ 

Jeweller, ,,jjib^jaukarl, ^J^ jariya^ dh/ J^^J ^^OT'f^t'osh. 

9 > 

Goldsmith, Silversmith, jli^ sunar^ ^jj zargar. 
Cutler, jTj^I^ karadgar, jU^ fi}Aar. 
Needle-maker, jX)j^ sozan-gar. 
Arrow-maker, ^^^-7 fir-gar. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 149 

s- o 

Cartwrighty Carpenter, Cabinetrmaker, ^<^y, barkal (m.), 15^^ khatt 

(m.),jlar7iayar,^Jjjfc> darodgar. 
Cook, yj>-j^, hawarcht (m.), b yaj rasoHya, ^Ut tabbakh. 
Sutler, Innkeeper, l^U^ bhathiyara. 
Baker, 4^ LiU nanftal (m.),JJl3 nanpazy ^Lt tabbakh. 
Batcher, c-^LJ kassab, ^5 LJ iira^a'i (m.), ^^ J zaiiA. 

CO # 0/ 

Poulterer, ^J^j^ murghban^ ^ivi^ murghtwala. 


Fishmonger, t^j/ 15^^ waAi^farosA, S^^^^^fss* machhR-wala. 
Green-grocer or -seller, ^jj/ 2^ tarorfarosh, Jjfc;^ kunjra. 
Gardener, ^U maZi, ^V^V baghban, (dakh.) Sl^b baghwdla. 
Architect, Builder, Mason, Bricklayer, jUx^ mi^mar, i^ jf* thawa'i 


Stonecutter, (^y t^g^f*-' sang-farosh. 

- / 

Brickmaker, J^ u: .^.^^ khisht-pctz. Slj (.^^^ inf-u^aZa. 

Potter, jlf^i^ kumhar, JK kulalj J^ kas-gar. 

Plasterer, jX««^ kas-gar. 

Accountant, Cashier, Clerk, Writer, ^^tX^aa^ mutasaddi,jjs^ muharrir 

CS44 Ukhak. 
Village Accountant, t^J^^ karamchari (m.). 
Steward, J^\^ bakawal, c£;^vX:^ &Aa7idari (m.), ^^^^^ dlwan. 
House-Steward, Butler, ^ULJls>> khdnsamanj JsLtdS^ khidmatgar. 

^^tj^ bhandariy i^^^ modi. 
Brewer, jflj^ hozorgar. 

150 Vocabulary, — Nouns, 

Printer, S|^^<i^ chhape-tvala, (of cloth) t^ftif- chhtpi, ^UJ 

Engraver, j\^ Ji f:alam'kar,Ji sJc^ kanda-kar. 

Carver, Sculptor, Statuary, j\^ *J^ kanda-kar, Ji\ij nakkash. 

• -^ / 

Painter, Draftsman, jl^j:x>* chitr-kdr, jya^ musauwir^ fj^ ruiklcash. 
Actor, Mimic, Player, jJI|J hhand^ ^5^V^ swangi, Lj jf/^ bahurupiya, 


JUJ nakkdl, ^ 

Adjutant, Aide de camp, c^^jb} na^Jb, ^^^>>la« mu^o^ti. 

Administrator, Executor (of a will), ^^ wasl. 

Advertiser, Reporter, Intelligencer, ^;k^ mukhbir, j\i^ j^^ khabar-dar^ 

\^ M^ shahr-khabra. 

Alchymist, cr>v^ muhatcwis, S\^ klmiyagar, 

CO c 

Amanuensis, c^\^ A:a^i&, ^^1 J l5^ likhm-das, l^^^j! Ukhak. 
Ambassador, Envoy, ^<f^^ cfcAi, JJij t&afti/, CL.>jJ dut^j^ saftr. 


Angler, jb ^^--jj bansi-bdz. 

m 9 

Annotator,yy»i« mufa8sir, r)^ sharih. 

Appraiser, Valuer, Assizer, ^v*-/ nir/Jit, ^^ muArim. 

Arbitrator, Umpire, ciJU j$aZt.t, a^ hakam, ^m\ ^ munsif, 

Co / 

Archer, jfjJljJ* ^tr-an€faz,jtjjU^ kamdnrdarjjbd uicJbJ dhanuk-dhar. 

Arithmetician, c^-^l^** muhdsib, CJ^ ganak, ^\j jL^ siydk-dan. 

Armourer,^ Ji^ saikaJrgar, 

Artist, ^\^ t£-N-0 dast'kar^ j\s^\ ustad, JtJ^ karlgar. 

Ascetic, ^<^ to/)^ (m.), ^^JLj dj^^ gosha nishtn. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 161 

Assassin^ J5l3 katil, ij/lLa saffak, {^f^ tkag. 
Assayer (of coins); jiU nafpid, jU; nakkad, L^ parakhaiya. 

Assistant (in office), tj:. .>.iu> ^^^ pesk-dast, J^ ^JLj pesh-kar. 
Astrologer, Astronomer, aj^U munajjimy ^jfjf^-jotihhi (m.), ^fsr 

Attorney^ **r^^ n5' ii, J-j^ waklL 
Aactioneer, Jl^ _}^ aLj ni/Sm karn^-wala. 
Auditor (of accounts), ^Jj^^*^ mustaufi (m.), c^^lgr^ muhasib. 


Augurer, IJ^ shuguniya. 
Barber, (•V^ fuyjam, (JUo\3 najpi^, tu-»^ tw ^5. 
Bearer (of a letter, &c.)> J^l>- A5»w7, (porter) JU»- hammal, L5^ 
»w><iy5, ^i5 ^iiZi, (chairman) |^y« fnahra,j\^ kahar, ^^^ &Ao7. 

B^gar, t^j\^ bhikhari (m.)yjJi fakir, \j^ gada, JjL sa'tZ. 
Bell-founder, jL» (^^jarcLS-saz. 

Binder (of a book), j> ^^jild-gar, uJU;* §ah^af. 

Bird-catcher, j\C& j^ wir shikar, J\j^J^ chiftmar, jU^ saiyad. 

Boatman, JU mallah, ^LclI^ kishiiban, ^c^asrU manjht, (rower) 

4^jJtj {(ancfi (m.). 

* / 

Bookkeeper, \j^y c-^L«>- /lisab-namSj jjsr^ muharrir. 

Bookseller, uJU?* §ohb^fy J^/ M^ kitalhfardsh. 
Bootmaker, ^^jyc mozorgar. 

Bowmaker,^U^ kamangar. 

Boxer, ^J vjUil^ mushUzanf JU ma/, J^ ma//. 


152 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Bracelet-maker, jl^j^ cAzifi-Aar. 

*' n 

Buffoon, 2r^^f*^ maskhara, jJ\f bhand. 

Burnisher, jTji^ ^aiJjcal-gar. 

Buttennan, U:^^ mdkhaniya, 

Calenderer,^Jc^ kundi-gar. 

Camel driver or keeper, ^lj;l-* sarban, f^^ijiJ^ shutur-han, 
Cardmaker, jL» ii^J^ ganjtfasaz. 

Carman, Carter, Coachman, (j^^^ gafiwan, ^J^^ garlban. 

Carpet-maker, t-Jb ^^frJaJL shatranji-baf. 

Cashier, jliXlj^a^ tahwil-dar,j\j ^y fota-dar, bj^^ rokariya. 

Cavalier, j|^ sawar^J^^yA sawar-kar, bjj^ J^ bhaUghoriya. 

Chairman (president), ^^^r-L^ ^;*^ rnh'^majlis : (^bearer) see Bearer. 

Chandler, jL) w^Ja shawTsaz. 

Charioteer, ^b ^ raM-5a7i, ^J^ saratKi (m.). 

Cheesemonger, ^^j^^ pantr-farosh. 


Chess-player, jUsf^^^k^ shairanj-baZf Jo\L shatir. 

Chiromancer, ^jX^^ samudrdki (m.). 

Chronologer, Chronicler, ij^ mu^arrikh. 

Chymist,j^L4^ ktmiyd-gar, l5^^f ro^ayani (m.)* 

Clockmaker, jL c:^^L sSat-saz. 

Coiner, <-->]^ zarrab, (counterfeiter, forger) j<-1jw taghallubi (m.). 

Collector (tax-gatherer), ^'j J-^^wsr tahsthdar^ J(^\i baj-dar. 

Colonel, fc^]^ Aaarari (m.), jSU salar. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 163 

Comedian, Uj^^ bahu-^piyaf 15^ V* '^'^^^f J^ na^^aL 
Commander, ^1j^ sarddrfJiLt salar, J^ ^akim,j^\ amir. 

m 9 

Commentator, j^a< mufassir, ^L& sharihjj\i ICJ tlkorkar. 

Commissary, jl^ if]jij^ sarbarah'kar, ix^jJiJ darogha. 

Commissioner, ^^^ amtn^J^Js^ mukhtar^kar. C^^^^ muhtatnim. 
Compiler, uJSj^ mu*allif,j\^ ^^ graiith-kar, ^\i^jami . 

. / 

Composer, ^ r^a^ mu§annif,j\^yj}^ \1j^ inshorpardaz. 
Conductor, Uj 2f|^ raA-n«9iia,^ 2f|^ rah-bar, yl agu^a* 
Confectioner, i/^^i^ AaZu?57,^(^ V|2L« iiti<Aa?-gar. 
Conjurer,^^4)Ujarfttgar, l^y ^onAa, ^v)/^^ ^oyirafi, ^^V J5n. 
Consul, J^ trait Z : see Commissioner. 

c / 


Contractor, ^tu-^ mustqjir. 

Controller, Ac^jU darogka^ (of accounts) ^fi^^^^ mustauft. 

Cooper, !I1^ l5^W Wi J'^P^ bariane^wala. 
A Corporal, uioU nayak. 

<m ^ CO 

Counsellor,^^^!^ musktrfjiJ^ mudabbir, \^j^:»^ mantri (m.). 
Courier, uXj jmiiA;, J^\j i^o^uf, sjij]b harkara. 


Courtier, %jJoj^ darbari, \4jy^>- huzurt, ^jSsr^ Jjb] ahiri majlis* 
Cow-herd, Cowkeeper, J^^gopdl, ^^^^ gwal ot'i^f gwaHy jJ^\ahir. 
Crier, \j MftjjJbj dhandhoriya, ^^jl:^^ munadi. 
Criiic, j^ iJfjSP^ /iarf-gtr, cJlxA^ mursAigaf. 


Cuirassier, ^^^^^ baktar-posk. 
Cupbearer, ^L «5At, J^IO bakawal. 

164 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Darner, jS^ rafu^ar. 


Dervis, \J^^jj^ darwesh,jiSi fakir. 

Devotee, JJblj zaMd, JjU dbid, i/^^Vj Tiyazaft^ iSy^fiS^' 

Dier, iU-^ sabbagh^Jij ^^S^J Tang-rez, 

Digger, j^jJlj beUdoTj^O^ kodgar. 

c / o # 

Director (manager), J^ J^ jl^ kar-pardaz, ^ J^ kar-kun, J^ J&jss^ 

Disciple, .i^ ^A;A, J^L2« shagird, !L>- c/ieZa, a* 4.1 7 talmtz. 
Distiller, j\io I ab-kar,Ji^ kaldr, j^Jy* «iirin (m.), (dakh.) ^Ji^ kalal. 
Diver, (jo|^ gh awwa§. Wr* ^o,rjiyajj^ iioye. ghota-khor. 
Diviner, ^1j H-^ ghaibddn, \jy^ shuguniya : see Astrologer. 
Doctor, Jlfi a/im, i^^j^ maulawi (m.), cl>jjj pandit : see Physician. 

o o o ^ 

Doorkeeper, f^^j^^ darban or ^^|;[/^ daru)an,Jit} iAV*^ de'drhuddr. 

Drover, 1^4^ baldiya, ^b i^ galla-ban. 

Drudge, lAJ tahlu'a, ^A^i^^^ mi/inatt (m. f.)- 

Drummer, Uyb J dholiya, icfy^r^ tambur^cht^ j\y JJ? tabl-nawaz. 

Embroiderer, Jj J ^^j^ cAiftan-ciojzr, JjJjJ zar-doz. 

Enameller,j\^L»« mina-kdr. 

Enchanter,^^fc>\>- jorfii-gar, ji U>*^' q/itin-gar, j>-L» ^oAtr. 

Executioner, Si^jallad, u^JJ badhik. 

Factor, Agent, ^t3-2»Ui gumiisA^a, jlj^ j\^ kar-pardaz, jMS j^ kar- 

Falconer, j' J jb baZ'dar,j^j)^ ;^bJ» ^AaAtn-jpartrar. 

Farmer, ^^\jf kisan^ ^JX^ mt/Ai,^l>- chan,^*y ^^j zamtn^r. 

Vocabulary.'--'jyouns. 1 56 

Fencer, Cudgeller, jIj ^Jb paie-^baz, j^J^ lakar-baz. 
Ferryman, ^^,j^ gu$ar-ban, ^^iSb patnl, \J naiya* 
Fiddler, Lt}jL» sarangiya, j\y ^j\^ sarangl-nawaz. 
Fisherman, j^^U maAt-gir, |^fsr« nuichhwa, Lir»- jaliya. 

Footpad, jjij*!^ raA-zan,jb viy bat-par: see Robber. 
Forester, ^^b ^ ban-bos : see Ranger. 

Fortuneteller, i/;*x«^ samudrUA (m,), JLoj rammal, ^jof nu- 
junu (m.). 

Founder, Caster, \^^ kasera, (dakh.) jL^ io^ar : see Coppersmith. 
Friar, ^^/aArlr, JJblj zakid,jJ^ kalandar : see Monk. 

Fruiterer, (^J^^ ^[^ meworfarosh. 

Furbisher, Polisher,^ Jij-^ saikalrgar. 

Furrier, JL^^jy^^ samur-farosh, 

Fusileer, ^^j^j zatnbur^chl, ^<^jJcj banduJcrcIn, 

Gambler, Gramester, ^J^^ jwari (m.), jb J^ phar-baz, j\) j\aj 

General, j2ILa salary JLi »L«i gipah-salar, j\*^j^ sardar. 

Generalissimo, (jr^LMid senapat, \j^ l^^\ amiru-l-Hinara* 

Geometrician, (^jo^ muhandis, ^f J ^JcJb handasardan* 

Gilder, jl^ It tila-kar,/sj:^<^ koft-gar. 
Gla8s-maker,^41^ ahUha-gar, 

Glazier, SUjjs*- <i!UJ« slnsha jarnhwaH. 

Governess (female teacher), yT a^fiXf*)* 

Governor, a^W {lakim, J««U ami/, J^U navim^JCfj^ sardar. 

156 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Grammarian^ ^1 J jc^(»i^5ar/^a)itH2an, LflA^ ^yikaram. 
Grass-cutter^ \^ir^ gkasiyara. 
Grave-digger, ^j^ gor-kan. 

Grazier, ^^jj>- charwaha, ^|^ci];>^ charan&'Wala : see Shepherd. 

> *^ 

Groom, ^m£ L sals, Ju nafar, fj»»M«) sals» 

Gunner, jtoJ^goZandaz, If^ gulchaH, L<3li^«3Jj bandham. 
Haberdasher, ^L*; &t«a{j or ^^L^ &isa^I, \Jb patwa : see Pedler. 
Harper, ^^^^ 

Helmsman, .^^^f^ manjht (m.), ^Km» sukkant (m.) : see Steersman. 
Herald, ^5^^ murndty b ««ftJcJbJ dhandKoriya, 

« c o 

Herdsman, ^^\)^ galhrban, bjL baldiya, ^^;i^ charwaha. 
Hermit, ^^^JU^^ goshornishtn, ^^^JLjCDJL:^ khalwat'tiishtn. 

Highwayman, ^J 2f|^ roA-zan, jLaS iE:a22:ai^: jb lL^ baf-par. 

^ b 

CO of 


Historian, ^ i^ mu^arrikk^ ^j^j rairt. 

Horsebreaker,j1jMi cl^l>^ cAa6tfX>>sau?ar,j1|M^ shahrsawar. 

Horse-doctor, ^^/^^ saBtari, j\kj baitar, 

y c ^ c/ 

Horseman (trooper), ^1^ sowar jj^J^^ barpr^j^ya i^y turk-sawar. 
Hosier, <-JVw^^ mo;?e-5af, iJ^^y^jy* moze-farosh. 
Hostler, ^^ L 1^ (J^ ^j\:^. bhathiydri IchavZ kd sals. 

oc o 

Housebreaker, IjbJCi^ sendhiya, ^jk^^ nakb-zan. 

Hunter, Huntsman, jbjlLS* shikar-baz, jL^ saiyad. 
Jailer, ^Vv^ ^ ^^^j^ bandt-^jane kd nigahbdn. 
Jester, if^is-*^ tndsM^ra, (funny fellow) jb 15^^ f AaMc-ftiar, 

• 9 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 167 

Inlayer,^l^k£.^vj^ munabbat-kar. 

Innkeeper, \;L^ bhatkiyara,ji^ kalar, (dakh.) JK kalal. 

Interpreter, ^^^^/ tarjuman, \JL\^^J do-bhashiya. 

Jockey, j|^ <^-^^ cAa&tei-i^atoar, jl^ ^ati^ar, j|^«i^ ihahrsawar. 
Joiner, t<^ barUdHjJ^^^ sutar : see Cartwright, Carpenter. 

Judge, ^<<^\i ^azi (m.), a^W pakim, im^Q»0\^ mu7i§if, ,Ai^ mufii. 

- / ^ ^ If *" 

Jo^ler, j\jii>- fiuJ^ka-baZy jcj <^j dlthrbandyj\»^^ batierbaz. 

Justice (of the peace), ^IS J^zi : see Judge. 

CO ' ** J 

Keeper, jl^^^ rakh'Wala, ^Uib\x» nigSA-ftan. 

Labourer, j^*3^ mazdur, ^^j3ix* mifinait (m. f.), ^Jj ifci«Zi. 

Land-steward, jlyb j7atoar, J^]j«« sazawaL 
Land-surveyor or -measurer, jji^c--^^ jarih-kash. 

Language-master, ^J^^:^ mtfiuAt, i^^T a^Aun, j\s«il vstad. 

m f 

Lecturer, ijmj^^ mvdarris : see Professor, Preacher. 

Lexicographer, ^^^\j:^ lughaUnawis. 

Librarian, ^jU l^ 4jl>><-^\i^ ktiab-khane kd darogha. 

Lighterman, )l1jj^ bkar-wala, JU \^ J^ iAar ^a mallah. 
Limner, j$c:^j«0 pirat^gar, jy^^ mufauunr : see Painter. 

o o c 

Mace-bearer, jfjj^ chob-dary J\Cfji^y» sdnQ-bardar. 
Machinist, jLiJ^ kal^az^^s::,^,^:^^ fan'at-gar (?). 
Magician, ^jW* jadu-garfjj^] afmnrgar, (^j^j bhokas. 

o «. 

Magistrate, j1j^y/aii;<2ar, ^U Aax7, a^U- iiakim: see Judge. 
Major<lomo, (JlUi^ kulkulan,JS 'l/ir* ^''^^''^A*^^* 

168 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

9 U O 

Manager, j^j^jl^ ft5r-gu§5r,jlCl-j peshkar: see Director. 
Manufacturer, ^j\^ Aari gar, jUj--»4> dast-kar: see Artificer. 

Mariner. JU mallah. ...Lcyl^ kishii-ban: see Sailor. 

o / 

Mathematician, ^b ^^^ riyazl-dan^ ^^jc^y^ muhandU. 

Mechanic, jj;\^ kangar, Ai^ Jjbt ahl4rAirfa,j^iJL^ pesIta'War. 

Mendicant, \i^ gadif [jtiju*^ darweshjjMfalciry J!i^ jangam. 

Messenger, Jk^^l! Aoficf, 5;\^ harkara, d^^J elii^, ^^^^Jd^i $andui* 

Midwife, i^'li^ 4^*^^ dal'jaml. 

Milkman, S|ybJ^ dudh-wata : Milkmaid, ^\^J^J dudhHwaU. 

Miller, };l^:i«»^ pUan-Jiara. 

Minister (of state), ^J^ trojsir, ^^'j^ pardhan : see Priest 

Mint-master, ^jjb \^ JU3 faX»a2 ka daro gha . 

Monk, ^jti^jJ darwhhf jJi fakir i i3Jb|j zahid, if]/it hairagu 

Muleteer, ^j^ khachchar-ban. 

Musician, (^Jo^ mutrib, ^jJ^ mughannt. d^^ kalawant. 
Mustermaster, ^jcj^ ariz, \\S karora, S xJj}j>> jffiza-glr. 

CO *i '<* 

Musketeer^ jljcJ^ barkandaz, :^j^^*^ bandulcchu 


Navigator, JU mallaff, ^W^ kUhttban, jc^'U manjht (m.). 

Necromancer, jSJjU. jadugarj jU Jy (one'baZjj^Lt saAir. 

«• • 

Needle-maker, jTjjiJ^ sozatirgar. 
Notary, j^ J da&ir. 

Nurse (of a sick person), jljjU-^ lUmar-dar. 

Nurse (of a child), ^\ anni, bb cfa^a (f.), i^ ' J rfa*?. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 169 

Nurse (wet), cf w j^ 1 J dal-pila*!, (dry) c/ a^ 4^ ^O dSl-^khilSl. 

Nurse (male), bf J cta^a, bl anna. 

Oculist, JUr ka^^al, Lfi^ sathiya (?). 

Officer,^! J v,,^^v^ man^ah-daryj^ii ns^^ uhda'dar, J^i^ja sardar. 
Oilman, Oil-merchant, ^^^ teli, jL^ji ^^j rau gh an-farosh. 


Ostler, (^l-i ^a'w, jIjVj^ chirwadar (?) : see Groom. 

Overseer, VJj^ karora, ^^•j\j darogha, ,-«=«Ui&1 ihtimamchl. 
Palmister, ^Jj*i>A^ samudriki, 4/;^ bhadri (m.). 
Papermaker, fc^3^^ kaghazu^ j^l^ kaghaz-gar. 
Parcher of grain, Isf^^^ bharhhunja. 

- -^ o 

Pastor, ^b i^ galla4fanf ^^^ chaupan, ^U-^U pashauj (spiritual 
guide) ji^gurfi, v^oU Aa^, Jk-^ murshid. 

Pastry-cook, 4^ IjU- fudwaH. : see Confectioner. 

Patcher, JjJ ir^b para-doZjJS JJj-j paiwand-kar. 

Paver, Pavier, Jcj ^^^ farsh-band. 

Pawn-broker, jJ!sjbiX:j bandhahgirf y^j^ murtahin: see Banker. 


Paymaster, (<a^'^/>- khazanrchty .J^^ bakhshh (general) ^J^^ 1^ 

Pedler, ^<t>b-^ bisoR (m), ^jj^ u:^.-*) dast-fardsh, bj^ pkariya. 
Penman, (^y (ji^ Mv^^-^^t^^^ tUaiJ^ Mt^t&h 

CO « o 

Perfumer, |J^»Xii gandhi (m.),j\l3^ aj[lar, {J^ )o£' atr-farosh. 
Pewterer, L^ kasera : see Brasier. 

9 u ^ 

Philosopher, ui^Li f^^^ft yj^ fol^ofi (m.), |»JI>> ^aktm. 


160 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Physiognomist, |/;<X«^ samtuirUd, ^t j ^Li kiyafordan. 
Pickpocket, li^ f^^^^^^ip^-jeb-katrayji A«^ ftt^a-ftur. 

Pilgrim, <*s^l afi*, s^U-j*a/ri (m.), ^L.i «aiyaA, (to Mecca) 
%7 (m.). 

m f <* C 

Pilot, Jjc^ mu^aUim, ^^j\ arka(i,j\ibi^ ^ karnrdhar. 
Pioneer, Lj^ Zuntya, jIjIj bel-dar. 

Pirate, ^^s^J dcJcait,^J daku: see Robber. ' 

Plaiter,^^^ uttu-gavy ^yj\ urtu-gar* 

Planter, i^4 kS^ri (m.), JoJ.agr' ndkhlband: see Gkundener. 

Plasterer, jJL^ kasgar. 

m CO O 

Player (stage), JUi ndfckaly L^Cj j>eAAniya, i^V' Strang! (m.)* 
Ploughman, ^^Jj^ hal^dta, \jb\^ halwahaj J3^ jotar. 
Plumber, ^^^^^ (^^ ^ lT**^ '^^^ ^ kam-kamewala. 
Poet,^l& shffxry i^^ kab^jLJ^ kablshar, J^^^iif^ sujdum-sanj. 
Polisher, j^J&Mtf ^aUcaUgaty^i^ jUJa^gaTj {^^ gKotati'har. 

Porter, (carrier) j^J^jV barbardar, U5^ motiyif ^JS i^^Zt : see Door- 
Postman, L^\j dakit/a, dJ^ iosid, (dakh.) Jlj JU taj^aUoala. 

Potter, jlfii^ kumhar,JLS kasgar, (dakh.) j\^ kunbar. 

CP o/ 

Poulterer, "i^^^Jj^ murght-wald. cr2/?j^ murghrfarosh. 
Preacher, lac|^ u^a'ts, j> ^^ ^<^^SOy Uy^ jn^w Jdiatib. 
Preceptor, *>\a-i^ ustad, ^^^T aJdmn, Jx* mu'allim. 
Prefect, ^^^ >laXcim : see Governor. 
Prelate, Primate, ^U\ imam, <Xo:2^ mujtahid. 

Vocahulary.^^Nouns. 161 

lb balArnishin^ ^jJlst^mo mir-i majlis. 
Priest, y^ gMrM,j-^pIr, c:^^ j^uroAif : see Preacher, Prelate. 

- / C m 9 

Professor (teacher), ^j*^^ mudarrisy clX^b pathak, Jjt*« mu'allim. 
Prophet, ^<J naJi (m.), -.«ij pai gh ambar. ^j rikh. 
Pursuivant, J^Lj ya8awal,j\jj^ clioh-dar. 
Purveyor, o;^«^ bhanddrJ, J^hSj^ sarbarah-kar. 

Quarter-master, Jh^ j:^« iwir-i nianzil, cJpj^ mlr-utuzuk. 
Ranger (of a forest), J^l^ karawalj J^j^^ mir-shikdr. 

CO X c 

Recorder, jl JJia-S» j^ sar-rishta-dar, (j-iy ^fc> daftar'tiawls. 
Renter, ,^J^ JAarai^i, j^ J^^Wl ijdrorddr, Jnii^}^ kirayorddr. 
Retailer, crj/»t>;^ khurda-farosh, IjJ^j phariyd. 

^ XL 

Robber, j^ cAor, \5^ choitdj c:^J dakait, i^y^j rdh'Zan, 

Ropedancer,jX^U bdzt-gar, \^ waftra, jb^^^ ro^an-iaz. 

Ropemaker, J^^*;*<^ ra5an-5a2r. 

Rower, ^^JJb ddndl, *^^ khewat, CJ^ kkewak. 

Ruler, fS^ hdkim, J^lc a^if/, J9I} naafim, (or dakh.) ^lla} nizdm. 

Sailor, JL* malld^, ^^j\^ jahdzt (m.), ^^ kAaldsl (m.). 

Salt-maker, iJ J luniyd, ^S^ malangl, Ijy noniyd. 

Sawyer, ^J^^j^ arra-kashf ^^^ kardntl. 

Scarifier, A^ hajjdm. 

Scholar, .^ sikh, JpU» shdgird: see Disciple, Student. 

Schoolmaster, ^yS^ dldmriy ^jfr^J^n^ miydn-jt (m.), i^ mulld. 

Schoolmistress, ^)U mulldnly y\ dtu (f.), (dakh.) ^^yT dtun. 

1 62 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Scullion, ^{Sfi^ deg'sho. 

Sculptor, i^J/c:-^ but-tarashj JL\sj nakkash, (J^y{^>:>*^ sang-tarash, 

OP Of 

Secretary, JLi^ munsJii (m.), ^.IJi^ -^^ rMr-munsKiy -J J ddblr. 

Sentinel, Sentry, ^^U^b pasbdn, Ij^ pahriya, j^*^^)>- chaukl-dar. 

Servant, ^^ naukar, ^\j>' chikar, Jsk^*x^ khidmat-gar. 

Shaver, /♦^^s^ byjanif v^i-ol3 nopt^ : see Barber. 

Shepherd, ljlyiJ-|J bhefihara, ^^^ galhrbanj (dakh.)^^J dhangar. 


Shoemaker, ^c^y^ mdchiyj^^jLJ^ kafsh-doz, jU>- chamar. 

Shopkeeper, LiJ baniya^ J^^^^^i dukan-dar, i^^^*^ dukani (m.). 

Skinner, ^icw^ post-kan, ^L^ sallafdi, jU»- cAamar. 

Slave, 2f Jcj banda, ^)U ghulaniy L^ cAeZa, 1 jJj) launda, ^^1 J do^. 

Slave (female), i/^V bandi, i^«^jS laundl, CJ^ kanizak (f.). 

Slave merchant, ij^/^^ji barda-farosh. 
Smuggler, j\aj\^ ghat-mar, ji^^^ chaukt-mar, 

Snake-catcher,^;^l« mdr-gir, jS gum (m.). 

Snake-keeper, |;«^ ^ampera. 

Soap-boiler or -maker, /^y^\^ sabun-gar. 

Soothsayer, tij aTT agamrbakta, ^^ kahin, JU; ramma/. 

Sophist, liJ tiSi-o bat'bana, ,j:js^ hujjad (m.), jJ^ ^f^* 
Sorcerer,^^^^ af sun-gar , \jSy^^ bhoka^, ^y^^ jadw-gar. 

O / CO 

Sorceress, ^J y^ jadU-garmy ^^^xi^ kankalin^ s^Vj^ t5nAa7. 
Spearman, ^^-^^^ barchhait, j^i^ji xj^ neza-bardar. 
Spinner, Spinster, (j^J^^ ckar^zan, ^^IfJl^ fto^anAan (f.)- 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 1 63 

Sportsman, ;bjlC& shikar-baz, c5;l^ shikari^ ^ja^^ ahlriya. 

Standardbearer, j^J^ ^lU nu^Aan-fiarcfar, Lil^ haira^-i (m.). 
Stationer, 4^«Xcl^ ka gh azi : see Bookseller. 

Steersman ^^Xu»f>- jhtngat, ^jj\s:^ kandari (m.) : see Helmsman. 

c t, • 

Steward ^ULjU- khansaman^ l-£j^a^ bhanddri (m.), J^^ bakawal. 
Steward (agent), k^J^^J^ karbarl (m.), ^;^^^ diwan : see Factor. 
Stonecutter, /jil J t^g,^- « sanz-tarash : see Carver, Sculptor. 

O 0<<0 / 

Student, aU] I ^Jll? talibu-l-ilm or Jlcl^U^ ,fa2i&-t iZm. 
Sugar-boiler, ^Jj\^ kandu. Sugar-seller, ^^J^ shahar-farosh^ 
Sutler, ]j\ify> bhathiyara, (dakh.) |;USfJ bhatVara. 
Sweeper, ^^iy^ mihtar, ,jtiji^\^ jkaru-kash, yjS t^^J^ jarub-kash. 
Swimmer, Ci^ pairak^jj^ shinawar. 


Swordman, Swordplayer, ^jj^j^.4.A shamsher-'Zan, ujyjf talwariya. 

Targetier, us-^JUbJ dhalait. 

Tavern-keeper, jK kalar,Ji^ kalwar, ];-^ bhangera. 

Tax-gatherer, j^J^V ftS^-dorjj'jJu-^Ms? tahsildar. 

^ ••>• '^ 

Tenant, jb <ol^ kiraya-ddry f^:^^j ra'aiyat, i^jH bharaitt (m.). 

Tent-maker, j^*^ij^ Idiaima'doz, JjJ 2r;U para-doz. 

y 9 

Testator, ^y^ mu§ii. Testatrix, ^yc tnunya. 

Thatcher, jcj^^-^ chhappar-bandy b^^ chhawaiyaj ^]j^ ghar- 

ami (m.)* 
Thief, j^ cAor, C^ cAo/^a, JjJ duzdyi^ taskar. 

Thietcatcher, jb^ nazar-baZyjS Jjd duzd-gtr. 

1 64 Vocabulary — Nouns, 


Thrasher, b JljbJ dhanwaiya. 

Tiler, Jcj {jj^ khapre-band. 

Timber-merchant, l^lfcjfl lakarkara, {J^i^ /^ Kezamrfarosh. 

TinmaD,^^«lS kaVt-garj yj^j rassa§. 

Tirewoman, ^\JL^ mashshata (f.), i^-^lrvi p^^f^ra'dnl. 

Tobacconist, jT^^IjJ tambakvrgar^ crj/^V^ tambaku-farosh. 

Toll-gatherer, b Ju J dandiya : see Tax-gatherer. 


Torchbearer, ^<f:^*^ mash^al-chlfjit^^ is^A^ falita-bardar. 

Toyman, (^jy *=?IjV baztcha-farosh, )j^]j rdngbhara. 

Trader, Tradesman, ^ J^ saudagary v^Lj baiparl : see Artificer. 

/ c o / 

Translator, (^y ^^'^'^ry tarjuma-nawls, >>y3^ mutarjim. 

Traveller,yL-« musafir, ^U-a saiyah, ^^ batohi (m.)« 

Treasurer, L^qf^)/*- khazancht (m.), Vj^jJj ^okariya, jb Ji*as* tahwil- 

c c. ^ ^ -^ o,* 

Trooper, j'^ sawar, \jby>^^ ghur-charhayJ^^CJp turk-sawar. 
Tumbler, ^jb bazigar^ Li^ naf,jb51^ kalorbaz, ^^ kautuki (m.). 
Turner, ^5*3l^ kharadi (m.), ^J/^ IduirrM (m.), Ll^ Iduirrat. 
Tutor, jJUl atalik, (^y^Ji akhun^ (patron) j<j^ murabbi (m.) : see 

Vamisher, |^-^ lakhera. 

s. s 

Vicegerent, i%l(U Mi\j kcCim makam, c^Uc c^.b na'ib manab. 
Viceroy, jlj<Jbj*tf fuba-dar, L^\y nawwab: see Vicegerent. 
Victualler ^j^jb l^ a-y ro^a^ ka daro gh a : see Purveyor, Sutler. 

Vocabulary Nouns. 166 

Vintner, {J^^j^ ^ mai-farosh : see Distiller. 
Usher, ^JLj ^Jo^ arz-begi : see Mace-bearer. 

Waiter, L^^ parosaiya, J^LoJ^ khidmatgar. 

Warden, t^j^^j*^ darwazi (m.), Li^J\^ darogha : see Keeper. 

Warrior, ,^*^ J^wgi (m.), JjL« him Jariar, ^ jl^ bahadur. 

Washer-man, ^^^^ dhobt (m.), CS^j rajaky jjlT gazur. 

Washer-woman, ^^,^ dkobin (f.), jj^Si^ barethan. 

Watchman, jIju!^^ chaukldar, jjU^lj pasban, ^j^^pahru. 

Water-carrier, ^/^^i^ bihishti (m.), jlilfT abkar, liLi saklca. 
Water-cooler, jl J c-^l a&-(far. 

Waterman, cJL;^^ khewaty -1« mallah : see Water-carrier, 
Wharfinger, j^yi^gAaitrar or ^\y^ ghatwaL 
Wiredrawer, ^J3 tar-kash. 


Wizard, {j^y^, bkokas, i^jx:,^ jantri : see Magician. 
Wood-cutter, ]^libj^ lakar-kara, J^i ^jJb hezam-kash. 
Woodmonger, ^jj/ /^J-A hezam-fardshy IjUjfl lakar-hara. 
Workman, jxjjl^ karlgar, \j^ kaniera, JCx^ti dastkar. 

Wrestler, rb-T^^il^ kushti-gtr or 'gar,jh j:zS kushtt-baz. 
Writer, ^^^«^ muharrir, cl^^CJ Rkkak, c-^l^ X:a^i&, ^Slj rakim. 
Writer (one in the Company's service), ^xa^ mutasaddi. 
Writingmaster, ^j3 ^^^Jt^ Mv^^ natrls : see Master. 

Of Meats and Drinks, 
Food, Victuals, l3l^ khanay c£\j^ Idvurakij^y Vds-gkiza (f.), ij>-^. 
bhojan^ ^4 y^j ra^l,J^ ahar (or vulg.jW aAar), C^y kut. 

166 Vocabulary. — Noutis. 

Drink; i^jL shurb. Meat and Drink , c«^ j ^ aklo shurb, 

Fodder, 2r^l>- cAara, ^jJ^ ghas, c;-?b ^jm\p ghas-pat. 

Grain, Com, ^ ghalla^ ^l3l ano/y ^^^ £?ana, aoT tukhm. 

Rice (cleared of the husk, but not cooked), JjU- diawalj Jy^ 
chanwal, t^ji birinj, JjcJ tanduL 

Rice (boiled), CL^l^; 5Aa^, ilO^^ Miushka. 

V CO-* 

Rice-milk, ^^ AAir (f.), ^J i ^rni, ^yi -^^ hawikh-firni. 

Wheat, {^y^gchunj aJc^^ gaTidum, (dakh. also) i^ya^ ghyaun. 
Flour, Meal, CT 5/5, jj 5rrf, i^*^ sup, ^Lj j9t55n. 

Flour of Wheat, 15T l^ ,j[;^gcAfiri A5 5f5. 

Flour of pulse (especially of U^ Cicer arietinum), ^^^^ besan. 

Flour, fine or twice sifted, 5Ju^ maida. 
Bread, ^^j rott, ^\j nan (f.). 

Thick Bread, Loaf, ci>«j rot, ^^j roth 

Small loaf of bread. Cake, ^J2 tikkt, StiS girda, ^^^f^ kulicha. 

Parched grain, \p Idwa, J^ khll (f.), \;..,>.>- cAa&e7i5, i/*^ thuddi^ 

Parched grains reduced to meal and made into a paste, ji^ sattu. 
Parched grain ofjl^Jo'5r orl^b &5;V5, J^pariwaZ. 

Milk, JbJ^O <f5<f A, .Ja ^Atr, ^ pax, fj^j^ goras, J!f€^ cAAtr. 

o o c 

Butter, ^^^^ makkhan, ^jf^ makhan, iLm>^ maska, ^^ Tte'un. 
Butter clarified by boiling and straming, ^jf ght (m.). 

Buttermilk, «f>*l^ chhachh (f.), l^ maf,/Aa, f^J doyA. 
Thick sour coagulated Milk, ^JbJ ^aAt (m.). 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 167 

Cream; ^^\c malal, i^J^ sari. 

Whey, ^^^ ^U fna*U'l-jubn, ^b \^ jbO^J cftkfA Aa pani, Jy ^or. 

Curd, (^ chakka, ^«^ cAAena. 

Cheese, ^^ panlr. Round (of a cheese), i<^^ chaktS. 

Meat, Flesh, l::^^^ goM^, ^U ma7i«, (dakh. also) |^ Kera. 

O O ^ 

Broth, Soup, ^^ shorba or |;ij^ «Ao?ti?5, (j^frjus^ <J^ pareh. 
Porridge, Pottage, -— -! lapsi, (j^ ash (f.) : see Broth. 
Flammery, 2f JjIU fdluda : see Porridge, Rice-milk. 
Gravy, l:,^j> u^\ db-i-gosht, (ji>fr^^ ab-josh, ^^AssT yajdini. 
Roast meat, ^\S kabab, c-^li \J^ sikhiyd kabab. 

Stew (of meat), cs^-^ /•*> damrpukht, i^sdsr yakhnt. 

Curry (said to be from the Arab. fJi), ^U safan, UL 5a/na. 

A certain dish made of flesh and rice, ^'1) puVaHo. 

Meat dressed dry with onions, ^ly^O dopiyaza. 

Minced meat. Hash, ^uJ ktma. 

Pie, 4..«ij^ sambosaj ^yk^ samosa. 

Forced meat, fc,^ j>i/ri. Pounded meat, isi^ kofta. 

Beef, \:L^f^ ^^\ ga'e ka gosht, cuwfcjf /\^ ga'o gosht. 
Mutton, <^uJ»^\^J^ ftAer Aa gosht, 


Veal, cs^jS l^ vjfJf^C JacAAre fta go«A^. 
Pork, cr^jT 1^ jl^ «u'ar Aa gosA^. 
Ham, j^]^ ran (f. m.). 
Lamb, Kid, ci^jT l^ ^|;^ halwan ka gosht. 

168 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Venison^ vjl^jTI^ ^jXb haran ka goskt. 
Hare, Rabbit, {J'fj^ khargosh^ \^^ lambha. 
Fish, tJfsr« machkR, 

Fowl, 4^ murgh. 

Wild fowl, 4^ s^^}^^^ Jo,n^ murgh. 

Turkey, ^ J-^^Z mwrg^, j^ /jerfi. 

Peacock, j^ mor. Peachick, Ij^ murela. 


Goose, (^Ib Aan«. 

O 9 

Duck, Waterfowl, ^^;^ tnur gh abu 


Pigeon, J)^ kabutar, (^^ kapot. 

Vegetables (esculent). Greens, (^j^J> tarkari, ^^\^ bhaji. 

O* 9s, O/ 

Sausage, UK kulma, ^y^ langucha, iJ^ kulma. 


Pastry, Pasty, d^^^ sambosa, l^]^ pardtha, ^-l^ khajd. 
Sweet cakes fried in butter. See, "iSJS gulgula. 

- / 

Confection, Conserve, Jam, Preserve, iJ^^ murabba. 
Sweetmeat, (^ l^ mitkdl, |^1>- haltvd, ^11 Jodtfii. 

Egg, )JJ* anda, ^4?j baiza. 
Omelet, ^^\^ khaglna. 

Rice-water, Rice-gruel, .^acu |7tcAA (f.), (dakh.) ^J^ g^vfi* 

Barley-water, Watergruel, ^c/-T dshrijau. 

Water, ^JU p5ni (m.), mT 56, Jflj- JaZ. 

Wine, Spirituous liquors, ^->)/5» «AaraJ (f.), ^-^ mai (f.), J^ mad. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 1 69 

Arrack (from the Arab, j/i arak^ juice, spirit), ^^Jflj tan (toddy), 

^jbX,^ sendht. 

Beer, Ij^ Mara or 5;^ boza. 

Tea, U cAa (f.). 

Coffee, 2r^ kahwa, (unground) ^ dun. 

Breakfast, %Jj^\^ pazirt, S^V u)^ nan-i-naAan, \sJ»\j nashta. 

Luncheon, Tiffin, cold meat, \^ kalewa, isJ^\j nashta, (j:^W> 

chasht (f.). 

Dinner, \j\^ khana (eating), (UU- MjAs^a. 

Sapper, gr;U; bj/ari, iLc asha, \j\^ ^ izJ\j rat ka khana. 

SpiceSy Condiments. 
Spices, Condiment, Seasoning, J~^ ma§alik,j\^^ baghar. 


Salt, ^^ Ion, iZJUj namak, (rock) Ujci^ sendka. 
Pepper, -— j-« wiircA (f.), Jili ^Z/iZ (f.). 

Pepper, black, — -^ J^ goZ wiircA (f.), ^^ ^Jl^ AaZi mirch, ^j^ 

mirch (f.). 
Pepper, red or Capsicum, ^j^ JS lal mirch (f.). 

Co c 

Ginger (dry), ^^ «5n«A (f.), J-ff?0 ^«^'«**^ (f-)- 

Ginger (undried), cl^t«i>^ adrak (f.), ^Jt a^fa. 

Clove, v2^^ laung (f.), Jiy karanfal. 

Mace, ijp^^ jawatri or l^/^ jatvitrt, <uU«j basbasa. 

Cinnamon, j<'i-*^^'^ darcAint. 

Nutmeg, J^ v/V i«'« ;>A«^> j^ i«W2r. 

Allspice, Jamaica pepper, Myrtus pimenta, ,Aj^ Jj^ sitoZ cKm 



170 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Turmeric, ^^jjjb haldi, <--^ *>;J ^rarrf cAo6 (f.), u^M, P*^^* 

SafFron,^^---^ Aesar (f.), ^2;]ji^) za^faran (f.). 

ADise-seed, («J}^ saunf{i,\ ^y^\ arusun. 

Cumin-Beed, ^;-5f- JtrS, |^ ztra^ ^y£ kammun. 

Mustard-«eed, ^f^, r57, J J^ khardal, u-iA^ sarshaf, 4^y ^Sji. 

Pickles, jl>>t ocAar. Pickle (brine), ^U ^^^-Cij namktn pam (m.). 

Apparel, Dress. 
Apparel, Clothes, Dress, |^ kapra, ^^U /tia«, C/l^^ plosKak (£.)• 

Hat, ^ <5pi, *5I^ AaKA (f.). 


Cap, *K hilah (f.), ^l? %', L<iy ?5pi. 

Turban, yj€^ P<^gr^> iiA> |?5g (f.), \;-^ cAira,^ls-*J dastar (f.). 
Tiara, Diadem, Crown, «^\j> ^o;, CJLk mukut, j0^\ afsar. 
A kind of Turban, <^Uc amama. 

Ornaments for the turban, Jjjcw« maiu;RZ(f.)> ^ \[ lAjJ^^ sar^sh or 
-pEcA, *jl^ b -5fu Ji^ gdsh'plch or -tcara, *^ji^j ^ kalghi, 

2[^ jPurra. 
Veil (woman's), «Jj burka^, iS^^ ghunghat (f,), 

Veil or woman's cloak, i^J^Jj^ orhnl. 

Handkerchief, JUj^ rumal, \^y^\ angochha : see Neckcloth. 
Neckcloth, J^^ guluband. 


Necklace, )tc ma/a, j<^S:>^ 

Shirt, Chemise, c^am«j Aami^ ^^ kurta. 



« / 

Long vest resembling a shirt, A^jubba. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 171 

Co o 

Waistcoat, ^Jjf- cAo/i, l^^l angarkha, ^fjfatuhh 
Bodice^ Stays, ^^ choli, \Jj\ angiya (f.), j^^ nuihram. 
Coat, ^i kurtij uj\ flnga, ^^< angarkha. 
Cloak, Greatrcoat, J^/ farghul (f.), ^_^|;V iarani, « JU Zttiada. 

Gown (female's), jly;-J jDwAwaar (f.), ui3j ^ifaA (f.). 
Gown (male's), Robe, ^\;r Jama, ^^|;-J pairahan. 
Frock, iS^jhagulaj U/ *ur^a, lUj da gh la. 

C, Co/ CO c 

Jacket, t^'b^ iwirza'i, &1 awga, dJ/ ftt^rte, \4p\ angarkha. 

9 * 

Mantle, arjU lubdda, yb j:iaf fii ; see Cloak. 

Drawers, Trousers, Pantaloons, ^ulacrb pffejama, ^\^ tumban or 

tamban, ^j^ shar%J^^ 8hilwarfJ<j\ izar (f.), J^jj/-* «rti?aZ. 
Garter, jcj 2fj^ moza-batid, ^Jj pattt. 

Grirdle, <XJ^ kamarband, UISj patka. 

Breeches (short), U^W JangAiya, l^^ff^ kachhna, U^ chama. 

Breeches (that reach below the knees, and fit tight), (dakh.) ^^ 


Cloth worn round the waist and passing between the legs, {^J^ lung^ 
^^J^ lungt, Jcj ^ tah'band, ^y^ langoti. 


Belt round the loins, to which the langoti is attached, ^U^Jf tasma, 


jJ|^J du'ali. 

Petticoat, ul^ lakanga or ^Si^ Ihanga^ ^jS^ gJ^CLghrij ^L say a. 
Night-clothes, ^J^y^ «^-^ shab-Jdmaln. 

Stocking or Sock, i^\j>^jurraby ^lajjb pa*etaba. 

9 9 C 

Shoe, Slipper, V^^ jw^a, ^y^juii, <^yjj pa;?5.9A (f.), ^ fta/5rA (f.). 

/ O O ^ 

172 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Booty ijyc mozaf ^uC>- chakma : (leg of) v^ |^ pawal* 

Glove, ^l::u4j dastana. 

Ear-ring, |r^|^j^ goshwara: (kind of), J^ ^j^ kam-jfhiil, ICc^ 

Ring, (worn on the finger) ijjit>j\ angushtari, (on the thumb) 

^\il£t angushtana. 

Rbg, (worn in the nose) »fj nath, ^Vf^ nathnt, jSb &tt2a/c 

•• ^ 

besar (f.). 
Bracelet, cj?;^ cAfiri, ^J^ kangan, Jcj^'b bazurband. 

Button, ^uC tukmay i^iM^ ghundt. 

9 c 

Buckle, c/-);-^ chapras (f.) : (tongue of) |^— baksu'd. 

b Co c o 

Clasp, t/-];-f^ chapras, i^j^'\ ^S jV/ *^ band karrie kt ankji, 


A Building, Edifice, CJ^jUc imarat (f.)« 


Wall, iW cKtrar (f.), %JU--^ JAi^ (f.), J|^.«^ dtwal {{.). 
Roof, ^^"^ chhat (f.), \J^ chhan (f.), (of thatch) ^^^^j- chhappar. 
Arch, Vault, Dome, Cupola, jU? /a/c, juiT gumiaf, Li kuhba. 
House, Mansion, j^gAar, ^^^ haweli, ^J^ kotht, J.fir* mahalL 

Dwelling, Abode, ^UU makan, ^«^C«^ maskan, Ul$^ MtAana. 

CO ^ 

Cottage, Cot, Hut, i^J^j^ jhdmpri, ^ kufi. 

Cj^ >» Cr CO 

Palace, <0\fi^j J dall2a^^ana,y.^ Xrafr,^ JCi^^^l; rqjtnandir. 
Castle, Fort, ^bJi Arafa (Hind. kiVa\ Jbjf garhf j\*a>^ hisar. 

Tower, Bastion, Bulwark, ^j) bujj. 

Obelisk, Steeple, Minaret, d^^i Zaf (f.), ^ lath (f.), jL^ mtnar. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 173 

Pillar^ Column^ ^^^i^^ khambh, f^fi^ satun, ^^ thuni, ^ rukn. 
Temple (Mahommedan)^ iXs**^ mayid (f. a mosque)^ s^jl^ mc^bid. 

Temple (Hindu), JjjJ dewal^jt^x^ mandir, l^J cfeAra. 
Shrine, *l^ dargah (f.)> j|/« wwurar (m. f.). 
Altar, i^«XJ &ic2i, ^^ ^J^,/ kurbanrgah (f.)> <f<«^ mazbih. 
Church, Chapel, ^.iJi^ katisa, ^^ girja, Ju«^ ma bid. 

Bridge, Jj ;>tiZ, ij:^>-^ «c^. 

Inn, 4/ y« «ara'e (f.), ^ls>.^L^ musafir-khana. 

Storehouse, Magazine, Granary, (o^ makhzan^ ^^ kotht. 

Cow-house, ^L^ gausala,j\^ sar, d^ kkarak, \^^ hotha. 

Stable, J^^ ghursaly ^yj^\ i^tabal, ^jb tawtla. 

Elephant stable, ^IsM fjlkhana. 

Shop, Warehouse, ^^^ dukan (f.), ci^U Aa/ (f.)i (^^(^ dukan({,). 

Workshop, ^U.^!^ kar-M^na, z^J^ kar-gah (f.), j^lijJ Ju/:an (f.). 

Gate, Door, cl^l^ phatak, ^|^j^ darwaza, c^^ j^aKrt. 

Gateway, Porch, Threshold, jJjbJ dahUz (f.), y^j^j^ dewrkt, (dakh.) 

»^J de'or?. 
Window, Casement, ^J^ khirkl,\^^j^jharokhd. 
Floor, ^^j 2ramln (f. ground), (of cement) ^ gach, (of plank) <tea 

i^Jcj takhtorbandi. 

CC c / 

Chamber, Room, Apaiiment, ]^ kamara, \^j^^ kothrl, x/b^ hujra. 
Closet, Cabinet, dljlaTjU. IdkalwaUlMSLnaj HjJ^ kujra, iJi»f gbsha. 
Cell, ij;*?* hujra^ iJ^^ gosha, tJ^ kulba^ ^j^f kothrl. 


174 Vocabulary.^^Noun3. 

Hall, f^J dalan, ^\^ aiwan, (of entrance) j^bjJ dar efa2an. 


Dining room, ^l^ c^^^S^ mihman^khana. 

Hall of audience, jl^J darbar, <0U- jj;|^fc> diwan-Ichana. 

Kitchen, JJU- ^<>^^V hawarchu^iana, ^^^ matbakh. 

Balcony, Gallery, ^U- )lb balarkhanaf ^^JU ^ shah-nighin* 

Verandah, 2(4X«Uj bar-amada. 

Garret, 31b dli? toft^a 65Z5, t/^j^ ^ ^^ j^ ^;;\^ jna*5n ftc upar Ai 

Theatre, Playhouse, «\S l&UJ tanMs/id-gah (f.), ^U- Jm naAf^Aawa. 

Brick, cJiJ^ tnt (f.), ii-1^ MwA« (f.). 


Tile, ]w^ khapra, b J nariya, v.s.-JLr>- MwA^ (f.). 

Stone, ^;fj patthar, ^\^ pakhan, J-» «tZ (f.), cA-> «ang. 

Mortar, Plaster, -|C> gcuih, ^s>s^ rejdita. 

Thatch, ^\^gha8 (f.), Jbj^ iAarA (f.). 

Glass, ^\^ kanch, C^ shtsha : (pane of) <iSl^ parkdla. 

Beam, Bar, i;^^^ shahitr, tJ^ karl, l^ ZaMa. 

Rafter, Spar, ^^ Aari, ^^Jjl^ kamti^jj^ koro, Cjp tarak (f.). 

Chimney, j^lyybJ ^ZAunt/^ara, ^^r^«^«^ dud-kash. 

Fire-place, l^^ ckulha, ^1 J ^^T atashdaUf ij^^j^ dtg-ddn. 

Oven, jyJ tonur, j^jjJ tandur, ci^ ftAa.« (f.). 

Shutter or fold of a door,Ji|^ kewar, h palla, C^ pat. 

Palisade, Balustrade, Railing, \j^ kathard. 

Plate or clamp of metal,^ pattar. 

9 9 C 

Hinge, ^15 Ipulaba, J^ chul (f.), AJLi kabza. 

V' y 

U» -/ 

Fbcaitt/ar^.— -JVimas. 175 

Pi70t on which a door turns, J^ chul (£•)• 
Lock, Ji5 kufi, Jit? tala. 

Bolt, (Jlj bilR, _:XS^^ cAAijAant, Jcj<J dor-band. 

o/ Co o 

Bar of a door, \^ hurka, JoJj«3 darband, tjJ Jj^ ardanda. 

o ^ 

Staple (of a lock), i^f/*' ^t'Ar?, ^^ ^/aio* 
Hasp, ^JLi l^laba, 


Hook, ^^^^ ankrif ^^!L3 kullab : see Hasp. 

o oo 

Stair, Step, Ladder, ,<55--* sirfil, ^J^,*^y nardbauj ^j zina. 


Stairs, Steps, <tiJ j ztTia. Staircase, Steps, ^U J^ nard-ftan. 

O oo 

Bedchamber, Dormitory, 2f\fj^^ khapab-gah {{.), ^J^!f iS (V>-» *3»2 
A» kothrt. 

Cellar, Vault, <0\£^ dj tah-Miana, \j^^, bhongkara. 

f , o 

Well, 'j^ kVij (large one of masonry) \j^t^\ indara, ^J^ b ia'oZf 

^ •» o 

Cistern, Reservoir, ^^ Aa«?y ^^T^W?" chahbachcha. 

Household Furniture. 


Table, J^ me^r (f.), izaer\^ j^ mez ka takhta. 

o o o / •• 

Tablecloth, ^\y>^ji^^ dastar-kkwan^ sju^ ^fra,jO^ chaddar(j.\ 

U9 ^ O 

Chair, Stool, ^S kursi, ^^ chaukt, i^J^^^^ §andaU. 

oo o 

Footstool, UjJj^ mondhd, \Sbjyc morha. 

o ■ o^ o 

Shelf, j\t JaA:, Aa-t toftita, ^^^ takhttj \Jj pair a. 


Trivet, Tripod, ^b a^^d si-paya, ^^ L-» ^j^a't, jj J tirpad. 
Clock, \.^p ghafiy J^i j^ ghariyal^ LS--»fiU «a*a/ (f.)- 

1 76 VocabulaTy.^^Nouns. 


Carpet, JL^ farshf ^\i IcaUn^ ^^^ kalicha, ^jaf'JaA shairanji, 
Carpet, (to sit or pray on) ^jA asan, (to pray on) *jlsr» sajjada. 

Carpet (to clean the feet on), j!jj1 U pa-andaz. 
Cloth spread over a carpet, L5^<>^lf* chandnt. 
Cushion, ^t^ gaddt. 

Bed, Coach, .^ «i; (f.)> ^^f^^ Kchhauna, i^\^ khat (f.). 

>- charpa% cgjoL palans. ^U^ X:Aa^ (f.)* 

Bedding, Wa^ bichhauna, fti farsh^ Zm*i bistar. 

Mattress, CS^f toshak (f.)> lyJ^ ^;2rn?, U^f^ bichhaund. 

Pillow, Bolster, iS3 takiya, .^b balish, L.^1 le^^a. 

Coverlet, Quilt, Counterpane, (J^y^^. balSrposh, ^jj^^jtJj palang- 

m CO 

Sheet, J jW ckadar (f.)> j«^ chaddar (f.), ljbjj\ or^na. 

Blanket, J^ katnmal, ^1^ kamU, ^5 ^ /5?. 

Curtain, ^O^ parda, (of a bed, against mosquitos) ^j*^'^ masahri. 

Looking-glass, Mirror, 4l:j t a7i}a, ^^j^ darpan, iZj\j^ mir'at (f.)- 

Picture, jij^flj tafwir (f.)i/^ cAi^r, ^^123 Tz^ibA. 

Wash-hand bason, ^-«r*^ chilamchl, ^b l^ ^y^ ^bb Aa^A (f Aoyte 
Aa basan. 

o o 

Goglet, Ewer, Water-jug, <uliiT a/l^a&a, |^tJT q/l^atra. 

p CO o 

Towel, JU«[j rumal, Jlcu-sJ dcistmal, J^J^:^ mindil (f.). 

Comb, t^^c^ kanghz, <Ul& «Aana. 

Brush, (English) ^^^ barash, ^^f^^ kunchu 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 177 


Box, Chest, Trunk, Coffer, j^Jc^^ §andu1p (m. f.)} l^ peti. 

Small box. Casket, i^^,^:^ sandukcha. li) &affa, ut> clift&a. 

** ** « 

Basket, |^j? ^oAra, l^j5 joA:rt, U j daliya, \JSj pitara. 

ou ^ 

Bellows, ^^i^ybO dkaunknl, J\^ Hal (f.)? ^«3 dama. 

Spit (for roasting meat), J^j^ sikh, (smaller) ^^^f^^ slkhcha. 
Caldron, Boiler, Copper, <^ioJ dcg (f.), IjcJb hanSiy «^j^ karah. 
Kettle, Pot, ^Isrtl'^ degcha, \j^ tatahra, i^JjU handi, LJ ^o^/a. 

Ud, Potlid^ U^J dkakna, UjbJ dhapna, (^^^ sarposh. 

Chafing dish, ^^^sJo^ angetkif ^^J^t atask-ddn. 

Trivet or fireplace (for a kettle, &c.), ^^^<AJjfc5 degdan. 

Fryingpan, i*A^ karakt, xy ^^l* maAi-towa, <ulJ ^aia. 

Ladle, Wooden spoon, ^ jJ d57, \^>^ karchha^ ^'-f^ chamcha. 

Skimmer, •/ cJ^ kaf-glr, \jj^ jharria, (of iron) ^M^^ karchkant. 

Dish, Platter, Salver, J\<J <Aoff, <_>13 hah (f.), cl^ «aAnaA (f.), 

/jj? tabak. 
Phte, j<jI^ riAafti, ,<--^ ri/ccK, j^?;^ bartan, uL^x^^ sahnak (f.). 

Plate (silver), ,Vr* <— ?IL;^ «urii/^i-«mi, i^^ *^^j^ zuruf-i-nukral. 

Spoon, ^Uk?*^ chamcha, iA>i^ karchht : see Ladle. 

Knife, ^/^^ cAAter? , jj^ kard (f.), (pen) ^^J/f jji ^atam-tarash (f.). 

Clasp knife, j^ chakku, Uj ftaitya (f.). 

Fork, ti3\^ X:an<a. 

Saltcellar, ^^'ji^ namak-ddn. Cruet, ^\>^j^ sirka'ddnt. 

Bowl, ij^ tat, u:.^ taskt, A\».jam, (of brass) \fip^ keefora. 

2 A 

1 78 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

CO* / 

Jug, Goblet, \j^ hulhrcLy i^ kasa, xj^ kuza, (jJia fas. 
Bottle, Flagon, iJt^ shlsha, i^]/^ surahl, ^h guldhi. 
Cup, Glass, Can, ^Uj piyalaj A^o^jam^ ^jJip tjasp ^^ kasa. 
Phial, small Glass, , JLJ^ shlsku 

Decanter, li^^ mina, <<,Lj.A «i?«Aa, i:^\ abgtna. 

Water-pot, Pitcher, Jar, \j^ ghara, y^ sabu, \i!Lc matka. 
Porringer, \s^ niita^ ^jb badiya : see Cup. 

Pan, Bason, ^b basan^ ^Jtj) bartan : see Fryingpan, Bowl. 
Funnel, ^^ chonga, ^Ji nalt, (dakh.) ^ J purnl (?). 

Tub, \j^ kathroLjJju tagKar^ ^J^ tagharu 5Uf gamla (?). 

Pail, Bucket, ^J^ kathauttfJJu ta gh ar. (milkpail) ^^^Jb^t^ dohni. 

Milkpan, c^Jcj^ JbJjJ dudh-handJ. 

Chum, L ;p^ mathaniya (f.), ^pL^ wiAani. 
Cask, Barrel, Pipe, L-j ptpa. 


Tray, ^^'^ khwan. Aas:^^ Khwancha^ \j^ kathra. 

CO o ^ c 

Trough, 1^ kathra, ^^J ^wgi, jJU nanrf : see Tub. 
Besom, Broom, jjl^ J Aaru (f.), <-->2^\>.j5ro6, t^^^ iuAan. 

o c o o 

Sieve, Riddle, t<i>- chalnt, Jb^i ghirbaly <Cj-j pezna, [^ akha. 

•» ^ ^ 

• CO ^c / 

Mortar, ij^U Aatran, ^J^j^ oAA/t, i^«^j^ kundi, 

/ ^ O u o 

Pestle, CS^if kutakj (J^yc musal, iz^ti dasia, \Sjya sonta, Ujjl Brha, 
Lamp, 9^jf- chiragh, b J diya, i— ^«i> dip, vl^«i> dipak. 

Oil, JJf ^eZ, ^^j^ rau gh an. 

« o • 

Candle, ^^ fta^f?, ^^ sham^((.\ (of wax), ^ ^^^ momia^^t. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 179 

Chandelier^ Lustie^jl^ ^'Aar. 

Shade (for a candle), {j^^\3fanus (f.), Ji*^ kandil (f.)« 
Candlestick, ^^^jm^ «Aam dan. 
Lantern, ^^yli/initf (f.), \^l^ iandil({.). 
Torch, Flambeau, Jaw« mash'al (f.),^^J damar. 
Snuffers, jJ^ gul-gir, JiSp^ gulrtarash. 

Country and Country Affairs. 
Country (not Town), ci^^l^t) dihat, cr^Uf^j^ berunjat, Juai« mufa§§aL 

Village, y^gamo, lAH 6^^«7 /♦y g^Sw, <uj rfiA. 

Field, <c^j{^ AAe^, ^;f J^ maufan, y^f^ chhetr. 

Farm, CJ^chak, iJoA ijara, (dakh. also) \::^ gutta: see Field. 

Garden, Orchard, ib hagh, i^j\j barl, (small) <lfls^b baghcha, <l^b 

Flower garden, 4^^V phulwari, ^\i^gulistan. 
Forest, Wood, Jx>^jangal, ^ ftan. 

Heath, Copse, Brushwood, ^ff^ jkafi^ ^^^jhar. 


Hedge, jfV iar, ^^Xjji^jhar-bandi, ];-/ gAcrfi. 
Meadow, Mead, Marsh, ^^\p tarSl,j\^j^ marghzar. 
Pasture, Meadow, ^^j>- charagah,j^js^ alafzar. 

o o 

Park, Chase, <U^ ramna, ^rlT^lCl shikar-gah (f.), )U cSJ^ mirg'sala. 

Agriculture, Husbandry, ^^.^ «ir, «jr;\icLli!? kishtkarl, fj:.^jj zira^at (f.). 
Cart,Wa^on, i^j^ girl, \j^^ chhakra, iJ<x- araba. 
Plough, Jjb Iial, aJi5 Jculba, J^ l3 nagaZ, J&li nangal. 

1 80 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Harrow, uiJb henga, ^^*« mal, (^}^j^ sarawan. 
Spade, Shovel, J^ bel, ^^J^ kudoRy \j^ l^ pha'dra. 
Hoe, ^\dlS kudali, <U^ belcha, |;/^ phffora. 
Dibble, ^<ii^ khantty ^\*i^ kudali. 

Mattock, Pick, Pickaxe, Jlji^ Xnc(2a/,|;0^ kudra, 5J^\j|?A5*or5, ,«ii- 

•• ^ 

Ploughshare, ^ chau, \j^ tora, c^ hars, J^ \^ Jjb /la/ ka phaL 

Pitchfork, ]^JCi>. jan^ra. 

Axe, Hatchet, t^lfl^ kulhafi, jj tabar. 

Sickle, Scythe, |^«JJb Aan^'a, i5^|/> daranti, ^J rio^. 

o . o c u 

Sieve, ^^j^i^- chalnl, Jl{^ ghirbaly ^;jj-j peznay \^ \ akha. 

Society and Oovemntent. 

People, Nation, <*j!JJ Bg, ^y kaum (f.), j;U- M«^^ (f-)> »if guroh. 
Family, Tribe, J^ kul, a^ kaum (f.), Ar-^ kabila. 
Family, Household, L:^ kumba, f^ kutum, \j\jp gharana. 


A Country, Region, ^j»jJ des, uU^ mutk, i-^«3 ^Pfji^ diyar. 

Territory, ^^)j^ sar-zamtn (f.), ^^ J des, jyS kishwar. 

Province, ^yo ^ba,j^j^ sarkar : see CSountry. 

King, Sovereign, Monarch, Potentate, «liJb badshak, \s^\j rya. 

Queen, Empress, aiX« malikay ^\j ranly ,^\j ly* maha-ranh 
Prince, j|^ kunwaVy jyS ^\j raj-kunwar yy 2rj|j^ ^AaA^rocIa. 
Princess, 4^j|jJbU «AaA aro^, «^Uio-1j raj-kumarty ^\j rani. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 181 

Chief, Ruler, Prince, Vsj-J^ rajHf ^\^ wait, {j^j rals. 
Minister (of state), jjjjtrarir, t/;^:^ man^rJ (m.),jyi-»J dastur. 
Secretary (of state), t^J^^^ mantri (m.), ^|^.«3 diwan. 

0£Scer (military). Commander, j1jj-> sar-dar, j\j i,,,^.^;^^ mansalhdar. 
Officer (civil) c:.^^Jtf^ JJbl aA/-i khidmat^ j\j c. ^«tf;.>< mansahdar. 
Judge, ,^>^IS ia2i, |»^l>- hakim, uioU nyayak. 

Magistrate, chief officer of police, J'yy kotwalj j\d^^ fdujdar. 
Nobleman, Grandee, j-^o^ amir, (or plur.) \j^ umara^ xdJks- umda. 

Of noble birth, (— 8^ »^ sharlfj uJ^l ashraf, ^^ kutin. 

Landholder, jljCk^ zamlndar, J^t^jpo^ jagirdar . 

Plebeian, Commoner, ^^*^ kamina, ^^^\ /^^ dmm admt. 

Townsman, Citizen, Lfy^ shahrif ^\f^ kashatt. 

Villager, Peasant, ^^yTgantrar, ^^\fgramtny ^\ijbJ dihkant. 

War, Military Affairs. 

War, iSS^jangj ^ ran, u^j>- harh (f.), 4^)5! /am'?, ii^jadal 
Battle, 4/I5J /ara7, JbJ^judh, i^S^jang, ^j\^^ mufiaraba. 
Peace, J^ fulh (f.). 

Dissension, Discord, JUj ftigar, toi fitna, <-^^ j'At'^ (f*)* 
PaciBcation, Reconciliation, c^Le miZap (f.)^ ^Ua^ mu^alaha. 
Enemy, Foe, ^^y^*^ dushman, ^^j^ durjan, cf.'^^J dusht. 
Adversary, Antagonist, (— b£^ A^t*?/*, v,^^ Aatri (m.), ^^ ghantm. 
Friend, Ally, ^jp^pachchhi, ^J^ kumakl (m.), ^ mitr, ^j rafik. 
Stratagem, *L>- Atii, Jj J^ chhaUbal, c-^^^ ^jifann ofartb. 
Slaughter, Carnage, Jcj katl, ^Jiy^ Jdiun^ezu 
Massacre, see Slaughter : (general) ^Ic ^ katl-i-amm. 
Victory, Conquest, ^jai, ^ fatb (f.), '-s-'-^'^i^ (f )>y^ «?/«»•• 

182 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

TrmmYh^JS ^ ^jairjai'kar, ^jai, ^^ bijai, J^fath, 
Defeat, Discomfiture, Loss, c::.<wd shikast {tXJsb har (f.). 
Flight, cuviJ^to haztmat (f.\/\ii bhagar {{.Xyjgurez {l\j\Jfirar. 
Pursuit, l^A^jpIcAAa, t^Uj» ta'akuby ,^^j^ pairaul. 
Paiage, Plunder, (JLj^ lut (f.), ^^^^ ghantmat (f.), ti»i <JL^jl 

lut'pat (f.). 
Onset, Attack, Assault, Charge, ^d.4^ hamla, ^^^j^- charhal. 
Incursion, Inroad, Invasion, <jl^IJ tdkht (f.), i^^}>- charhal. 
Devastation, Depredation, ^Jj uu.%g^lJ takht-taraj^ tJ^^ pa'emalt. 
Destruction, ^S^ halakt, ^]j»- fJiardbl, ^U^.^ mistnarl. 
Army,^^Cll Ioshkar , L«^ «cn5 (f.), *U-9 sipa/i (f.), --y fauj (f.). 
Battalion, ^^^ paUan, iia^ dx>^ I) 'r^^faHJ ^^ ^^ ^i^^a. 
Brigade, Squadron, <t:u}J dasta, i^^ghpL 
Troop, Corps, j^ jauk^ ^ji^ gho L (of horse), ^Lij risala. 
File, t-itf ?ajf (f.), j^ katar (f.), c:-3b pant (f.). 
Rank, Ci-Oli ^^a/i^ ox panti (f.)> <*-*-^ ?a^ (f.)« 
Centre or main body (of an army), L--Ji kalb. 
Wing or Flank (of an army),jl^ j^aAZu, Jc^ janah (f.). 
Right wing, ^^:^«m^ maimana. Left wing, iij»^*^ maisara. 
Watch, Sentinel, \^ pahrd, b^ pahriyd^ j\^^ chauktddr. 
Guard, Patrole, ]^ pahrd, ^•j^^ pahru'a, b^ pahriyd, ^J^ shab- 

Soldier, ^U-* sipaht (m.), ,^JJ1^ lashkari (m,). 
Foot soldier, jrjlj piydda. Infantry, J Juj paidaly i^*^\^ piydde. 
Horse soldier, j|^ ^atrar, Uj^ J^ ghur-charhd. 
Pioneer, j^ jJu belddr. 

Ensign, Standard, Colours, ^lU nishan, \si^jhandd, ^^^ bairak. 
Ensign-bearer, jlj^ ^jliJ nishdn-barddr, j\*:fji Ac alam-barddr. 
Hostage, JU^ yarghamdU J-i^ A:a/7/, J^l oZ. 
Captive, Prisoner, j^ aslr,j\sij:> giriftdr, uiJuS Arai^. 
Parade, «l> Jk^ly A:atra*?{f-gaA (f.), ff^^^ ^flff'go,h (f.), e;'*^-^ ff^cLiddn. 
Muster, ,^iii gt«^», c-Jb^^ matj;iida^(fO, <!i5Jjw \^^^fauj kd taUka. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 183 

Anns, jW^ J^o,thyar or hathiyar (m. f.), JL» silah (f.). 

Sword, j\jljf talwar (f.), ^Jjl^ khanda^ jJLjJi» shamsher, ^-J ^eg^. 

Dagger,^^^ khanjarj J^ katar, \^ chhura. 

Spear, )\^ bhala, ^j^ji barchht, nj^ neza, Jj ballam. 

Bow, CjcJbii dhanuk (f.), ^^U^ kaman (f.), ^^y Jcaus (f.). 

Arrow, ^ fir, ^b &an,^ «ar, vSl^«^ khadang. 

Quiver, ^J tarkash, ^Jt^ tukkash, ^y tun, (^^i^ nikliang (f.). 

Bowstring, 3U- chilla, Hj zih (f.). 

Sling* c;«i/g5pA/in (f.), ^^^r^Jli /aZ5Mtt» (f-)> ^j^ gophna (f.). 

Poleaxe, L^^jjiT gan^o^a, L^ j^Aar^a, <L!S^^ belcha. 

Shield, Target, JlfeJ rfAaZ (f.), ^^-i-* «par (f.), ij?^ phari. 

Helmet, Jj»- khod. L^y tdp^Jjuc mi ghf ar. 

Coat of mail, fi^ jhilam, ^^^ baktar, ^ J^ chihaUtah. 

Cuirass, ^^^ jaushan,ji^^ baktar, (f.), ^^J^ char-alna. 

Musket, Firelock, J^Jcj banduk (f.), tl^ fMpaft (f.)- 

Swivel, large Musket, wall-piece, J:»]^ jazaHL 

Barrel, Bore, Chase (of a gun), JU nal, ^Jj naZt. 

Chamber (of a gun), ^^ kothl, ^U]^ khazana. 

Pistol, As K aj tomancAa, ^^£sLj tabancha. 

Bayonet, \jSc^ sangin (f.). 

Pike, 2r^ neza, ISUl^ ftan<a. 

Flint, (for striking fire) uX«i^ t^^*- * sang-i-chakmak. 

Powder, c^jyV fcarii^ (fOojV *5rii (f,), jj^.lj rfarii (f.). 

Ball, Bullet, (for a musket) ^y goU, (for a cannon) "if gola. 

Cartridge, ISjy tonia, ^yj^ kartus. 

Match, (for a gun) \jy tora, «toJi faltta, (brimstone) j^JL b J diya- 

Cannon, Gun, piece of Ordnance, L^y top ((,). 
Ordnance, ^^y» topen (f. plur.). 
Fieldpiece, "Kibj rahkala, c-j^j lS/^ safari top (f.)* 
Park of Artillery, ^oU^c^y top-khana. 
Arsenal, <G\s^ JL^ sHah-khana, <UU- ujy top^khana. 

1 84 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Gun carriage, lAj\ araba. 

Cannoneer, Gunner, jljjl u^y top^andaz, j\xS^ golandaz. 

Bomb, Mortar, Shell, xJua gkubara, (small mortar) J3^ garnal. 

Bombardier ,\ya5gjjf top-chJ (m,)fj\^^ golandaz. 

Fusileer, Musketeer, ^^f^;^ bandukchi,j\xJj) barf:andaz. 

Fort, Fortress, Castle, J^Jpgarh, db^ kot, ^^ kaFa. 

Redoubt, JLs*^ kiFa^ha, ^y> garht: see Fort. 

Bastion, Bulwark, ^j) burj, Apy marhala. 

Battery, ^jy« morcka^ <UJ^J damdamaj A^j< mar^ala. 

Embrasure, 2r jJ^ randa, \^^j^ l^ u^y ^p kajharokha. 

Ditch, Trench, Fosse, Moat, jJc^ Jdiandalpf ij\4 khSt, 

Trenches, Lines, J^f^^ morchal (f.), J^ sangar^ ,^\^ kkaH, 

Wall or intrenchments round a town, i\ii^jj^ sltahr-pandh (f.). 

Walls of a city, J^ ji^ skahr-band. 

Rampart, Breast-work, Parapet, ^y^fa^il (f.)* *r^ kangara. 

Ponton (bridge of boats), Jj \i i$^ kishti ka puL 

Tent, Pavilion, ]^0 dera, <U*>. khaima, ^ tambu. 

Camp, Encampment, s^Jj^^ lashkar-gdh (f.), ^^i pord^o. 

Decampment, March, ^^ kuch* * 

Halt, place of residence or encamping, a\Lc mu^Am, ^l^j raJiSo. 

Field of battle, «lf ^j^ razm-gdh (f.), <J^^;*« maraka. 

Drill, ^y tX&|y kawytdri-fauj. 

Furlough, c>-^^ rukhsat (f.), j^^ chhutfi, c:>jU-^ yajra^ (f.). 

Drum, JybJ cfAo/, JJ? toft/, CJ^ytJ dholak. 

Kettledrum, ifj\5j nakkdra, \0 J dankd^ ^f kos. 

Trumpet, ^jjJ torhi or ^y turhl, \^ dngd^ jJu naftr (f.). 

Clarion, 4^l3y itarnal or karnd'e, jy 65it, ^5^^^ 5/*aAn57. 

Bugle, Horn, IxLy narstngd^jya sur (f.) : see Trumpet. 

Hautboy, 4^l3y-» surnd^e. 

Flute, Flagelet, Fife, Pipe, ifjyi\ alghuza, i^j^^, bdnm^ ^jk mttrH, 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 1 86 

Naval Affairs. 

Navy, Fleet, ^ Mr (f), ^y i^ UV^ J^^^^^^^ ktfauj. 

Ship, j\^ jahaz, ^j^ kishti, ^|^ wan, ^\^ wakan. (Roebuck.) 

Ship (or Man) of war, jl^ ^S-^ jangi jaKaz, 

Merchant-ship or -man, jl^ sr^^^ sauddgart jahaz. 

Boat, ,ji^ kishttf^\j nffo (f.), ^J tarnl, Sysi^ machwa. (Roeb.) 

Barge, \jsf^ hajra, \py niwara, ^jff:jjy« mor-pankht. 

Barge, large Boat, Lighter, J^ bhar,j^ bhar. (Roeb.) 

Brig,jl^ J^J^J dMRUjahaz, (Roeb.) 

Rudder, Helm, ^iLi sukkan^J^fJ^ patwar (f.), j^ kanhar. 

Prow, Head of a ship, IflU matha, ^ sir, {^JjIc mang. (f.) 

Stem, Li^J dabusa, Jf^ pichhil. (Roeb.) 

Poop, kJ/^ chhatri. (Roeb.) 

Deck, Jc^ tajdita, J^ manzil (f.), uJcj tutak. (Roeb.) 

Quarter deck, (.licJ l^ ^^-.b ^ jy^ daur ke pas ka tutak. (? Roeb.) 

Main deck, uJcJ l^ ^j ^^^ ^P^^ ^^ ^'^^ *^ ^w^aft. (? Roeb.) 

Forecastle, l:i^j:>Aana, \iJ J^ agalfand (Roeb.), (dakh.) JS^ agal(l). 

Mast, J^ doZ, J^ii--« mastuL (Roeb.) 

Afore, J^ agU, Js \ agal (Roeb.) 

Abaft, Aft, Astern, Ji=f^^ jnckhil, \j\ys^^ phichwara. (Roeb.) 

Ahead, JH agil, J^\ agal. (Roeb.) 

Aloft, ^^1 upar,j>^ JtJ dol par, (Roeb.) 

Amidships, ,^[sxj blck-arblck, ^^ ^^ bich mtn. (Roeb.) 

Anchor, jxJ langar,^ nangar, (Roeb.) 

Anchorage, -yx:*- ^J ^i^ langar kame kljagah, »b^ langar- 

gah. (f.) 
Ashore, i^J^ kinare, (aground)^ *^J^ kinarcpar» 
Ballast, A^J niram, Jj nilam, JJ Ulam. (Roeb.) 
Bank or Shoal, ,^ char, ^\js>^ kharaba. (Roeb.) 
Beam, *^ ^m, Ijf ara. (Roeb.) 
Bell, iJjPgharl. (Roeb.) 


186 Vocabulary, — Noum. 

Between decks, <«^ ^S ilS^ tutdk he bich. (Roeb.) 

Birth, .uif^jagah (f.), ^UU makan. 

Boatswain, t^S^j^ sarhangj ^^U^^y hosmaUf ^Ia^«j hochman, (Roeb.) 

Bottom (part of the ship in the water), «^ pith, (f.) 

Bore or Boar in the Ganges, Ujb Aumma, LiJb kumbd, ^b ban* 

Broadside, Volley, :J^ shalfdi (f.), CJ^ salak. (Roeb.) 

Bucket, i^jJb ^oldif ^jJb baltt. (Port, balde : Roeb.) 

Cabin, \j^^ kamard (Port, camara : Roeb.), Uy J dabusd. 

Cable, jUjb hamdr. (Port, amarra: Roeb.) 

Call (boatswain's), ^^J^ sltl, (Roeb.) 

Callipers, l-^U mdp, (j^^j^ kupds or (^L«^ kumpds. (Roeb.) 

Can (jug), 15^ Bid, ci^b pdt (from Eng. pot : Roeb.). 

Cannon, L^y top (f.) : to cannonade, l3jU ^\jy or L^y top or topan 

Cap (for the head), ^^y iopi or ,^y topt. (Roeb.) 
Cape, cICj tek, uic^J ^enA, ij:^y pont, {j**^ sis. (Roeb.) 
Captain, (European) ^\s^ kaptdn, (Indian, &c.) \s>'\j ndlchudd. 
Cargo, jJ^ bhartiy Jj bdr, u^^^y hojhdl. (Roeb.) 
Carpenter, i^jim^^* mistrt (m.), jti-a sutdr^ ^y barhai. (Roeb.) 
Carriage (of a gun), ^^ i' t-y fop fti gari. 
Cartouch, ^^Ju^y tosddn. 

Cartridge, ^^yj^ kdrtus, \jy totd or \a3y fonfS. (Roeb.) 
Case shot, S/ lai-f^ chhtntd gold. (Roeb.) 
To be cast away, (a pereon) 13 \^ ,^\y tawdl khdndy (a ship) Ulsj- (Jjy 

tutjdnd, liUj" ]^U mdrdjdnd. (Roeb.) 
Catamaran, JJ/ciJ katmardl, (^]/^ katmardm, \s^jjpardnckd. 
To Caulk, l^ ^<=^ J^ kdlpattl karnd. (Roeb.) 
Centry or Sentry, i^j:^:^ santri,j\j \jy pord ddr. (Roeb.) 
Chain,^^*«rj zanjtr, JOL sdnkal,JjL> sdnkar. (Roeb.) 
Chain pump, Lj ^j^s^j zanjlr kd bambd. (Port, bomba : Roeb.) 
Chain shot, ^y ^jiPfj ^^^pri gold, 
Channel, jUo dhdr. Mid-channel, jl/bJ^^U manjdhdr. (Roeb.) 

Vocabulary.^^Nouns. 187 

Chest, ^^^ peCij JjJ^i^ sanduk, (for arms) ^Jjj ^ J)^ banduk kl 

To clear for actioD, ^^ J^ f l^J^ Zafwc Ao taiyar karna. 
Goboose, ^>^f^ chuldan, (Roeb.) 
Cockswain, ^;:!«^^ kaksen. (Roeb.) 
Coil (of a rope), KjU sankH. (Roeb.) 
Colours, \J^^ vauta, Ijy bauta, ^\Lj nishan. (Roeb.) 
Compass, i£>- hukJ^a^ {j'^f kumpas. (Roeb.) 
Cook, i^^o^V bhandart, ^j^j^^ bawarchu (Roeb.) 
Cooking place. Galley, f^^*^^ ckulddn, <Ulfi>> ^<>^^l^ bawarchi'-khana. 
Cooking kettle, CL^«3 dig. (Roeb.) 
A Cot, ^yr (^^l^ khatjoti : see Hammock. (Roeb.) 
A Crane, ^^^ /ra/n. (Roeb.) 
Crew, ij;j\^jahazlfjLJ laskar, (Roeb.) 
Cuddy (in E. I. ships), .^^^ ^ ^\^ \j\^ ^\i^ kaptan klmria kharie 

To Dischai^e (unload), \jj\j\ utarna, (a gun) ^j^^ chhorna, UjU 

mama, \:^lj daghna, (Roeb.) 
Discipline (regulation), vj:^^jJjj bandobast, (punishment) \j^ saza 

(fc), U-- saja, t::-^jU mar-ptt. (f,) 
Dismasted, JcjjJ Zz^n^f &U72^, w*; IxJ nanga bunga. (Roeb.) 
Dock, ^Ji^ godi. Dock yard, jL^j l^ f^^^ godi ka bansar, \^ lS*^^ 

JLiiij gocZ? AS bansaL (Roeb.) 
Double beaded shot, )y !t|^ ^JJj or (^^^^ cZanflfl or ^ancfi tvala gola. 
To Dress (a ship), \jJ^La singarna. 

To Drop anchor, Ul.^jxJ nangar dalnay ^^J^ langar karna. 
East, <--^^ purab, ^^^ ugman, ^J^ mashrik. (Roeb.) 
Ebb-tide, l^l^ bkatha, 

Eddy, i^^ bhaunrij sjy^ gkumri, ^\i^ \sj^ ghumta pant. 
Ensign, Flag, ^lU nishan, IJy bauta, \j»^ vauta. (Roeb.) 
Fair (as wind), libOu..) stdha, (ji\yc muwafik, /y^W^ jahom. (? Roeb.) 
Fair (not cloudy), ^f*-^ pkarchha^ uJL sa/, Ll^ khulorsa, (Roeb.) 


188 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

To Fall in with, 1:Jl« milna, l3^ CJl!!^ muHkat kama. (Roeb.) 
False fire or blue flames, ^-'^-« mahtab, Ajy>c moram, ^jy^ mbram. 

To Fasten, U^ ^^^J^ mazbut karniy U^ Juj band kama, \:Jhjjb 

£anc2Ana. (Roeb.) 
Fathom, a\j warn, aU bam. (Roeb.) 
Flag, see Ensign. Flagstaff, J^ \j^^ wauta katt, {j^^Ji^ chhar 

bans. (Roeb.) 
Fleet, c:,.J^ philitf aiilS kafilajj\^^ bhar,jsa^ bahr. (Roeb.) 
Float (of a fishing line), \djj» tarinda, \jjp tirinda. (Roeb.) 
Flood-tide, the tLow, j\y>^ jawar^ .Jj^^ bhartl. (Roeb.) 
Fore, fjd\ agilf J^l agal. Fore and aft, JfsOj jTt agil pichkiL 

Foreland, UiXJ tek, d^'.jT tenk. (Roeb.) 
Fore mast, J^J L:^y trikat (or tirkat) doL (Roeb.) 
Fore sail, ij:^Ji trikat. (Roeb.) 

Freight (hire), Jy naul, Jy nuwal, \Aji Hraya. (Roeb.) 
Freight (cargo), JU l^ Jy nuwal ka mdl. (Roeb.) 
Fresh water, ^b \f^ mttkapanJ. (Roeb.) 
Gale of wind, ^^liyf tufan, Jb*^\ andhl. 
Quarter gallery, Jj J^ kandil. (Roeb.) 
Stem gallery, ^u^O dabusa. 
Gangway, ^^ ^^ gangwa^e. (Roeb.) 
Glass (hour), ^J^^ yS ufj^ g^^T^ ki shisht. 
Glass (spy or telescope), ^^j<^ durbin or yji^j)*^ durmln. (Roeb.) 
Glass (spy or telescope for night), ^jf^j^^ ^ ^^\j rat ka durmin. 

Grape shot, (j:^\^ *^ji^ gerab chhant. (Roeb.) 
A gun-shot, Lj \^ ^y S^^ *^ tappa. (Roeb.) 
Gun tackles, ^^^ l^ t--y top ka laptl. (Roeb.) 
Gunnel (of a boat),J-^ mez or -^ mench. (Roeb.) 
Gust, li^^^JAape^a, LibJ dhapa. 

Vocabtdary. — Nouns. 189 

To Hail, U/ CL>\) ^ J&^ bungal se bat kama. (Roeb.) 

Half pike, Sl^ bhala, ^j^ji barchhi. 

Hammock, JlyrJoZi, ^f^jhoR, ^y^jhuU. (Roeb.) 

All hands, ^<«^1 v,^^^^ sab adml, ^^^^^^ i--^ sab khalasi. (Roeb.) 

Hand pump, L^j \j^|^ chhota bamba^ U^ ^U hath bamba. 

Handspike, uXj^U hansptk. 

Harbour, jiXJ bandar or bindar, lIA^ ghaU (Roeb.) 

Harpoon, J^ldS)^ (ju%)1j d^^ ck dant wala kawar. (Roeb.) 

Hatch or Hatch way, U3l^ phalka or \ii\ifalka. (Roeb.) 

Hatches, j1^ l^ ^l^ phalke ka kewar, »j\.j*^ If ^\i falke ka 

Hatchet, gFjf^ kuwafif ^\^ knralt. (Roeb.) 
Head (ornamented figure), )L» putla, ^^^jy^ murat. (Roeb.) 


To Heave the lead, USb |*^ prum dalna. (Roeb.) 

A heavy sea, \jjJ ^j^\ akhrt darya, b^J ^^ garm darya. 

Heel, jlibJ , S sJ^ sukan kt dhdr. (Roeb.) 

Helmsman, Steersman, , «3\L» sukkant. 

Hold, ^^ khan,y^ khanr. (Roeb.) 

Hook (for fish), Ji gal. (Roeb.) 

Horizon, jIj^ \^ ^\a,>J asman ka dhar. (Roeb.) 

Hoy, \ysi^ mackwa : see Boat. 

Hull, jVy^ fjc^ munda jahaz, j\j{^ ^Jo^ fjj lunda mundajahaz. 

Jib, Lyiji^JIft. (Roeb.) Jib boom, ^y i^^^jlb bum. 

Insurance, U^o ftima, Uj^ vlma. (Roeb.) 

Jolly boat, ts^y ,j^" J5R 65^ (Roeb.) 


Journal, ^^jyj ^ j\^ jahaz ka roz-nama. 

Island, Isle, ^Ij tdpuy J^-aciflj-Jan;7r5 (for Sjijs^jazlra: Roeb.). 

Jury mast, J^J j:Jl^ phdltu dol, J^J ^U ^aZ^u doZ. (Roeb.) 

Keel, ^^[fjpathanj (^\jA.prab, i-J|j^ era/. (Roeb.) 

Key, Quay, \ijJ dankd, cl^l|f LjbJub bandheld ghat, CA^ \^ paka 

ghat. (Roeb.) 
Ladder, ^ji»^ sJrht. Stern ladders, ^Ji^ ^ if^^^ dabuse Ki slfhl. 

190 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Land, ifJcS /rinara, JJ tar. (Roeb.) 

Lantern, ^j^yM fanus, or (j^y\^ phanus. (Roeb.) 

Larboard, y}j^ \^\j dawa burdu. (Roeb.) 

Lascar, ^^ H c ^ khalast. ^jj^ kharwa or kharu'a. (Roeb.) 

To Launch, \jJj\ ji^jahaz utarna. 

Lead (us^d to heave), ^jJ prum. To heave the lead, Ub /^ prum 

League, (^^ Jb^J derh kos (one and a half kos : Roeb.). 
Leak, uSi^ sulak, Ju^ diked. 

To spring a leak, Uyh l::..v«L gamat kona, \j^ Li^ bumba Kona, (Roeb.) 
Lee-sidei uJ^ *J[;V *^5r5 tarafy ^O;^ s£;^ JAarc burdu. (Roeb.) 
Lee-shore, ifj\:S ^^^ ^J^. bhare men kinara. (Roeb.) 
A Light (candle), ^^ batti. 

Light-house, Uu Jo^ kandiliya^ ajjyc \^ ^^ batii ka munara. (Roeb.) 
Fishing Line j»J ^ ,^^f?* machht ka dor, (^j^^ ^ J^ gal kl ddrl. 

To Load (a gun) U^ c-jy ^5p bhama, (a ship) U^ J V?" j^^^ 

Log, e^ top. Log-book, ^U \^^ tap'ttama. Log-line, ^ \S ^^.J 

to|i ia Zen. (Roeb.) 
Low water, Jb vil^ Xra'im (for ajIS ka'im) pant; (if in a river) l^lf^^L 

«ar iAaMa. (Roeb.) 
Lubbers hole, HI? IJ c^r?^^ panjre ka gala. (Roeb.) 
Magazine, ^U^ <^^V ftgrti^-Mflna. 

Magnet,^^ diUsj- chamak pathar, U^ W^ J«^5 /5A5. (Roeb.) 
To Make sail, l|^ 2j^ «erA A;arna. (Roeb.) 

To Make stern way, Ujj ^<6^ii plchhe parna, liib i<f^ ptchhe halna. 
Mallet, 4,5;3^ mbgriy ^S^y<^ mongrl. (Roeb.) 
Marines, jJfcU-» ^ J^*^ jahaz ke sipahl (jit. ship soldiers : Roeb.). 
Mast, J^J rfoZ, (by landsmen called) Jji— ^ mastul. (Roeb.) 
Main mast, J^O 1^ ftara dol. Fore mast, Jj J (j:.^ tirkat or ^ri^-ar 

<Z5/. Mizzen mast, J^J ^^^^ A£/mt do/ or J^J i<^ A:a/m7 ^/. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 191 

Mate (of a ship), JU malam (for Arab. Ax^ mu'allim: Roeb.). 

Midshipmen, ^^Ji:^^^ btchmen, ^j^^Asx* mlchilmen. (Roeb.) 

Midships, ^ \^ j\^jahaz kd btch. 

Mortar, f^\yb hawa% ^XS^\ ukhli, iZJy ^^ kothl top. (Roeb.) 

Muster, ^^:S ginti, ^j^^ haziri, ^^/tU hqjirl. (Roeb.) 

Mutineer, ,^J2j^ dangal, f^tSL^ fasadt, ^Jl/<^ mutfarnt. (Roeb.) 

Mutiny, \xlJ dangiy ^^jUj baghawat (f.), (^Li/o^ari, ^y^ asKob, 

Neap tides, j^^ 1$ dS^^J bhang kajawar, Jt^ markatal. (Roeb.) 

North, J!^\ uttar, v^t gal, JU-2i skimal. (Roeb.) 

Oskum,^^^^ gahm, (Roeb.) c-y^\ istub, v«,-c-j\ istap. (Port, estopa?) 

Oar, LJjb katcsay l3b £fan^ (Roeb.), ^^ chappu. 

Officer (of a ship), JU malam : see Mate. 

Over board, y ^^ bjO daryd men gira. 

To out sail, lil^ ^^^ «ara5 chalna, lil^ 2f*3l[j ziydda chalnd. (Roeb.) 

Packet, vi^^b pdket, J^pt ^ '^^ ^o^irf kdjahdz, (Roeb.) 

Paddle LJjb ^bb hath-haUsdy <lf^ chamcha, ^^Jcj pangai. (Roeb.) 

Pass or Passport, <Ol^j rawana, ij\jj)^ parwdna. 

Passage boat, \yB^ l^ vVy^J^ s>/ taripdr hone kd ma^hwd. (Roeb.) 

Pig of ballast, (if of iron) ,Ji-^ ketn, (if of lead) CJb jpaf . (Roeb.) 

Pike (spear), ^jifyi barchhl, Sl^ bhdld. 

Pilot, iy\^' arkdliy (at Surat) 4/^^*^ drngvi, (with Arabs) ^bjj^ riiftan. 

Pirate (ship), jl^ \^ ^^^*^ dakait kdjahdz, jl^ ^ Jjf^ ^^^ kd 

Pitch, j^b ddmar, ,ffOptchh. (Roeb.) 
Pistol, AsLj tabancha, Jj2^ pistaul. (Roeb.) 
Plank, 4Xa£k? ta^ta, ^^^ pdtiyun. (Roeb.) 
Pleasure boat, \ys^ ^ <^J^3^ sawdrt kd machwd. 
Pole axe, i^J^^ kuhdrl,jJ tabar, (Roeb.) 
Priming, CSsfj ranjaky ^ kdn. (Roeb.) 
Privateer, jlyfl^ ^ j^ chor kdjahdzy CLJ^l^ WV chanchiyd kd 

galwat. (Roeb) 
Prize, jl^ t/JuS kaidJ jahdz, jl^ Ljij pakareld jahdz. (Roeb.) 

192 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Pump, UiJ bamha (from Port, homba: Roeb.). 

Punt, l^jJ dunga, \j)\^ thapara, ^^ys:j J dingl. (Roeb.) 

Purser, ^\^ \S j\^ jahdz ka kirdm, jm^^ pasar. (Roeb.) 

Quadrant, Sextant, ^U^ kaman. (Roeb.) 

Quicksand, jSljji^ chor balu, ^j^j ^^cl^*^ daldal zamtn. (Roeb.) 

Raft, ^^y paranchd, bly trapa. (Roeb.) 

Reel, , c^j5fc- charkhl. 

Rocket, (^|y^ hawal. 

Bread Room, <0U- ^jj roti khana. 

Spirit Room, ^UlsL (-^^ sharab kMina. 

Ropes, c^S^ aZa^. (Roeb.) 

Rowers, !t1^ ^....^U AaZe^e toa/S. (Roeb.) 

Sail, i[^ «erA, »^ serhfj^ sar, (Roeb.) 

To set sail, \j^ Xj^ sh'h kama. (Roeb.) 

Salute (from a ship or fort), ^^^cILi salami. 

Scull, LJjb l^ ^yb holt ka halesa, LJjb ^^f>- chhota halesa, (Roeb.) 

Sheet, ^^J daman, ^UIj daman, ^toJ daman. (Roeb.) 

To Ship (put on board a ship), Ubbjj- jlj^^^j(^haz par cliarhana. 

To ship a sea, Ul^ ^y< mauj khana. 

Shipping, jl^ ^ j\^ jahaz ka bhar, ^13 \^ j\^jahaz ka kajUa, 

Shipwright, ijji^'*^ ^ j\^jahaz kamistri, (Roeb.) 

Shoal, 1^ j!b bdlu char a, (Roeb.) 

Shore, sjc^ kinara, \j\j dard. (Roeb.) 

To shot the guns, \jui Sjd ^^ U!^ topon mien gold bhamd. 

Shrouds, ^J^ labrdn. (Roeb.) 

Sick birth, 1)1^ \^ ^1;1 dzdrikd thikdnd. (Roeb.) 

Side, J J^ burdu, jJ^y bordu. (Roeb.) 

Signals, J.>;>Cy^i slkriel, J«:cu) sitnel,* ifj\J^\ ishdra. (Roeb.) 

Skiff, \ysi<^ i^^^ kdghzt mtichwd. (Roeb.^ 

Slack water, ,Jb ^ naram pdnt, (Roeb.) 

•• • 

Sloop, (^^ salup, i— Jm) salup. (Roeb.) 
Smuggler, \5^ ^ J^«J^U mdhsul kd chuttd. (Roeb.) 

VocahiIary,^^Nauns. 193 

Soatby ^4> dakhan, i^^janub, ^^ 9uR. (Roeb.) 

Speaking trumpet, Jili bungal; Jx^ bhungoL (Roeb.) 

Spring tide, j1^ \j! barajawar, ^}\sS \j) bafa katal. (Roeb.) 

Sponge, l5^^ pincht, \|^ sumblia (Roeb.)i (of a gun) \j\si^puckara. 

Squadron, ^y \^j\^jafiaz ka toli. (Roeb.) 

Staff, ^\^ \jy Cjf>- ch&ota bauta kathi, ^l^ Ijjj 1!^^ chKola tvauta 

Ensign staff, ^5^^^ ^}^ )j> bara toauta katht. (Roeb.) 
Jack staff, ^^^^^ cS\p^jak toauta kathu (Roeb.) 
A 6ag staff, ^\^ \j^^ ^ ji}^ ^P^^ ^ wauta kdthu (Roeb.) 
Stage (for carpenters or caulkers, &c.), W|f^ parancha* (Roeb.) 
Starboard, J Jy^ \^AP^jamana burdu,^i^j» \>'^\ uja burdu. (Roeb.) 
To Steer, U^ ^ICs sukan pakarna, ^t^j\^jaAaz chalana. 
Stem ports, ^^\ij\» or 4^U ^ yj^,^ dabuse kt bari or bariyaA. (Roeb.) 
Steward, jy^^t istur or istdr. (Roeb.) 

Stores (naval), A^j^ or A^fy^ s£)^^ jahazi sarinjam or saramjam. 
Store-keeper, l^-^^U l^ jLjj bansar ka fohib. (Roeb.) 

Stowage, JU^ khamal, JUi.f satnU. (Roeb.) 

A strait, f^ gala, ^ khttch. (Roeb.) 

Studding sail, j^u^J dastur, (lower) ^j^:«iJ ^>^ ntclte dastur. (Roeb.) 

Supercargo, (if an Englishman) ^Jyf tomi, yj>j tannt, (if a Musalman) 
l«XeLU nSrMvttdOy (if a Parsee) ^\f kiram, dsJUU^ gumashta. 

Sarf,jJ Rr. (Roeb.) Surge, m« mai^, ^y mauja. 

Surgeon, jSlHo diktar, jS^J daktar, ^Jjb hakJm. (Roeb.) 

Swivel, ifjfjfAJ^jambura, ^jy^j xamlura. (Roeb.) 

Tar, \j:£\ aOcaiara (for Port alcatram), j\j tar. (Roeb.) 

Teak (wood), ^^^L» sagwan. (Roeb.) 

Tid^, ^\! \i ^Jb pant ka tan. Tide way,^lw dhar. (Roeb.) 

Tier, ^ thar,j\jb har. (Roeb.) 

Tiller (of a ship), \Jj bakra, (JJi ^ ^JLa sukan ka Idt. (Roeb.) 

Tilt, i^J^ chhatri. (Roeb.) 

Tonnage, ^^j or ^^\^ d^Wy bojhfft ku wazan or wajan. (Roeb.) 

2 c 

194 Vocabulary. --^Nouvs. 

Trade winds^ \^ \^y* maumt hawa^ \^ ^^/^m^ycmausanu hawa^ (Roeb.) 

aft «i 

Trousers, i,^\i pa-jamaj J^ y5r,j^1 tzar. (Roeb.) 

Trunnions, iZJyc ^ L^y top ki mut, ^^ \^ iZJy top 1A km. (Roeb.) 

Turn of the tide,^^ l^ ^ tan kapher. (Roeb.) 

Vane, irjc^ bendk, ^ Kn, i^\f^ kattoal. (Roeb.) 

To Unmoor, ^jj^J^ tl^^ eknangar par rahna. (Roeb.) 

To Unship, UUi nikalna, ^^ jV ^^r karna. (Roeb.) 

Upper deck, (JJcJ l^ jj^\ upar ka tutak. (Roeb.) 

Watch, j^ por, ^j^ chaukl. Dog watch, jy 6jf>- chhota por. 

Middle watch, j^^ L«»^J dusra por, jy)^ )L^ Kchild por. Morning 

watch, j^ \ij/gdHya pdr,jy kj^ gJuiriyapor.jy^ kj^ g^^^V^ 

por. (Roeb.) 
Fresh water, ^\j \^i^ mttha pant. (Roeb.) 
Salt water, ^b \j\^ kharapanJ, jVV^-^ nSnapanl. (Roeb.) 
Way (of a ship), ^ju rus, Jl>- chal,yj rav, C^/^- chark. (Roeb.) 
Weather, M»ayc mausim : see Wind. 

Weather or Weathergage (windward), y ^^ tDa'dpar,yy\} ba*o par. 
To weigh anchor, \j\^\ JLj nangar nthana, U^ c^J\I:j nangar 

atrang karna. (Roeb.) 
Wharf, (JlA^ghut, \<aj dhaka. (Roeb.) 
Wheel of the helm, ^J>^j>^ ^ ij^ sukan ka ckarkht. (Roeb.) 
West, <— ^/U maghraby ^^s^pachham^ l5^ kiblal. (Roeb.) 
Wind, \yb hawa (f.), j\y wa'o, ^^ ba'd. (f ) Fair wind, \yb ^^b yahom 

hawaj \yb Ajb\>-jaIiom hawa, lyb J^ b ba murad hawa. Side 

wind, \yb ^fy>- chau gosz hawa, \yb ^yj^ char gosi hawa. 

Head wind, \yb ^L»y gosaii hawa, |y^^ '^ thunhpar hawa. 
, Wind's eye, j^ ^ \^ hawa ka gluir. (Roeb.) 
Windlass, JjJ i^*^^ china' t daur, ,^^^ dhtglt. (Roeb.) 
To windward, ^^Ij wffopar, .(^\^\yb hawa ka munh. (Roeb.) 
Worm^aten, 5ljl^ ^ ghun-kha'ela, 5b jl^ l^ ^ ghun ka khadela. 


Wreck, \^^ khokhra, 'j-^j^ khdkhera,)\^ L5p tuieldjahaz. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 195 

Yacht, \ys^ \^ s^V* ^^^^* ^^ tnachwa. (Roeb.) 
Yard (for a sail), ^\»y^ parwan, ^jj pirman. (Roeb.) 
Zenith, J^ ^ JL^ kapal kl upar, (Roeb.) 

Divisions of I^me, 

A moment, 4^ lam/ia, u^ palak, .^Cw nifnikh, Jj pal, a J dam. 

Minute, ^^ J daklka. 

A twenty-four minutes (Indian hour),„^^^gAan, \S;i^ ghania. 

Hour (may be denoted by the Arab.) c:.^L> sffat. (f.) 

Watch (term of three hours), ^ pahar, fjJj pas. 

Day, fji^ din,j%j roz, ^^ yaum, (in oppos. to night) ^ din, j\^ nahar. 

Night, ci^l; raf (f.), ^^ «Aa6 (f.), J-S lail (f.), ^j ratn. (f.) 

Midnight, d^l^ ,<^^ ^^A' ^^^ (^O? v-r^ (^ '^^^ ^Aai. (f.) 

Morning, Mom, ,^ subfy (j*), js^ filjar. (f.) 

Dawn of day,jj^ bhor (f.), ^y» tarkiyjs:^ safiar (f ), f^\ arun. 

Forenoon,^jjjy awwal-i-do pahar. 

Midday, Noon, ^y ^ J do-paliar (f.), ^^^ ^fc> dopahar din, J^\ ^mJua) 

mirfu-nrnaharfj^j *J mm^oz. 
Aftemoon,^^ ^ sipahar, d^ ^l& lT*^^*^ ^^ pahar se sham tak. 
Evening, <f^L* «an;A (f.), Jj^ sham (f.), ^l& ^ sar-i-skam. 
Twilight, ^y^if godhuU, )j;f^*^\ *f^ munh-andhera. 
Week, 9j\^ athwara, isJjb hafta. 
Decade, sJLS' ashara. 

Fortnight, diAib jj do^hafta, ^ pakh or 0^^ pachh. 
Month, \i>^^ mahina, ^^U mas, sVc mah,jj^ shahr. 
^c^f U^ji baras, JU sal, ^ san, ^^x^ «a7ta. 
Age (period, cycle),yac asr, *x^ ahd, (^J^ jvg. 
To day, ^ aj, (adv.) ^J ^^ ^ aj kc din. 
To night, ijlAj ^^ ^\ 5; K rai or ts-j]^ —1 a;>a^. 
Yesterday, J^ kal, j^j^J diroz, ^^t^pichhla din. 
Last night, iJL^\j ^ J^ kal kl rat, JL^J dosh. 
Day before yesterday, or day after to morrow, ^y^J^ parson, (adv.) 


196 Vocabtilanf, — Nouns. 

Three days ago, or to come, c9^ tarson. (adv.) 
Four days ago, or to come, ^^^ nar^n. (adv.) 
To morrow, J^ kal^ \jjifarda (adv.), ^^V WAan. 
Spring, C£^.v..J basant (f.), jlyJ ftaAor (f.), ^^ raftt*. (f.) 
Summer, \^^ garma^ m^^ girekhtxm, ^J^^ tabistan, t— gj i ^ §aif. 
Autumn, Jp* cuo pat'jhar (f.), ^^|)sL Idiizan (f.), *-iijaJ- lAanf^ (f.) 
Winter, ];^- Jara, U;«4 carina, ^lisu.^ ^ramw^an, !&«» shita. 

Other useful Nouns alphabeticaUy arranged. 

Abatement, ^^i^ ghattl, ^<4^ kaml, ^^^a^ kamR^ i^Juisr t akhf tf. (f.) 

Abbreviation, jUc^l i^fi^ar, jiaoi\ ikti$5r, ^.j^.y*.) sanchkepan. 

Abdication, (£/U? ^^^g, dp tark. 

Abhorrence, iZJjii nafrat (f.), (ju^]^ ftaraAtyat. (f.) 

Ability, jf^«xL0 makdur, cmU? j[a^a< (f.), ^j ws,>^.*0 dast^as. (f.) 

Ablution, J«.^ ghusL ^lii*) «naii or ^Um*^ o^naai, ^^ u^axiL 

Abode, l3U[f! thikana, ^\L« makan, ^b J^ budbash (f.XjjfS f Aaicr. (f.) 

Abroad,^JbU iaAtV, (jHl^ pardes, (j-^ JJ iuie^. 

Absence, vSj(^ Wyog, j^U. ^ ghairJiaxirt ; (in the) ^^fS^jpicAAc. 

Abstinence, Abstemiousness, cs^bj rit/axtU (f.)^ ^J^ji^ji V^^^^ 

Abstract (abridgment), Jajs^ mujmal, iJi^ l^uHsa. 
Absurdity, (X>^ behudagiy (^Jj\Sj iJLf^\ ut-^tangy u^'j\l yawargo'i. 
Abundance, )e\ji\ ijratj c^lxy^ bahutat (f.), (j:.^^ kasrat. (f.) 
Abuse (contumely), ^iTgaR, i^^ ^Vj ^^^^^^-^^^S* 
Abyss (cavern), jUj[Aar, CJjbO dahak, ^ AAoA, \j^ gafka. 
Acacia, (gum) IJUI akajpya^ (tree) jC^ ^Aar , ^pLi«^ miigAfliKiu 
Academy, i^ji^ madrasa^ JLvJL^ chaUsal, w..*s^« mailai. 
Accent, <Lkv' lahja^j.^ sur^ l^j^ zarb (f.), ^^^J dharan. 
Acceptation (of a word), ^^iJi^ nu^nt, ^jjlo ^j^ ^ )ai& lafz kt «tv- 

rautoaj mc^nt. 
Accessary, Accomplice, j\^Jc« madad-gar, CS^A sharik, ^^ Mthl. 
Accident, jUJt ittifak, ^W ^adi^, i^fyss^ sanjog. 

Vocabulary. '^Ncuns. 197 

Account, acoompt, c«>Li>> hisab, ^Icr^ muliiuaba, (narration) ^;Li 

bayatif j^^ ^yahar (f.), (value) jU^ shumary (sake, cause) ^5^!^ 

tra«£e, s^^^a sabab, l::-^U babat. (f.) 
Accusation, ^U 7ta/M& (f.), J5^fi^ dc^a, d^\j> bar-amacL (f.) 
Ace, (at dice) ^ pau (f.), (at cards or dice) K3 nakka, (at cards) 

l^ \^ 4^1; tas ka yakka. 
Acquaintance, (familiarity) lz.^\j voaJafiyat {(.), 4^ \:J^\ ashnaly 

(associate) \xi»\ ashnafj^jf- chinhar^ (j^^ }j rurshinas. 
Acquisition, s^^^^^o^ toA^iZl^f.), c^.^ kasb, i^U^ kamal. 
Act, Action, /M kam, ^ kqj, S^^ kartab, Jxi f^L 
Addition, iiUf\ izafay (in arithmetic) ^jt^ nuzan. (f.) 
Address, (skill) ^!ll^ chalaki, (of a letter) A«l3 ^ «ar-naiita. 
Adjective, vj.>i«g ^t/*a^ (f.), c:^^ a..»\ um-i-n/a/, cu^ n^^. (f.) 
Adjustment (settlement), AaJfaifala: see Arrangement 
Admonition, LZ.^^ssr^ na^tuit (f.)i lax^ toa^, cri*^^ upades* 
Adoration, cu^jUc tfta^^ (f.), U^^ pu/a (f.); ur^^ parastish. (f.) 
Advantage, (gain) ^S GAh, ^si no/**, ^J^U fSida^ (superiority) 

rfJle j^Iaba, ^y>- charhS, {^^^^ j^^* (^0 
Adverb, (— i;!^ S^^f* ^j^ f^^^ji!^ ^J^ karfi^tamiz. 
Adversary, wi^^ h(^f> v^l^ mulMalif: see Enemy. 
Adversity, c:u^ ftipa^ (f.), t^^s oj bad-iakhii, s^iifaWcat. (f.) 
Advertisement, jl^s^l ishtihar, ^l3 jl^xll MA^Aar-nama. 
Advice, ii^^.^jcy^) naft^at (f.), (^--Jl*^^ upades, JU «a2aA. (f.) 
Adulation, «x«1 c/r>^ kkmh-amad (f.)i (^"^^ chaplusi* 
Adultery, \3j 2ruta (f.)» s£;^j ^in^*^''^^ ^W^ cAAina^. 
Affiur, J^^ kam, CL^b bat (f.), A^U^ mtt'amala, ^«Xi« muAcMUamd. 
Afiection, f^j^ prim, u:^\ u/fa^ (f.),c ; .^.»i r * mu^dbbaL (f.) 
Affliction, «^J|^ ^g, ^ ran;, ^J €lttX:A, ^0^ tasd'^. (f.) 
Age (time of life),^;<4£ Smr (f.), Jjj>\ ayurbcU : see Time. 
Agent, (doer) Je\ifa% \jJ karta, (deputy) J-S!^ walnl: see Factor. 
Agility, ^>W chalalu, ^A-^ chustl, ^j^^ phurtt, ^ V <^*5*«**'* 
Agreement, (concord) jUft it^t^i^, (compact) ^ ^Aarj, ^Ui kabala. 

19S Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Aid, (1^ kumak (f.)> «>Jl« madad ((.), l^jM>^ dast-glri. 

Alacrity, j^* shauk, ^jJj dildihl, ^"i^ chalaki. 

Alien, ^^^^^i P^rdesi, ^jr^^ ajnabt, ^^j}^\ uprt. 

AUiteratioii, ^ ^ ^ j . vfy^ tajnis, (f.) 

Almanac, mI^j talpDim (f.), |^ patra. 

Almighty (the), jjUJl alrkadir^j^L^^ parameshwar : see God. 

Alms, .^^ hhtkh (f.)i <^^j;;^^ lAairat (plur. f.)i ^^^^ <2an. 

Aloes, (gum) \^\ elwa^j^Ma^ mufohbar (f.), (wood)jS 1 <^g^^f *^^ ^d. 

Alphabet, t<; <— «5^ alifbl (f.), j^ypV^ ^3j^ puruf-i-tahajjl. 

Amber, U^ kah-ruba. Ambergris, j*:^ ambar. 

Amount, i^A^jumlaf ^4^jam^ (f.), tjfj^ g^t^^f -^J^ fft^ih. (f.) 

Amusement, l&UJ- ^oma^Aa, ^yiJ tafarruj, J^ ArAeZ. 

Ancestor, \^y purkha, i^jadd. 

Ancestors, j\ J^l b\ abortydad, ^/^ purkKe. 

Ancients, ^^j£l« mviaJpaddiminj ^i]^ purane. (plur.) 

Angle, d^j^ khunty ij^ kona, <U>^ gosha, ^^\j zawiya. 

Anguish, c^ljb^ azab, <-^<^^ aztyat, (f.), J1 aZam, l1^^ AicwAf. 

Animal, jyW-Jantrar, ^|^:^ ftaxvoafif ^^ |>a«u. 

Answer, yl uttaVf (^\^ jawabj \j\ji\ utara. 

Anvil, 1^1^ nihffij ^^\x^ sindan. (f.) 

Anxiety, 41jjJ1 andeska,J^fikr, JJy taraddudj ,^*^ udasi. 

Appellation, i*l} nam^ Vi^^ la(:ab, (plur. c^U)^ al^ab) : see Name. 

Appointment, ^^^ ta'aiyun, (office) irJiye uAda, (promise) SJ^^ wada. 

Argument, C^^a^ bahsj 2f^L« munasara, JJj <Zci[i2. (f.) 

Arithmetic, ij:.,«a:> gani^ (f.), jL-i nyaii:, jL-j ^ /anit-insiyaA. 

Arrangement, \..^y tarttb (f.), c:..^^ ^ jcj band^ast. 

Art, jiJb hunar, ^ ibn, ^fann, ts-uc-^ 5an*a^. (f.) 

Artifice,^^ tnakr, ^L^ Alia, J^ chkal, i^^^y ^ fann-fareb. 

Ashes, ^j raAA (fO^V?" cAAar (f.),^a-«^U. Iduikistar. (f.) 

AssafoBtida, ig_^'-^ A<Yig, ^y^l anguza, i^^\s>- hiltJt, 

Assembly, ^^ majma^, cr^ majlis (f.), Jitf:** mahfiL (f.) 

Assessment, ^ly>- khiraj^ i}y^^^ mahful, ^b iq;. 

. Vocabulary. — Nouns, 199 

Assistance, JJc« madad (f.), jlC»^ upakar, ^\^ sahayata. (f.) 

Assistant, jbjJL« madadgary ^S^ kumaktf ij\^ sahal, (m.) 

Astonishmenty ^J^ji^ hair ant, i^^>^ ^^^^jjuh^j^ ta^aiyur. 

Astrolabe, c-^^^k.p^ u§iurlab. 

Attendant, jUcL^JcL khidmatgar, fijLc mulazim. 

Attention, i^j\J^^ Iioshyarl, C^j^ surt (f.); (to a guest) ^|y tawazu\ 

Attraction, ,J^ khainch (f.)y ijtl^ hashish (f.\ uj^jaxb. 

Attribute, u:^-i*g §ifat. (f.), i^J^c^ trojr/*, cr-^w^U- Jdyassiyat. (f.) 

Auction, ^XJ niZam, ^lyb harraj, i^Jj bikrt. 

Authority, jL:^\ ikhtiyar^ u^^^^ hukumat. (f.) 

Awe, jO jiar, <«^j ^^^fjy^g^» u:^^.Jb haibat, (f.) 

Axis, axle, axle-tree, ^^«i> cZAicrt ; (pole of the earth) i^\\% kutb» 

Babbler, ui^V bydbhak, Cj^j\i ba^ojfiak, y^H V^^'S^' 

Babe, baby, ^tosr bachcha, U«l 2arX;a (m.), i^ farii. (f.) 

Backbiter, j^ J^ chughul-khor. jUi gh amrnaz. 

Badge, cr);^ chapras, ^lU ni^Aan, c:,.^ V if. aHmat, (m.) 

Bag, ,^^ufi thaitt, ^^/>- khartta^ (sack to carry grain) ^^^ gon. (f.) 

Baggage, c«>U.rf\ asbabf \j:.^j^ chtz-bast (f ), (slut) L^ behaya. 

Bail, (surety) ^<^^ zaminFt, (person) ^t^ xamin. 

Balance, (^))t^ mtzan (fOoj]/ tarazu (f.), (of account) ^Jib JaAi. 

Bdle,j^gaihar, ^y^ moth (f.)^ ^^^ ganth. (f.) 

Ball, ]ljf go2a, ^y goli, (for play) \su^ genda, (dance) ^U nacA. 

Bamboo, (^b £an«. 

Band, (bandage) ^<S^ p^tPf «^ ^9uZ, (company) s^ guroh. (f.) 

Bane,^J «aAr, j^ 6w, ^^\f>- ^uzrabi, ^j^UsSJ nui^^an. 

Banishment, SIO (j«j[i3 dcs^nikala, ^^t^^jilor^atan. 

Bank (of a river, 8ic.)> i^^ kinara,jJ fir. 

Bank (for money), ij\^ lJ\j>^ ^arraf-khanaf klXj iaiti* 

Bankruptcy, f^^J dewala, c^^«^l3 na^ari, fjJli\ iflas* 

Banquet, ur^L^ ziyafat (f.), CJ^^J dif'wai. (f.) 

Bard, ^\^ &Aa/, ^^^*^^ karkhait, uz^J^ bardait. 

Bargain, Jiy^ aA<f, ^]^ Jy kauU^arar, )ojL short, (f.) 

200 Vocabukary. — Nouns. 

Bark (of a tree), Jlf>- chhal, \il^ chhiUca, ^^*^i ) l post. 

Barm^ j^^^S-. khamir. 

Barter, ^ J ^ ten den, ]| Jj S j\ adlorbadlaj aJjLc mubadala. 

Bastardy »j\j a\j^ fuLram-zada, L t<«|;>- harana pilla. 

Bdellium, J^^gugal, jLe mukU 

Bead, ^^guriya (f.), ^^v) l^ 3tU mala ka dona, UL« man^« 

Beak, t^y>^ ckSnch (f.), (.1^ niok (f.), jU:^ minitttr. (f.) 

Beauty, yj^j^.y^ IMibpiraii, \jjXmi sundarta {t\ JU»- JamaZ. 


Beginning, .f^j\ arambh, e^^ shuru^, ^Jcul ibtida. (f.) 

Behalf, ^^\^ karan, JtU. ^aj[lr (f.), ^^ A^^^ ,^ Ky^» 

Behaviour, Jl>> cAa/ (f.)^ JIai> Jl>. chalrdhal {{.), (^/jbj dhang. 

Being, ^<::^«J^ Ao^fi, ijy^j wujudjjijj\>' jandar. 

Belch, jl^*> dakar (f.), fjj^ arogh. 

Belief, hSm aJcida, ^J^ tman,j^^ hawar. 

Believer^ «xSsa« mt^takiidj ^i^^^^\ tmin-darf ^^y mfimin. 

Bell, \iu^ghanta, {j^j^ jarcLSj (small) ^j^^ ghunghru. 

Belt, JCJ land, (girdle) ^JU peii, jcj y4^ kamar-batul, (sword) Ij^ 

Bench, ^/^ cAatiAi, ^bos? takhta, (of justice) A«Ce« ma^AMWia. 

Bend, ^ Ma^y i/ ^J^ .<^^a% (twist) Jj iaZ, ^ pecA. 

Benediction, (^r:****^ am (f.)i W«> ^ti'a (f.\ ob^l asiirbad^ 

Benefaction, aU)\ tn'am, ^Li».\ i^san, ^JL^^, bakhshish, (f.) 

Benefit, sdjMfa^ida, ^L.>>-( iA^an, (profit) ^aj ruif^. 

Benevolence, yj^)j'>yi^ thair^khpuhlf ^^^ nihol, \j^ kirpa. (f.) 

Berry, ^b dana, Jfj (^ '-^^^ ^ si^^ <^^ ^ ^ra^ ka phal. 

Betel-nut, ^^^ supari or gp;^»«> supyan. 

Betel*leaf, ^b |7an, J^^^J /amio/. 

Bier, iij\:»p^ janaza, CL>jj\5 ^aiti^. 

Biestings, ^^ pVosi, ^^-J-fj pAe«i«, (^^ jpcyfi*. 

Bill, (of parcels) uXacu SyaA;, UU«i siyaha, (of exchange) 

hundi, (account) Cy.tL»> ^»ai, I4C! 2eX:Aa, (of a bird) see Beak, 

(instrument) ^b da*d. 

Focabulary. — Nouns, 20 1 

Baiet (note), ^j^ chittht, ijoj rufp'a, J^ paGn 

Billet (of wood), )L>- chaUa, »J^ kunda, 

Bin, ^/ Ao<A^ ^jef mhru 

Binding (of a book), oJb»- jild (f.), ^^J>' jux-bandi. 

Bird, U J^ chiriya (f.), jj«^ pakheru, JJ^ parand, f^ murgh. 

Birth, f^jananiy ^J^^^ paidffisA (f.), ^y tawallud. 

Birthday, ir^U saUgirih (f.), -^if ^^^ baras-ganth. (f,) 

Biscait, C/l^ ia/:, ^UijK kultcfia, ^^ iikku 

Bit, (piece) J^fl fu^a, y^ J garra, 5j^ purza. 

Bit (of a bridle), ^Uj dahana, /%\xj lagam. (f.) 

Bitch, ^^ iu/^t, L:^ kutiya (f.), v^^;(^ kukarl. 

Bitterness, C^^Uj^ karwahat (f.), ,^y^ talkhl. 

A black (negro), ^^^.l->- habsht, ^^j zangl (m.), ^JcJb hindu* 

Blackguard, Is' lucAcAa, ^ Jc^ shuhda, JJ; rinJ. 

Blade, (of grass) l:u pattd, (of a sword) Jf» pAaZ, (a fellow) ICb 

Blame, (^•O dos, ^•J dokh, c:.^«x« nmzamfnat (f.), /^^j^^ i£ram. 
Blank book, ^L) bayaz^ i:^Jua safina. 
Blemish, ^b da^, cl^ kalank, i^^ khot (f.), c^^-r^ aib. 
Blessing, Uj <2u'a (f.), fjm^\ asis (f.), i^::-^ barakat (f.)i «^ 

ni*ma/. (f.) 
Blindman's buff, )j^'^yo ^\ ankh mundaura. 
Blindness, ^)Ljbj^t andhlapan, ijj^ korl, i^^ffl' norblnal. 
Block, (of wood) sXi^ kunda^ ^^ kath, (of stone) ^l^ chatan. 
Blockhead, uJy^ be-wukuf, (j4>9A a^maic^ i^«<^^ gawdi. 
Bloodshed, 4^j ^^ JAun-rezl, JsJ katl. 
Bloom, iifJi» shigufa, J^ phul, (of youth) {3j^y nau-jawanu 
Blossom, Jj|i |?Ati/, ,J^ ftaZi, (of the mango) jyc maur. 
Blot, ^J cZag:^, C^w;^ cAAif (f.), <^:^ cAt»A. 
Bludgeon, ^^^ latht, \Sjy^ sonta^ IjJj danda. 
Blueness, ^^IJ niia'f , J^ kabud. 
Blunder, l^ybj dhokha or \^ybj <2^ilca, l15^ cAiiA;. (f.) 

2 D 

202 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Boards ^B;akr taf^ta, (table) J-^ mez (f.), (food) Ixj \i\^ khana pina. 

Board-wages, l/1?^ Mv^5*'> f*^^ ^ l/>[^ ^wraAi A-c <2am. 

Boast, boasting, ^J uJJ laf-zanl, ,^ \ji baralfjP^ju tafaldiur. 

Boaster, Ji^y Jp- Mitd-farosh, ^j uJS laf-zan. 

Boldness, o;;-Jj rfi/eri, c:->|^ Jwr'a^ (f.), i^ ^*> dhithal. 

Bond, (fastening) jjj &ane2, ^^JbJcj band/urn, (written obligation) l^ -r* 

tamassuk, ji^\s,.ai:> dast-awez. 
Bondsman, ^^ zdmin, JLi^ Aq/7/. 
Book, ,^^ |wMi, t-jt^ fci^aJ (f.), ^^i?«^ ?a^i/a. 
Boon, ji bar, ^jtLasT bakhshish (f.) : see Bounty. 
BooTj j\y^ gantvar, ^Jjc^jangR (m. f.), ^^AfcJ dihkant. (m. f.) 
Booty Llfji lut (f.), L!L v^J•r ghammat ((.), \aju yaghma. 
Borax, \S li>^ «oA5g5, j\^ tinkar, Jjy) burak. 
Border, (side) ifj\i^ kinarayj^^ chhor, (edging) ^y kor. 
Botany, CL^\J Ac tlm-unabat, Jlc ^ ^y^ buton ka tlm. 
Bottom, HJ tata, ,jj to/F, 2Flf» thah (f.), 1j^ penda. 
Bough, J^5 daZi, Jl5 daZ (f.), ^ shaMi. (f.) 
Bound, (leap) (>^ Arud (f.), (boundary) J^ fiodd (f.), J^ j*^ sar-hadd 

(f.), (limit, end) lyjl tn^iAa (f.), *;U^ kinara. 
Bounty, ^^ faiz, \jJ kirpa (f.), /^^ karam, \jz^i^ tnayat. (f.) 
Bow (obeisance), ^^j^ AomwA (f.), ^^L-J tasltm. (f.) 
Boyhood, ^^^ larakpauj ^ l^ larka*t. 

Brand, (burning stick) a:;^^ so^a, ^^ lukfi, (mark) i^J dagh. 
Brat, Ijij) laundif |/^^ chhokra, \^ gurga, Jil? £i/?. 
Bravery, g^(3 diVsri, ^z^Aib himmat (f.), i^<^l^ bahaduri» 
Brawl, ^y^jhagra. Brawler, j^\^^jhagralu, ^\ji laraka. 
Breach, ^^^phut ((•),j)j^ darar, (quarrel) Jfl^ Wgar, JU. Iduxial. 
Breadth, ^^ \jy>- chaural, ^ \i^^pahna1, (of cloth or a river) Llf\jpil. 
Breech of a gun, ^^ ^ Jy^ banduk hi kdtht. 
Breed, J-J nasl((.), lij\3 ^at (f.), J-^^ asl (f.), s^ *wm. (f.) 
Breeding, (education) (ji^y tarbiyat (f.)^ (manners) ^^^ chalan. 
Bribe, f^y^j rishwat (f.), (j^^ghus, ^^ .^f^ mviiA^Aart. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 203 

Brickbat, \jjj rora. Brickdust, i^/^j^ surkfu* 

Brick-kiln, \j^\j} pazawa (f.), if^\asr pajawa. 

Bride, ^J dulhan (f.), (j^^ arus, (f.) Bridegroom, \^y} dulha. 

Bridle, |»\fl lagam (f.), c/l^ 65g (f.), ^j>^ *»5». (f.) 

Brightness, ^<^jj rosAni, !tU-\ ujala, uX«^ chamak. (f.) 

Brim, Brink, 5^1:1^ kinara, 4^ ^&, |j]j^ karara. 

Brine, ^v^ ^;-^ natnkln pant, ,<3b 1^1^ AAara pani. 

Bristle, Jb \^ ..^ l/ jV^ ^'^'' ^^pM^ ^^ ^^^- 

Brushwood, fc^jWjA^rl, jlfr j*5r, C^ jW j*5r ififa. 

Brute, ^^i^ fiaiwan, ^JL^jwahsht,j^\^janwar. 

Bud, Jl^ ftafi, J-3^ konpal (f.)> *?^ gh uncha. 

Bulk, 4^ 6^ mota% ^ Ijj fiara*!, JjJ rfi/. 

Bunch, (of fruit) t^ guchchhaf iJ^y>- khosha* (of ribbons) Jj^jpAuZ. 

Bundle, l^j^ gathri (m.), 4j?;5^ mofri, JUs*^ bu/ccha. 

Bung, l|SUbj dhattha. 

Burden, i^jj iyh^jh bar, J^^^- hand: see Grief. 

Bush, i^f^ jhafif ^^P^ jhar, \Sy ifita, ^l& «Aa^« 

Business, i*l^ /ram, ^ kaj, (avocation) see Calling. 

Butt, (mark) uJjJb hadaf, ^hJ nishaTia. 

Buying and Selling, <i£-^^ 'H/^ kharidrfarokht. (f.) 

Cage, l^isd) pir^ra, ^jJi ^cifof (large) \j^ katahra. 

Calamity, ls^I afat {{.), o^ bipat (f.), 3b &a2a. (f.) 

Calculation, 4^1m>- Auai, ziS gintJ, j\aJ^ shumar. 

Calendar, lyu patra, ^^yu takwtm. (f.) 

Calling, iJL^ pesha, U JcJh J dhandha, j^^, bydkar. 

Camphor, Camphire, jf^ kapur^j^^ kafur. 

Cane, (stick) 4,j?5^ chhafi, Juj ficrf (f.), (sugar-) -^^1 ukh (f.), Lf 

Canon, ^y\j kanun, xd^\j (:Slda, ^ f aln, 
Canopus, J;*^^ suhaiL 

Canopy, ^\i\^ sayaban, jGL«L& shamiyanayjxf- chair. 
Canter (pace), ^^ poya. To canter, Ul>- ^^^ j^o^on chaifia. 

204 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Canvass (cloth), iU^ iatfj\pA ajar, cf^C ^J^ udlayaii tat. 
Capacity, (space) ^Jj\js^ gunjfflsh (f.), (ability) cu-JjlS kabili- 

yat. (f.) 
Capital, (city) n^&idsr taldit-gah (f.), (sum) ^^^yf^ punji. 
Caprice, capriciousness, ^Jb^ wahm, i^]}^ ^^^ talauwun-mizajt. 
Captive (prisoner), t/Ju5 Jcaidijj^ aslr, j\:j^ giriftar. 
Caravan, j^'jj^ karwan, AlilS kdjila, (car) L^j^gaft. 
Caravansary, |^ ^J^nj^ karwan^sara, c5|/-» 5ora'c. (f.) 
Carcass, ^^ 2SsA (f.), ^j! 25M (f.), arJ^ murc^a, cjL'-h^ maiyit. (f.) 
Card (visiting), ^US^ \^ aLj «a/am fta ruk^a, jj^ ti^arail:. 
Cards (playing), ^jJo tas, ^jJj ^ ,<iL^ kheh^ kd tas. 
Care, \ai^ chinta (f.),^ ^A^> ^lli^JJ^ andeshaf \jj}parv)a. (f.) 
Carefulness, lS^'^j^ khabardarh i^^^ Ao^Ayari. 

Carelessness, c:.Jifi ghaflat (f.)» i^jf^ bekhabari^ (J^:^'***^ «u«/i. 


Carnage, Jflj Ara^Z, Jti ifct^a/ (f.), i^jiyy>- khunrezi. 

Carriage, J^ bahal (f.), see Cart, (carrying) lSj^^^j^J^, barbardart. 

Carrion, j^J^ murdar : see Carcass. 

Cascade, ^j^ jharna, JJ^ t^\ ab-skar, j*^^ chadar. (f.) 

Case, (covering) Ljliighilaf, J^ khol: see State, Condition, Box. 

Case, (in grammar) crJU- hdlat (f.), tl^l^ karak. 

Cash, L*^pai«a, JJu nakd,^yj rdkar. (f.) 

Cast, (throw) uJk;j^» phenk (f.), (form) C-S3 naXrxAa, (tribe) izAj 

zat. (f.) 
Catalogue, u:.w^^Am^(f.), libL^ ^yaAa, (list) ui^s^ btjak. 
Cattle, L<^)^ mawdsktf j^ dhoTy ^j^ ^j o ga'c-gorw. 
Cave, cavern, x^ khoh^ jU gKar. \^ gupha (f.), <*-a^ kahf. 
Caution, l^Ui^^ U^tiydt (f.), jjb>- fiazary i^j\J^^ hoshyari. 
Celebrity, s^jy^ namwarl, *^^J^(^ shuhrat (f.). 
Celerity, ^S^^ chdldkij ^^:.,>...^ chustl, ^t-& «Ai^a6f . 
Celibacy, ^j|;^ ftii'ar-pan5, uuJU- ^^ ^5 \ jkici^li na<*Aa^M>(^'< kl 

Cell, ^^ gosha, isjjb>^ hujra, iJi kulba, ^/^^ kothrt. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 205 

Censure, aSJ\ ilzam, ,^^ U^n^ l::.^w«3U malamat ((.), ^jjJ ninda. (f.) 

Cent, (hundred) ^ sau, (or, per cent.) ^jC-* saikra. 

Centre, J!^ markaz, ^\^jO darmiyan. 

Certificate, Jj^f v.i,,.%ydO dast-awez (f.)» ^^^ wasiJca. 

Cessation, ui3y tawakkuf, cu^c^ fara g hat (f.), (JuJl^ muhlaU (f.) 

Chaff, ^-^ 6A&I, J^^ phokar. 

Chain, ^^jasT; zanjir (f.),yljL» sankar (f.), dL-L> silHla. 

Champion, ^^^ly^ pahlawan^ jy^ sur. 

Chance, (accident) jU7\ ittifai, (fortune) c:. >#<>.i»i iistnat. (f.) 

Change, J^Ju? to&c2iZ (fO^^^^ taghaiyur. J«Vi iacfaZ. 

Change (small money), ,«^ ^ »'^^g«> s^j^ ^i 7)aw5 kauri. 

Chaplet, \jY^ sihra, (rosary) /^w7 tasbih. (f.) 

Chapter, v^b bab^ ^IJbJl adhyaya, J«^ /af Z. (f.) 

Character, (mark) ^l!J n£«Aan, <— Jp- ^^^/y (writing) i3£>- uu^* J dost' 

khatt. Jij ralcam (f.)^ (reputation) jlafi\ Ctibar, a\j nam. 
Charcoal, h^ kd*ela, J\i) z ugh aL ^j:^.JLij\ ankisht. 
Charge, (care, custody) ^\^^awala, ^J zimma, (j:^Ut amanat (f.)^ 

(office) CU"><J>» Idddmat (f.), (expense) ^^ lAarch, c:^) Zaga^ 

(f.)^ (assault) 4.4>* hamla, (accusation) a|j)\ ilzam^ ^J doAA. 
Chariot, ^^^JU gart, J^^ ghur-bahal (f.), -^j raM. (f.) 
Charity, (benevolence) ^JljjJ\^^ khair-andeshl : see Alms. 
Charles's Wain, ^^ c^J dubb-irakbar, ^j:^ saptarikh. 
Charm, (spell) ^S^jaduy jii>^ mantar, (amulet) jjyJ taunz, USy 

Chart, JiLSj naiska, ^J10Sj \i v^^ ^ bj J cfarya /:« kinare ka naksha. 
Charter, JJi^i.) sanad (f.), ^^jifarman, s^\j J^ ahd-nama. 
Chase, (hunting) jlCi& shikar, (park) ii^j ramna : see Pursuit. 
Chastisement, \j^ saza (f.}> ^U^^ goskmatt, f^-^*^^ tadib, (f.) 
Chastity, _:^1 J^U pakdamant, y^}^\ pakizagi, jjl^a^P' a^mat. (f.) 
Chat, L-^og^ (f.), vl^ &aft (f.), axiir cclO ^ &S takalluf guftgu. 
Cheat, Uj dog-Ao (f.), J^ cAAa/, (cheater) jU U J daghorbaz. t^J^ 


206 • Vocabulary — Nouns. 

Cheer, c:.y-« masarrat (f.), ^^ khurramu (food) ^^^ bhojan. 

Chess, ^jf^^ shatranj. (f.) Chess-board, I0LJ S 0f)oJu shatranj kl 
bisat. Ches8*man, 5^ muhrOf J^ nard^ lHj^ got (f.) King 
at chess, 2rl& shahf 2iL&Jb padshah. Queen, ^»;ljj^ forztn, j)^j^ 
wazlr. Castle or rook, ^ rukh^ cSO^t tin/ (?). Bishop, fj^^pilf 

^-fiU AaMt. Knight, 4...^^ asp, ^j^ghZra. Pawn, ifi:Lj^piydda, 


jjuj baidak. 
Chick, chicken, irj^ chuza, ^^f^^ chingnh 
Chief, chieftain, ^^fcy* sardar,j^ mir, \j^^j rals. 
Chisel, l5^^ /anif, .J^^j rukkanif ^.j£>» cAASnt. 
Chitchat, c.^^ gapshap, m.^vysv- c^b bat-chit (f.), JU- Jji io^ 

cAaZ. (f.) 
Choice, (will) jL;>>t iMuiyar, (selection) c^^lsdjf jntMiab, 
Christianity, Vi=^|^ na§ramyat (f.), w.^iV« i^}"^ tsawi mashab. 
Chronicles, f^^y» tawarJkh. 
Chronology, fCj^y |J^ ilm-irtawarikh. 
A Churl, jl^ganu^ar, _)l2jbJ dihkdnlj (miser) J^^ bakhSl. 
Chymistry, Li^ klmiya, i^^\jkS ktmiya-gart, ^^\^j rasayan. 
Cipher, (in numbers)^;^^ ;i/r, U^d ^nna, (letter) uJp- karf, u^\ ani. 
Circle, Jj^ kundal, SjAj dffira, ]ji^ ghera, ^^Sl»- halka. 
Circuit, j^ dauT^ ^j>- chakkaty ^^^ gardish (f.), iie\^\ ihata. 
Circumference, 0^ gird, \;i^ ghera, j^^ pher, la**^ muhlt. 
Circumstance, u:.Jl>- halat, ul^^^a*!^ kaifiyat (f.), ^y^ chigunagi. 
Citizen, (,£;>y^ «AaAri, j^^ Jjb\ ahUi-sIiahr, ^Ll^ Jjhl ahli-pcsha. 
City,yyJb shahr, Jj nagar, ifiA) balda, JL:jiX« madina. 
Civet, Jbj zahad. 

Civility, v^:^LJ) insantyat (f.), Ci^^j^ ntttrfitra^ (f.) 
Claim, J^^«i> da*wa, jls^Li\ istihkak, J>* A^it^. 
Clamour, j^ sAor, U^ gh a ugk a^ Ji yAifZ. 
Clamp, ^ pattar, (of bricks) »jla«^ pqjawa. 
Clap, (blow) l2L^ chameta, lilS^ khatka, (of hands) JIU ^aZi. 
Claspknife, yU- cAaitu, yl>^ cAakku, \Sj bakiya. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 207 

Class, (division) iijijirka, >^ ^m, (degree) ^j*^ darja. 
Clause, (sentence) XjSiJikra, A^jumkt, (condition) t,-S» skarL (f.) 
Clearness, ^^ U-^ safal, J)^ shaffafl, ^ 'i^\ ujloTi. 


Cleaver, (butcher's) \j^ bv ghd a^ \sj\^ khanda. 
Cleft, JLsi^ rakhnaf jjti darz,j\jJ darar^ Jh^ shakk. 
Climate, clime, ^\ iJcUmj ^j^ti des, ^fy^\ ab-o-hawa. (f.) 
Cloth, J-^ kapar, \^ kapriyj:^ bastar, ^j^ parcha. 
Clown^j^jLS ganwaTf _3UibJ dihkant, ^L^s^ anchhtla. 
Club, \Sjj^ sonta, lac a^a, «fj) latkly Ij^ gada. 
Cluster, ^^ Jd^sha^ i^ guchchha, (crowd) ^'Uc*- jamSo, 
Coach, i^j^ garl, Jk^J bahal({.), J^Jp ghur-bafiaL (f.) 
Cobweb, yU- l^ si^ makfi ka jala. 
Cochineal, j^Ji kirmiz, Jbl J|*^ kirm-dana. 
Coffin, ^A^ kafauy JjtXi-^ §andulcy <^^^ tabut. 
Coil, ^Jj^ kunilti, Jj bal,j^^pher, a>- ^£/m. 
Complaint, ^U naZi^A (f.), (>'o^ faryad (f.)? ^l^ naZa ; see Disease. 
Coin, aC* «iAAa, C;^ zarb (f.), l^Ji^ mtccZra. (f.) 
Collection, ^U&s^^ ytifnaT, ^^^^ majma*, (sum) ^^ jam*. 
College, ^jS^ Tnadrasa^ SU ^l» pathsala. (f.) 
Collusion, ^J^ bandUh (f.), ^L sazish (f.), ISj ILj sa/fa ia^fa. 
' CoUyrium, ^;^^ anjatiy J&^ Ati^Z, ^u«^ surma. 
Colour, {^J^j fangf ^jt baran, (pretext) Uj- J5, ^l^ ia/^ana. 
Column, 1^^^ n^iin, «^ Za/,i (f.), ^U J^ ptl-paya. 
Combat, ^^ \ji laral, ^J^^ muharaba : see Battle, Fight. 
Combination, J^ me/, lJL< milap (f.), jUji ittifak. 
Comfort, LSj diUsa, .^ ^AA, i^^^T aram. 
Command, Commandment, J[»- hukm, L^ I ^ggyc^yy^ amr. 
Commencement, \jcj^ i&^i^a (f.), ^jJU shurvT, jUT aghaz. 
Comment, Commentary, -.^ «AarA (f.), ILS Uka (f.), ^lJ«U- Kashiya. 
Commission, (warrant) i^^i sanad (f.), (acting) c^l^l irtikab. 
Committee, tji^lsL panchayat (f.)> (j-J^ my lis. (f.) 


Commodity, ^^mis^jins (f.), JU mal^j^ chtz (f.), ts^^ Jo*^. (f.) 

208 Vocabulary. — Noum, 

Common shore, ^jj^, badar-rau, (f.), ^l3j parnala. 

Commotion, (tumult) \jb balwa, ^ccj fitna : see Motion. 

Community, (whole people) j^f*^ jamhur : see Society. 

Compact, j\y J^ kaul kardr, ^jJt» short (f.), Jl^ ahd. 

Companion, ,<f^L gathl (m.), J^ ^afilfy c,^'%»>lifl.< mtr^o^ift. 

Company, (society) c^Xmi*^ sangat (f.), v^;^U; rifakat, (assembly) 
j^^Jusr* majlis (f.), (guests) ^^^U^^ »ii^ma«, (partnershig) cu^j;-- 
sharakat (f.), (body of people) 2[j^ gtaroh. (f.) 

Compass, |^«^ ghera, ^U.^ ^.(a, j^ j^Aer : see Circuit. 

Compasses (pair of), j\i^ pargar (f.), or (dakh.) j\^ parkar. 

Compassion, J^J dardjj^^pir (f.), bj ^aya (f.), A>y roAm. 

Compensation, ^)IJ taldft, Sjj badla, \j>^jaza, (f.) 

Complaint, (lament) Aiyfaryad (f.), ^\3 na/i«A: see Disease. 

Complexion, (colour) (Si^ rangj {^S^j ^ c5;^ cAtAre Aa rang. 

Compliment, (salutation) aLi salam, (service) ^J^ bandagi. 

Computation, a^Ur* muAa^a&a, J^J^ ti^dad, (f.) 

Concern, (care) li^^ parwa (f.), ^Jj\ andesha: see Affair. 

Concord, (agreement) J^ me/, v.::pJii^^ muwafakat (f.), c^^Lc mtSp 
(f.), (harmony) yy<:>M ^ ham-aluingij U««* sama. 

Concourse, d^ys^ hujum,J^ &Atr(f.)y (meeting) t^JLc mildp. (f.) 

Condition, JW AaZ, v^U- Aa2a< (f.), (stipulation) l^^ sAar|. (f.) 

Conduct, ^J^ chalan, CJ^ suluk^Ji^S atwar. 

Confidence, ^jjii bharosa, t2\3ss\ i^tikad, i^j^*^ ditcri. 

Congratulation, ^^Jb C^L« mtibarak-badt, ^-^^^ tahniyat. (f.) 

Conquest, Jj fatti (f.), yb aa/ar, jjss^ tasjdur. (f.) 

Conscience, ^^:^ famir (f.), -f^^*^ samajh (f.), ^;Uj\ imaa. 

Consent, ^^Jc^eUj raza^mandi, J^ kabul, J^ mi/, jfUjt ittifak. 

Consequence, ^^^Qu nattja, (moment) ^Id^ tmixayaka^ \^^ parwa. (f.) 

Conserve of roses, Jcj J^gul-kand, ^j/^ J? gul-sluikaru 

Consideration, ,J^Jbt>^hyan,j\!sf^bichar,J>jfikr. 

Consolation, ^X^ tasalG, LJj dilasa, ^^jUj dkaras. 

Conspiracy, ^^Iscj ftandwA (f.), tS^/goskt (f.), ^^jU sazwA. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 209 

ConsternatioD, tS^\j^ ghabrdkat (f.), t^^j^ fudrat, (f.) 
Constitution^ ^|^ mizqj, ci^^^ueJ? tab'tyat, ur-^Lcf^ jibillat (f.), u:^^^ 

sirishU (f.) 
Consultation, ^5^^^ ^^ saldh-khzpahty CLJfj^t^ mashwarat, (f.) 
Contemplation, ij^\j ta'ammul, |^U^^ dkyan.jyi gkaur. 
Contempt, ci^lto- (ixkarat (f.), ^^^UjI apaman, ci^ltot iAana/. (f.) 
Content, contentment, ,^y>- khushi^ ^.^U kana'aU (f.) 
Contract, j1^ Jy /raifZ karar, J^ aArf, ?^ Aor. (f.) 
Contriyance, jlsfZ^ (?^^9 v.s.'^^iL'v hikmat (f.),^JJ tadbtr. (f.) 
ControTersy, C*^ ioA.^ (f.), Jj^ J; radd-bcLdal (f.), iUaS kaziya. 
Conversation, yci>gt{/?gw (f.), c:.-*-^ <^:^Ij bat-chlt. (f.) 
^Py> J*^ «^^^ (f-)* <'^^=^ nuskha, (first or foul) irj^.^ musauwada. 
Coquetry, jl3 naar, ^^aT natArd, \j\ add (f.), 5lj-^ chochld iJyW 

Coquette^ jlj^aT nakhrd^bdz^ ^HyLC' ashwa-gar. 

Coral, iCj^ ntfinga, (^Vj^ marjdfi, (child's) ^^'y>' chusni. 

Corf, i^-^ »•«*«> J^ ^or ({•), ^j^i!>' je'ord. 

Cork, (plug) \^JbJ dhatihdj \,j^^ thenthi. 

Comer, \j^ kondy dJ^^ gosha, l!U3^^ kliunt^ ^ kunj. 

Corpse, XJj^ murda, fjiH lash (f.), ^^ loth (f.)> CS^j^ mirtak. 

Correction, (amending) ,*^v.s^ tas'fnh (f.), (punishment) 1j-» sazd. (f.) 

Correspondence, (by letter) i^:^\^ ks>- IduiU-kitdbat (f.) : see Rela- 

Cost, Jj^ mol, vj:,^^ iiriiTta^ (f.)> ^ bahd, ^^ kharch. 
Cotton, (undressed) (jJ^ kapds, (dressed) ^^j rul, a-jj pumba. 
Covenant, ^l3 tX^ ahdrndma, Jy ^czkZ, L^ ^Aar^. (f.) 
Cover, Uijs> dhakndj {J-^^j^ sar-posh, (shelter) s^uj pandh. (f.) 
Covetousness, sJi Idlach, -^^ SJA, fj»js>- ^irs. (f.) 
Coulter, ^^-J fuist,j\^^ phdr. 

Council, ^jS^ majlis (f.), [^ sabhd (f.), ts^l^ panchdyaL (f.) 
Counsel, tj:..-^gv^ nastpat ({.), Jcj ^amf .- see Counsellor, Attorney. . 
Countenance, Sj^ chihra, .^ murih, (favour) J^y tawajjuh, (f.) 

2 E 

210 Vocabulary, — Nouns, 

Country, (region) ^^^jj^ sar'-zaniin (f.), a^ bhum (f.), ulXi* mulkf 
{jm}J des, (opposed to town) (^^«3 dihat, J..isLo mufassal, (na- 
tive land) ^^ watarij >»^ f^janam-bkum. 

Countryman, (of the same country) ^j *Jh ham^watan, ^5 l^ (^J 
des-bhal, (peasant) ^UftJ dihkant, Jy^ ganwar. 

County (division of a country), ^1^ «tZ*, ^^i^ pargana. 

Couple,^ J do, ^jy^jora, KZ^^jufi. 

Couplet, Ls^ bait (f.), l^j^ (2oAa. 

Course,^ daur (f.), (i-*JJ £iaj)af (f.), (race-couiiBe)^75«>J^gAttr-dattr. 

Court, (of justice) usJ^J^ addlat (f.), ,^jj^ kachahrt, (yard) ^^^ 
^a^Ti, (hall of audience) jbjJ darbar : see Palace. 

Cracker, (squib) \si-l2j pataMiaf (boaster) ^^^ uJi laf-zan. 

Cradle, S^Jcjb hindola, *^y^ gahwara^ J^ mahd. 

Crane, (for raising goods) K^J damkald^ (dakh.) i'')y,A< malsEU. 

Crease, ^jLl^ shikan (f.), ^^jaf- chin (f.), vj:.>^i»> cA«na£. (f.) 

Creation, yj^^^ afrinish (f.), cAd^ J^ri pdida'ish (f.) : see World. 

Creature, j/^'* makhluk^ (irrational) ^j^^-^ haiwan. 

Credit, jLiftl Ctibar, ^ bharam, .^A-* ^oAA (f.) : see Reputation. 

Creditor, x\y^ ^joji Jcarz-khwah^ \./^^, bydhariya. 

Crew, j-^ JA7r (f.), uu^Up- jamffat (f.), (ship's) jly5j- Jjbl cAW- 

Crime, ^^--.^ ^aitfir (f.), Jt^ g;unahy c-.:b^5p, /^^jurm. 

Criminal, j'j ^;-a5j» takftr-war^ j6Jb\:S gunah-gar. 

Crisis of a disease, ^|/a^ buhran. 

Critic, JS \,^\^ wakif'kar, ^b ssij nukta-dan^ ^JU allama. 

Crop, (harvest) J-^i /cwZ (f.), (produce) J-^W A5«/ : see Maw, Craw. 

Cross, ^,^J<g faZ?&, UJ^ chalipa. 

Crowd, J-^ JAir (f.), sz,^Us>- jama'at (f.), a^ hujum. 

Crumb, (particle of bread) \jS \i JJy roti ka tukra, (soft) b^gwrfo. 

Crush, /b J rfafta'o, (shove, push) IJjbJ dhakkd,Jj takkar. (f.) 

Crust, (shell) \fl^ cAAi/Aa, (of bread) vj:-*^^ |>05Z, |J-j papra. 

Crutch, ^j^ lathif 1<^L-J ftai^aAAa, Lac aya, i^^ V pkffofi. 

Vocabutary, — Nouns. 211 

CTy,j\^^ pukar (S'\jy^ shor, (lament) Jb^'j wawaila. 

Cub, db^ bachcha, h pilla. 

Cube, <^-r^ kab^jSLA shashdar. 

Cubit, ^\jb hath J 4^U^ ^U hath bhar map, c:.^J <2a«^ 

Cuckold, CJ^J daiyusy ^' W 'j zanjalab, ^^UJul kaltaban. 

Cud, ^\^ jugalt.Jh pagur. 

Cudgel, _^ ZatAt, J^ 2a/car, \xu^ thenga. 

Cupping glass, ^X»--» stngu Cupper, Stj ^^^^1?-* stngi-wala. 

Curd, l^ chakka, \\si^ chhena, ^^^ daht. (m.) 

Curl, J^\^ kakul (f.), y^gesu, lJj zi/// (f.) : see Bend. 

Currency, (of money) ^^ rawaj, ^J^ chaian. 

Canycomb, |A^ kharahra. 

Curse, im^\;^ sarapy u:^^ lanat (f.) : see Calamity. 

Custody, ii\^ f^walay yj>\>^ nigah-bant: see Imprisonment. 

Custom, JU- chal (f.), ^j^ chalan, tiJjU aiZof (f.), jji^ dastur, 

(tax) J^^o^^ mafisuL 
Custom-house, ^J»yf>- chabutara, j^^j^ parmit-ghar. 
Customer, lIAo gahak, j^'^j^ lAaridar. 
Cut, (gash) cl)\^ ftaf (f.), fp-j za^m, (shape) J^ dauL 
Cutrthroat,Jj[j^^ khun-reZf {^S^ i^ogyJjjLl^^ baUpar. 
Cycle, jj J dauTf sj}*^ da^ira, ^\jy^ dauran: see Circle. 
Dalliance, j^^]j ra'o^fta'o, j\^jj^ naz-o-nit/az : see Delay. 
Dam, (bank) JbJjU bandh, J^ pul: see Mother. 
Damage, CL>ji^ l^arat (t), ^W5 nu^an, ^^/>^ kharabi. 
Damask, (silk) yf^ mushajjar, (cloth) i^\xtb\p^ jamdanl. 
Dance, dancing, ^U nach, ^^eSj ra]c§. 

Dancing girl, ^^^^S kancham : (band of) (— i^^J^ taioSif, (f.) 
Danger, ir^ar^ khatra.j*^ dar, ^y>.jbkh%m. (f.) 
Darning (s.),^ rafu* 

Date (time), ^jl7 foriM (f-)> -f^ ^*^* (f-)> lT* ^*'*" 
Day-book, ^jsi^^j^jroz-namcha, \jm»^ khasra. 
Dearth, J\^1 aia/, las^ i^a/ii, ^JcJ tongi, ^<^ iami . 

2 1 2 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Death, Ll>ye maut (f.), iSS;^ marg (f.), CL^^faut (f.), J^\ ajL (f.) 

Debate, (JL-^ hahs (f.), ^U^ kaziya^ ai»-L« muhahasa. 

Debauchery, i<-2»Vj^ auhashly 4/Jjj rine^t, jU^ khumar. 

Debt, ^J rfaiw,^ltoJ^ ndhdr, ^jo^ karZy a1^ tram. 

Debtor, J^^^ karz-dar^ j^*^*^ dain-^iarf \jj riniya. 

Deceit, t-^./ fareb^ U J da gh d (f.), J^ jwZ, J|^ chhaL 

Decision, jLaaJl injisaly ^j raj^j |^l2-j niptara. 

Decree, a^ hukm, ^^ fatwa, JLsajI inJisaL 

Deed, z*!^ ftSw, ^^jtl, (written) Jj^ls-aj dast-dwez. (f.) 

Defect, j^-aS kusur, c--^ aiJ, i<i2<i ghattl. 

Defence, cu-bU»- hifazat (f.), »l^ pariah (f.), iJLilj roft. (f.) 

Defendant, (in law) ^ulc J^-cJ^ mudda'q alaihi, ^^^ asamu 

Deficiency, j^u^ kamtt, ^^^2i^ ghattz, jy^ kusur. 

Defile, (narrow pass) l^ n5A5, ^ gaB, ^^ gkdfi. 

Definition, ^^l^ bakhdn, d^ fiadd (f.), «— ^ly^ toVlf. (f.) 

Degree, to-^<3 darja, <tJ^ martaba, jSi kadr (f.), <tJ^ ru^ia. 

Delay, ^ J d?r (F.), 4^J rfcrJ, Uj^^ bilamby jT ar. (f.) 

Deliberation, J^U ta^ammuly J^ fikr, ^*-a «ocA, j^ gha ur, (f.) 

Delight, JcjT dnand, ^^^ Jditishty ^j>' Ickurramt. 

DeUrium, ^^^ Je-Ao^Af, ij*^}ssx> be'lJiudi,J^ sir. (f.) 

Deliverance, delivery, c^l^r na;a^ (f)> j W^ ftacAS'o : see Birth. 

Delusion, \^^J dhokhdy *-^y fareb, liJ daghd. (f.) 

Demand, (claim) l^J dc^tod, (question) c-Jl> toZaft. (f.) 

Demolition, (^^\ inhiddm, ^^JUT^i^]^ Mtarab-dbadi. 

Den, (lion's, &c.)^ Mar, JjU 97iane2 (f.) : see Cave. 

Denial, jlCl tnA:ar, ^^ naft (m.), ^ili? tandfi. 

Dependant, J^^c^ muta^allikyj^ ^\t^ ddman-gir, ^j^j> parbas. 

Depth, ^L«x tSmz^/c, ^ l;^gaAra'o, (dakh.) ^^•^ dongdn. 

Deputy, izJ^\^ gumdshta, c:- ^*«o ^^^Ij pesh-dast, v.^^ naV5. 

Derision, ^)^^ thathoti, ^Cjtl? j^a*;ia, \^ thatthd. 

Derivation, jl2a--l ishtilcdky ^\J^J\ istikhrdj. 

Descendant, ^j^bans^ (j^j-j santdn, (plur.) oS^l auldd. 

Vocabulary. --^Nouns, 213 

Desert, J^isj- jangal, ^If l-^ bayaban, fy2\) badiya. 
Deserter, l?j^ bhagora, i^j^^firariy {^J3 tarik. 
DesigD, (purpose) ijyo:^ mansuba, 2f j]^\ irada : see Plan. 
Desire, *l>. chah (f.), ^ji^^f>- k/twahisk (f.)j (j^^ hawas. (f.) 
Despair, ^^Jw^lU na-ummedi, ^jJj yas (f.), 15-*]/ niro*!, ,<<-»jiU wt5- 

Destiny, ^Ji7 takdlr (f.), LiS Aaaa (f.), vj:,'>i^.i i:i8mat. (f.) 
Destruction, LJ^^^ pd^maR, cSht\ ihHk, ^]/^ kharaln. 
Detail, J^^oft? to^^iZ (f.), (in detail) J««3i« mufassal. 
Determination, d^ kasd, /^j& azm^ji^ tajwlz. (f.) 
Detestation, *^ karh (f.), c:^^ nafrat (f.) : see Abhorrence. 
Detraction, u:>% ^ . g habat (f.), ^^^Jj bad^gol, ci^^Miy tuhmaU (f.) 
Detriment, ^Lai} nnk§an, lzJjJl^c mazarrat (f.), \jjj /o^a. 
Devastation, circle gkarat (f.), ^Uj^ palmdli^ ^\J tabahu 
Deuce (at cards, dice, &c.), fjJ (2u*a, (dakh.) \^J e2oga. 
Device, (contrivance) (ju^.^ ^ fiikmat (f.), (on a shield, &c.) ^^lU 

Devotion (worship), ti^jUft tbadat (f.), Ip-^ pii/5 (f.) : see Prayer. 

Dexterity, i^j\^ c>^**> dast-karl, i/^l^ chaldkl. 

Dialect, ^y &o/f, l^l^ bhakha : see Language, Idiom. 

Dialogue, jx:id guftgu (f.), JV^ c^1y»^ jau^aft suwaL 

Diameter, Jei kutr, laci- ^ ^ ^ cfy}*^ da'ire ke bich ka khaU. 

Diary, ^^ j^j roz^namaj ^^^j^j roznamcha^ ^J^^ awarja. 

Dice, ^b pose (plur. of UU pasa, a die), (dakh.) ^^^^ phajise. 

Dice-board, tLj bisat. (f.) 

Dictionary, {^SiJbji farhang (f.), v::-^ lughat (f.), (^j^ Ao^A. 

Die (colour), i^J^j rangy (stamp) ^ sikka, U^ thappd. 

Diet, ^ifi fAtgg (f.), tl/J;^ kkurak (f.), lj\f^ AAana, C-^y /fcti^. 

Difference, jy fark, cu^^Uj tafawut, (^/L &i2ag : see Discord. 

Difficulty, t^j^^^ dushwariy ^}^LL\ ishkal : see Labour, Trouble. 

Diffidence, ^^^ sankoch, l^J dharka, (^Jj^ shakk. 

Digestion, f^a^ hazm^ a^lib CJy itutca^-i-Aastma. 

214 Vocabulary.^ Nouns. 

Digit, Jxll angul, (o{ the moon'B diameter) K kala. (f.) 
Dignity, »W J5A (f.),jji Aarfr (f.), ^^ martaba, ^\J^ shan. (f.) 
Dilemma, \$Jj J dubdka ((.), (dakh.) Jl^^ hhonjaL 
Diligence, yj^fj^ sar-garmif ^^^ dhun (f.), ^J^J» tan-dilu. 
Dimension, c-^U mop, j1«Xa^ mikdar, gj\jj\ aridaza. 
Diminution, ^Jl^ gkati, u JJaT takhftf (f.), ^^^ Aam-i. 
Din, ^^ *Aor, Ji yAtc/. (dakh.) \5Ui (^ ghul ghqpdta. 
Diploma, 4X:>mi «ana^ (f.),^^.!.:^ maiuAttr, Jj^l::u«»J dastdwez. 
Direction, (way) 8\j rah (f.), (label) tj pata, (of a letter) 4^U j^ 


Dirt, (filth) J-^ mail((.), J^ maZ, (mud) Jacjj^ kichar, (f.) 
Disagreement, (,::^tj^U na-mutro/aita^ (f.); (discord) ^^ ^ m- 

khushu /\^\ anbanffo, Jlw ^gar. 
Disappointment, ^l^ l3 na-Aom-t, l^^J dkokha, \J^j>- hirman. 
Disaster, cs^.ijin^ musibat (f.), ,^jitfs^ *V bad-bakkt-i^ \j:^\ dfat. (f.) 
Disbelief, i/^^lSui^^ be-i^ti^adt, ^^j^^^^, be-t^tiban* 
Disbursement, ^^ A:Aary\ ^j»> fAarch, i2j\^\jaA ikhrqjat. 
Discernment, J^ tamlz (f.), L5[;iJ ztrak^i, tlC-J ^tieft. 
Discharge, lAf- ckhutti, dj^ji bar4araf^^ (of debt) b\ ada. (f.) 
Disciple, .^ sikhj L>- cASZa, J^lwi shagird, JuJj talmlz. 
Discipline, i-^^^ /o^Iift (f.)) ^^^^^ tarbiyat (f.) : see Punishment 
Discovery, uu<iUjJ darydft (f.), i^llCl inkiskaf: see Invention. 
Discount, ISb &a^fa, Ua>- chotaf 

Discourse, c^U *5^ (f.), <-:-^ ^ 65^ cAi^ (f.)> ^ ff^ft^ (f-) 

Discretion, jUx«t imiiyaZf Jap alcly i^JuL^ Koshyari. 

Discus, ^;C>- chakr or chakkar. 

Discussion, it>^^ mubahasa, J Jj J; ro^ &a(faZ. (f.) 

Disdain, cuiW tAaiw^ (f.), c:^jU>^ ^titara^ (f.) 

Disease, j'jiT aaror, <^^ rog, ^jej^ maraz, -^J ffuAA. 

Disgrace, (^ t^ rtc^tra't, jU ar, (dismission) ijjJC tagluri. 

Disguise, tr^ ^^^^^ '4^, bkekh, (sham) ^Ju>. Ai /a. 

Disgust, tl^ na/ra^ (f.), ^^ ghin (f.), <j:-«a}/ karihiyat. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 215 

Dishonour^ u/jji\ jV i^briirt, ^A^j>- ^ be-hurmati. 

Disk (of the sun or moon), ^jsi fcurs : see Discus. 

Dislike, u^|/^^ **^5«, jy>- cAirA (f-)fji^gurez. (f.) 

Dismission, v::..MasL^ rukhsat (f.), ^^^^I^ bar-taraf't. 

Disorder, ^^^lj &«-/ar<i&-t, (illness) i^U^j &tmar-f. 

Dispatch, ^\:^ «A»^ai-i: see Messenger, Epistle. 

Displeasure, ^«^^t azurdagij ^^ySJj na-kkushlf ,J^ Idk^fagi* 

Disposition, ^UacJl intizam, (nature) ^ Id^ (f.), ^|j^ mizaj. 

Dispute, ciwae^ 5aA5 (f.), (quarrel) ^y^ji^gC^f *^ Icaziya. 

Disregard, ^ \^j}^ ^^ be-parwal, ^^^ ^ be4ltifat-i. 

Disrespect, ^j\ _> be-^zdab-t, c^4>t cl^ tarhi-adab : see Disregard. 

Dissembler, jl^ bj riya-ft5r,jlC« tnakkar, ^^SL^ fezj^/i. 

Distance, v/;j«> cfiir-t, i^JJu tafawut, vji^L^e masafat. (f.) 

Distemper, ^_^o^ mora*, ^IjT Sarar, ^sjj^ rog, i/;U-^ K»i5ri. (f.) 

Distich, c:^^ &a%^ (f.), lib^J e^oAa, \^jJ cfoAra. 

Distraction, i^^si^l iztiraby ^tj^^j^ sarasimargi. 

Distress, \ij\ 15a (f.), iS^ kaskt, o-; Wpa^ (f.), i£^\ afat. (f.) 

District, ^L^ xtZ*, ]LC>- chaklif J^'^ ma^ll, ^L^ pargoTut. 

Disturbance, <u\MJb Aangama, ^j^ ^^ib harj-marj. 

Diversion, (turning aside) UiJlya^ inhiraf, (sport) I&UJ ^om&Aa. 

Divination, c*^ J^ ilm-i-ghaib. J^ ramal, ^^^ faUgffl. 

Division, ^^^ taksim (f.), (share) ^.^r i4 1 ^^isma^ : see Difference. 

Divorce, jUt toZSi^ (f.), t/1 J^ ,^ (►•^^^J JLi^J^*^ ^ l^a§am Kjudai. 

Dizziness,^ v:;!;^^ dauran^r-sar, %^j^ ghumru 

Doctrine, aA«7 /a^Hm (f.), v^.^«x« maz^hab, ^Jo tarl^a. 

Doer, |^^«>^ Aarne-Aara, U^ /car^a, J^UyS*?/. 

Doings, i%l^ A;am, ^^y^ kartut, L^ itya, JU«\ o/^aZ. 

Doll (child's), ^^ guriya{t), ,Jcj pt/^H, \j^ khilauna. 

Domestic (a servant), iSm^\j wabasta, jis^d^^- khidmatgar. 

Dominion, {j:,'.<^^is^ hukumat (f.), {jl-'SIa^ mamlukal (f.)> 'Aj Taj. 

Donation, Donative, ^jtLaer bakhshish (f.), ^\j dan. 

Doom, (sentence) f^ ^ukm, Agf^fatwa, (fate) IdS kaza» 

216 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Doty i^ nuktaj Ijjj hundiy i^*^ bindt^ \j^ sund. 

Double-dealer, ^jy^ do-rangd^jh Uj daghd-bdz. 

Double-entendre, \i^.:>^ janikd, iZj\j j\s^^jl^ ^^^ do-ma m^ddr bdL 

Doubt, cX^ skakk, ..^ skubha, ^J^ gumdrij \L^ sankd. (f.) 

Dovecot, ^S^JiyS kabutar-khdna^ Sr^^*^ dhdbrt. 

Dough, ^jibi^if gundhaUyj^A^ Mamlr, ^*ji Wi or B7. 

Down (hair, small feathers), ^j romyjj^ f^y narmpar: see Plain. 

Drain, s^jy^ morl, ^\j ndlz, jjjj J^ badar~rau. (f,) 

Draught, (of liquor) iS^yp ghunt, (of a carriage) ^'Ia^ khtncha'dj 

(plan) itlii naksha, (of a letter) it^y.^ musauwada, (of soldiers) 

u^ CSi\ ^ 'T^f^VJ ^^ ^^ guroh, (for money) i^ocJb hundi. 
Draughts (the game), ^\^ JjU mughal patkdn, &c. 
Drawer, (of a bill) ^^y ^^J^iJb hundt^nawtSf (of a chest) ^Is^ khidna. 
Drawing (delineation), ,^Ui naJfkdshty ^JJ^ nalcsh. 
Dream, <-r>|^ khwdb^ \:>^ sapnd, (fancy) JU»- khaydL 
Dregs, ii-^fy tirchhat (f.), <-i-^ talchhat (f.), *3;J dwrrf. (f ) 
Drink, c^^ shurb, u:^^ skarbat, <^\j^ shardb. 
Drollery, ^;j|/^*'** maskhard-pan^ l^^6^ thathoR, ^^^ khiltl. 
Dross, ^J-J^ wiaiZ (f.), vi^ Alf, jlSj zangdr. 
Drove, (of cattle) aL gaZfa, (ci-owd)j-^ JAir (f.), Lz.^\A^^jamd'aL 
Dradgery, Jy iaAaZ (f.), ui-vxsr< l^^vst" ^aM^ mihnat, (f.) 
Drunkard, ^|^ 5Aara6-I,ji^acVc mai-khor. 
Dung, (JU-^ Kf (f.)> ^f guh (f.), (of the coyi) ji^ gobaVy (of tlie 

horse or elephant) jJ lid (f ), (of birds) Jla^ plkhdl: see 

Dungeon, ^^««»^ bkaksl, 2rU- ^rL^ ^lyaA cAaA, ^^^ gidangl. 
Dunghill, jJj^ mazbala, ^jif gukariyd, j^p ghur. 
Dusk (twilight), .^srL^JbJ dhur-sdnjh (f.), ^^*^^ godhuR, 
Dust, Jy^J rfAi/i (f.),jybJ cfAtir (f.), d^ gard (f ), j^^ ghubdr. 
Duty, (obligation) ^jo^ /«^?, (service) Jy JaAaZ (f.) : see Tax. 
Dwelling (habitation),^ gkar^ a\Lo mulcdm, ^jL-< maskan. 
Earnest (money), ^lui baVdna, ^fc)b dddnl. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 217 

Earthquake^ Jl>> ^j^ bhuArckalj ^Jj zalzala. 
£a8e, f^j\ aram, J^ kal (f.), ^;a>- chain, (facility) ^l*»T asanu 
Eaves^ (of a roof), ^^^1 o&i, i^j^ orl, t^^i^yl parchhatu 
Ebb (of the tide), l^l^ bhathayjjs^jazr, ^^jip gluittu 

Ebony^ C/r>^^ ain&. 

Echo, ^^ ffinj (f.), tju0 ^6u2a. (f.) 

Economy^ ^^j^ juz-rasi : see Arrangement, System. 

Ecstacy, «Xs»*^^ too/^f, 4^^^^ be-fchudi. 

Edge, (of a blade), jUj dhar (C), Jfb &5r (f.) : see Borden 

Edging, J W •/*«'«'• (*"•)> infj^ fnagizt, uJlacu «aiya/. (f.) 

Edict, J^Jfarman, ^j rakam (f.), ^\^ saaan. 

Edition (of a book), U^>- ckhapa, i^ U^ chkapal. 

Editor, (compiler) i^yc mu'aUif, (arranger) c^^J^ murattib. 

Education, ^^^--^ tarbiyat (f.), t/!^jj;i parwarish. (f.) 

Ed, aU (am (f.), ^^l^ mar-maAI, ^J>^f^ Ai bam-machhU. 

Effect, (impression)^! asar, j^\j tasir (f.), (result) JupW ^o^V. 

Effects, JU mo/, (^L^^ asbab, cb^ j J^ ^^' mata\ 

Effigy, JilA «AaAZ (f.), ^y^ §urat (t), ^^jy^ murat. (f.) 

Effort, jjui «a i, ^^i-J*/ koshish (f.), cs ^ . y * mifinat. (f.) 

Eft (newt), ^ uio! ^ \J^x^ chhipkali kt ek kism. 

Egg, Wl andS, <L4:^ ftatsa. 

Egotist, 1^/ «Jy>- Idmdrfarosh^ U3 4>^ lAud-numa. 

Egress, ^j^ khuruj^ Ot«|^ bar^mad (f.), ^S^)^j rawdnagi. 

Election, t^'^^ji barguzidagJ, c: -^gi j ^a ^ malchuliyat. (f.) 

Elegance, cJ^ Zttl/, vji^ttJ fate/h^ (f.), C^];5 nazaftaf. (f.) 

Elegy, fj;^ mart^yay a^y^ \^ j\Od J^ soz^gudaz ka ka^lda. 

Elevation, ^^J^ &tt2«n{2-i, ^^Ji barhii, ^^ \af\ uncha-l. 


'Eliiar, jsJS\ akstr : see Essence. 
Elocution, ijj^ ^bj zaban-awari, i^^iai fasahat. ({.) 
Eloquence, i^jijij ^JL^ Miushrtakrirt, ur-^iL batagkat : see Elo- 
Embryo, ^j;ia^ jantn, les^U scmcha, \^^ gibha. 

2 F 

218 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Emersion, &^ tulu , ^ \^\ uthffo, x^jf har-imad. 

Eminenoe, c^W*^ ««cAfi», ^jji buzurgl, Jji fazL 

Emissary, ^^^U- jasus^ bJu^; hKcdiya^ *J^j^ harkara. 

Emperor^ ^rlljJblM* shuhanshahy •^1;^" ^'^f^'^y* 

Empire, ^llJJbl^ shalianshah-t, ^^r >i\Vi\..» saltanat. (f.) 

Employ, Employment, JjLS» shughl. f^S ham, «J^ uAifa. 

Emporium, c^Jfl ^fo'igy jjjV bazar, jdcj bandar. 

Empress, (J|;ly^ maAa-rant, 2fU*:Jbl& JLj ftSgam-i-«AaAaiuAai. 

Emulation, ^^L»c ghibta^ IL^Jb hiskuy CS^j rashk. 

Enamel, U^ mtna, t-^l ai, ^jiH, s^JS L^ minS-ftar?, 

End, «*i-J' an^, |^ «r5,^T akhir^ (object) ^jc. gharaz* (f.) 

Engme, J^ kal (f.), c:.^^^ ^an'a^ (f.)y ^W^ hathyar. 

Enigma, ^X^ paheli, (^^sui«>- chistan, Ua« mu^amma. 

Enjoyment, ^:x4j tamattt^, ij^ maza, ^jL^e- aish, ^j^- f^ushh 

Enmity, di^^fj^c adawat (f.), y«^ iatr, ^^k^JbO €{i»Ama)tt. 

Entertainment, <JU^ mihmam : see Feast, Amusement. 

Entrance, .fSLj pat<A, Jii^ j dakU^ J^T ^^^ peshramad. (f.) 

Entry, dlcLb dakhila^ ^s^ rasta : see Door, Inserti<Hi. 

Environs, i^\Jo\ atraf((.)j ^j^\j^^ pairaman, (jmLJ\ as-pas. 

Epistle, )ad^ khatf.f ^j ruk'a, ^U nama, JU pa^. 

Epitaph, ij\sS kitaba : see Inscription. 

Epithet, c^ la^, c:^ na*/ (f.), c:..^ ftfa^, |*U nam. 

Epitome, j\Mi>'\ i^tifar^ jOls^ mukhia^ar. 

Epoch, ^^j\j tartlA (f.)> ^^ son, ls^^a^ sambat, JL sal. 

Equator, |^1 !a»^ khatt-i-istiwa. 

Equipage, u»»Lrf^ €ubab, ^UL «aiMf», ^^j-^ sawarif ^\^j rikab. (f.) 

Equity, uJloit insaf, Jj^ a 6^1, ^j:^!^ rastl, ^/^f^ sacha^h 

Era, ^U ^arlM (^-X ^^ '^^^y fc^ -y ^"J ^arn&a^. 

Ermine, *5lS ^aibcm, c^ladw sanjab* 

Errand, L«jJa«> sandesd, /^Jlj paigham. Ji kam. 

Errata (in a book), ^U laU ghalat-nama. 

Error, ^Ja^ ghalati. cL^ chuk (f.)> j^ Awsur, J^ bhul (f.) 

Vocabulary — Nouns* 219 

Eraption^ rJ*/^ M*^"^ jW^ ubhar, (of the skin) ^ uJf; rakt^itti. 
Essay, ^jl^ sc^i, tr^UfT azmfffsh (f.)? (treatise) 4)L; maZa. 
Essence, d-^b go/ (f-)>^ *•'*> (spirit) jjc arak^ (perfume) JLte ajTr. 
Estate, (condition) JU> ^aZ, (possession) clA« mitt : see Degree. 
Esteem, d/U? toj^aA:, C^J^ izzat,j\j pySr,j^ kadr. (f.) 
Eternity, ^|^ dawam, sA ahad, ,^^w;*4J^ AamSsAa-gf, 
Ethics, jlLl aMZSi^> J^^ j^ ibn^t^ifMak. 
Etiquette, c^^T &ia&, (,/Jur^ C*>UIC takaUufat'irrnajlU. 
Event, (incident) ajjW hadis^, i.s^Ji>^ sar^guzashU (f.) 
Evidence, ^\^ gatoaht, JJo dbiiZ (f.); (witness) Jabl& shahid. 
Evil, ^^1y ittr57, ^^ zabunrt^ (calamity) )b iaZa. (f.) 
Evildoer, jl^ OJ hadrkoTf J^ »\xi gunah-gar. 
Eq1<^, c-i/p to'rif (f.), ^J^ madh (f.), Ij /jana. (f.) 
Eunuch, ^y>- khojOf \^ ^\^ khtpajorgaraf \ya^ hijri. 
Examination, ^jt^j\ azma'ish (£)» ^^^^1 im^i^n. 
Example, iiy^ namuna, (^b^ udaharan : see Pattern. 
Excellence, sj:^^ fauJj:iyat (f.), (as an address) iXJja»- fiazrat. (f.) 
Excess, l^y t t/^ijly L^ ^^J ^^y^^^< * see Intemperance. 
Exchange, Sjj HjI actZa fta^ZZa, ^j^yr wax, (place) C;^ cAaicA. 
Excrement, ifffik (fO> laJlc gAaVj^ : see Dung. 
Excrescence, a^ gjirih (f.), (fleshy) Iwe massa, Cfj^^^ masbird. 
Excuse, jSfi- up*, (pretence) ^lyj bahana, i^^^^P" bujjat. (f.) 
Execution, ^^tii^^ ftar-gtff5r-l, (killmg) Jw katl 

Executor, ^^ wa§i (m.). Executrix, <U*j %ca§iya. (f.) 


Exercise, cs-o*^** milinat (f.), (practice) J.«* afi?a/, ^^fl^ mcuAX:. (f.) 
Exertion, ^jt^j^ koshish (f.), ,«Aid sat, ca^x y * mifinaL (f.) 
Exhibition, jl^l isfkar, i^^O dikhla% (show) l&Uj tamasha. 
Exhortation, u::. ^ ^^} na^ibcit (f.)» l^j tra%, 4i--^<^4/ targKib. (f.) 
Exile, (banishment) Jb^^ jita-waian, (banished) ^^^ bc-watan. 
Existence, ^V«<*i^ Aa^^, J^j tmgud, (life) ^«^J zindagi. 
Expedient,^jJ tadbtr (f.), «;l^ cAara, 4^*b\ tcpa'i. 
Expense, u:.^ Zaga^ (f.)> ^je>^ l^yxrch : see Money, Cost. 

220 Vocabulary. »^^Ncuns. 

Experience! ExperimeDt, ijjaf* tajriba, j^i^UjT aztnffUh. (f.) 

Explanation, ^Ij bayarij J:**^ tafstl (f.), ^j^ sharfi. (f.) 

Express, (messenger) Ju^U kasidj lS^ paik : see Message. 

Expression, )afl]J talaffuz^ ci^b fta^ (f.)9 (squeezing out) Jy^ ntcAor. 

Extension, j1L^j>AatZa'5, ^d\tS kwhadagi. 

Extract, ^^ htr, iiJi^ lAuliasa : see Essence, Selection. 

Extreme, Extremity, \^ sira, t-::^!.^ nihayat (f.) : see Distress. 

Exuviae (slough or skin), ^J^^ kenchli, J^si^ kenchul, (f.) 

Eyesore, \^ ^jr^^ j^ AJiSr ankhon ka. 

Fable, uuolC^ pikayat (f.), Jij wait/ (f.), l<^^^ kahdnu 

Fabrication, <-1^1:j banawat (f.), c:,.^L> «S^^. (f.) 

Facility, ^J\^ asant, uuJj^ ^aAub^ (f.) : see Readiness. 

Fact, (deed) a^ kam, i}»if^l, (reality) ^JuJLh*' halptkat. (f.) 

Factory, ^^ kotht, AiU- jlf kar-MAna. 

Factotum, ^^,/^ har-^bab-t, ^Jl^ kulkullan. 

Faculty, CJy Imwat (f.), (quality) ^ gun, (skill) yJb hunar. 

Fair, (market) !L« niela, fJAjb hat (f.), .^a^ penth. (f.) 

Faith, (belief) ^jUj! iman, irJuAc aJSda, (religion) (j:^ millat. (f.) 

Falsehood, Falsity, ^^jhuth, i^jd darogh. c^J^ ^&. 

Fame, ^13 nam, jl^l ishtihar, {j'^jaSy ^^j^(^ shuhrat. (f.) 

Familiarity, ^^Jj] irtibat, c:.^jr^ suhbat (f.), u:^^ «(/a^. (f.) 

Family, jb^gAar&ar, l3|^ gAarana, (race) (j^t>3lfi^ AiAandan. 

Famine, ks^ kafity Jl^ a^aZ, (Jl^«> dubhuk. 

Fan, l^G^ pankha, ^j^^ pankht, (for grain) ,^7^ jMzr^, c^^ sup. 

Fancy, JUf^ khiyal^ J^^ wafitn, (whim)^ 2aAar. (f.) 

Fare, (food) cJ\j^ Mmrak (f.), (hire) \j\^^ bhara, ^J^f kiraya. 

Farewell, ^lo^f al-wida^, laiW t J^ A^Mda (iafiz. 

Fashion, Jjj daul,jjb taur, (form) jLSt sAaAZ. (f.) 

Fast, ij\ifaka, sj^j roza, ciy ftara^, ^\j\ upas. 

Fat (of animals), ,<J;>- charbt, ,^ liil>- cA?Aiia7. 

Fate,^j£J takdtr\i.)j Ui-v«--S Awiwa^ (f.), (death) c:J^ ma«^. (f.) 

Fathom, c«jU ^ ^\ibj^ char har ki nap, *; bam. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns* 221 

Fatigue, v/ vC^ thaka% ^«a3^ mandagt, ^^^^^^^ susth 
Fault; j^ Xsusur, i^^jr, aib, (crime) j^M) takfir. (f.) 
Favour, ^^b^ miAr&ani, *»-y tawajjuh (f.) : see Gift. 
Feast, K^^\^ ^yofat (f.), iZJyc-t^ da wot (f.) : see Festival. 
Feature, J^ shakl (f.), ^HiJ naA^^Aa, ff rttAA^ .^;i>> cAinA. 
Fee, j»-\ o/r, i*^ ri»fim, ^l&:Nffr« mi^na^ana, 9jf^ qjura. 
Feeling, ^U^ lamisoy (sense) ^/^^ Am, (affection) jU pyar. 
Feint, ^l^ (a/iana, \^jJ^ dhokha, ^Ju». )li2a. 
Felloe, ^^Sl^ U ^^«^ \^ ^^^ chakkar ka gker or hallca. 
Fellow, (equal) JL^- ^ hamrcha§hm : see Companion, Manikin. 
Fellowship, \j:^y.s!9 ^u^bat (f.), ^^ uns, J^ niiL 
Felon, Aj£B^ mujrimy Ji^ jffoSu takfir-war : see Whitlow. 
Felony, 9j^ if\i^ gunahHt-kablra, *Jlac /^jS^jurm-irasSm, 
Fence, \j*ip ghera^ i\:jpanah (f.), ^<^ f^fp - Bee Defence. 
Fermentation, fjty^josh, Jb\ tt&aZ, (ferment) ^^«4i^ khamir* 
Ferry, (passage) lijVSS guzarayj**^ ma bar : see Boat. 
Festival, jU^ te^ohar, L^y^ parab, Juc t^. (f.) 
Festivity, (^4>l^ shadz, ^^ji^jashn, ^JL^ aish, f^y>^ khusht. 
Fetter, Fetters, i,j^^ beft, bbjCj paikarha, ^^bj-J bqriyan. 
Fiddle, tfij^ sarangl, lJ/^ kingri, 2fjJ^L» 5arin^. 
Rdelity, i^j^^^^^^ ifnari'-dart, lij u?q/5 (f.), ^Jyf^ sachauCi, 
Kghtj fc^*]^ iira'i, Jbj^judhj {^^^jang, ^j ran : see Battle. 
Figure, (for number) u^T ank, ^j rakam : see Form, Image. 
File, (instrument) ^jb^ fShan (f.), ^^j rett : see Row. 
Filings, j^ chur, ifO\j» burada, (of iron) ^^ sj^ Bh-chun. 
FUth, J-^ maiZ (f.), (1^ cAiVA, ^j!JST a/aV^A. (f.) 
Fin (ofafish) jijb b^ l^ ^5^^?-'* ^"'^ckhU kapar or ftoj^u. 
Finance, i^^i^ JU ma^gz^xar?, <9r\r^ khirajf (X«T afnoJ. (f.) 
Firman, (^^pi farming ^Ij^ parwanOf ^\i Jl>- huknhnama. 
Fish-hook, ^<ii»:J &an«t, LS^ katiya (f ), lS}\^ kdnta. 
Fissure, d/U- cAaA, ^ taralc, cJ\x& shigaf^j/^ darz. 
Fitness, iiS^U liyiiat (f.), s^J^^j^ sazawart, ^xl^jUi shayastagh 

222 Vocabulary. — Nouns* 

Flannel^ i^ j! 257, U^ dhosa. 

Flask, (powder-hom) ]jxu^ s^^gT^f i:)*^ ^--^V harut-dan: see Bottle. 

Flattery, 4X«l^^ Idmskdmad (f.), ,^<^^ cMplim. 

Flavour, xyc maza, Cf\y^ sawad, c^jJ lassat (f.), c/*k^ &u*fia«. (f.) 

Fleam, j:i^ Tiashtar. 

Flight, (of a bird) j\jy^ partoaz (f.), (ranning kwkj) jif gurez. (f.) 

Flock, (of animals) ^ gallay iX,^ jhundj (of cotton) J^ pahal. 

Flood, L^ i L^ sailab (f,), »Jb barh (f.), (tide) j\y>^ jawar (f.) : see 

Flower, J^ phul, Ji gwZ, (prime) jl^ 6aA5r (f ), ^js^joban. 
Flowers on cloth, \j^ J.^ &e2^i«(a. 

A Fluid, ijb pa»t (m.), Jj* arak,j^ S ^j^^ bahne kl cJuz. 

t» — 

Fold, (plait) <Cf tah {{.), ^^-.^ cAtn (f,), (of a door) h paUa. 

Folk, i^j^ log, ^i>l flrfmi, /%J^ marduniy ^\sf^\ ashkha^. 

Folly, Foolishness, ciyj-f^ ^truitti/*?, uuJUch. hitna^aL (f.) 

Fondness, jL» |)yar, j^ ^Aaiii^, >l>- cAaA. (f.) 

Food, U\^ khana, Cj)jy>^ Whurak {(.), ItXc ghiza (f.\ iJL^y ^ut. 

A Fool (buflfoon), gjkf*^ masUiara, oJl^) bhand. 

Footman, j^y naukar, aj^jb harkara, xj^jpiyada. 

Footpath, i^j rah (f.), «^oJ*^v2-^ pag-dandi, Jii gafi. 

Footstep, b ^jgukS3 na^h^i-pa, (step) aOo kadam. 

Fop, ICU banka, Lf>* chkaild, LJl albela, U.(^ chikaniya, 

Force, j^j zor, Jj 5aZ, cuy /bfiti^a^ {t^yj^jabr. 

Ford, c^bb payoft, «V ^A5A, (f.), Cj\^ ghat. 

Forefather, J^jadd, J^fjji buzurgwar : see Ancestor. 

Foreman, jlill-J peshkar, \^!L^ peshwa, J^^j^ sardar. 

Forepart, |«ljS \ agwara, ifT aga, Aiii>- 5d 1 agZa ^i^^a. 

Forerunner, ^j ^j!LJ pesh-rau, Uj ^JLj pesh^uma* 

Foresight, ^-i-i ^^/t-j pesh-btnt, ,-i-J j^ J ffiir-6tni ; see Prudence. 

ft tff * 

Forfeit, Forfeiture, Jul^ ddnd, ij\AJj>^ jartmana. 

Forge, ^\:^ J^ji lohar-khana, ^j^^, bhathi. 

Forgery, (^U lilas, y^. At7 taghallub, ^^UU- jaUsazl. 


Vocabulary. — Nouns. 223 

Fornication^ 1\^>- chhinala, \jj zina (f.), JUJ Jisk. 
Fornicator^ tu^ ckhinala. Fornicatress^ JW?* chhinuL (f.) 
Fortitude, (Z:\jp^' jur*at (f.), iji^\j>' jawanmardi : see Courage. 
Fortune, (chance) v::..%4>^ » kismat (f.), (portion) (^\^ bhagy jta^ 

Foundation, (of a building) 4>L:j hunyad {(.), (jJ^ asas. (f.) 
Fraction^ (bit) \fi tukra, ifjij rcza^ (in numbers) j>^ hur, (£) 
Fragrance, ^ c/r^ kkush-hu (f.), JbjjiXirf su-gandh. 
Frame, (plan) larlftj dhanchdy (shape) Jji> cfauZ: see Shape. 
Frankincense, ^U Zufian, ^bjt S&aTi, j^ bakhur. 
Fraud, c-^ji fareby liJ dagka (f.), J^ chhalyjLc makr. 
Freckle, j^^Xo mago^ (f.), ^^^^ lahsan, i\t} da^. 
Freedom, ^^^j\ azadagi, ^"^ Iduilastj cs^la^ najat. (f.) 
Freehold, ^^^j y^\>' ^\ apnt khas^ zamtrif j^\p^ jagir. (f.) 


Freight, Jy nattZ, ^^ bhartl, (hire) Ijfl^ 5^ara. 

Friday, i^^jutn'a, ^J) adina,j\^Ji^ sukrwar. 

Friend, ;j:,^4) dost, %^^/s^ muhibb^Jj^ yor^ji^ mitr. 

Friendship, ^JiU4j*> dostt, j^^^jt* muhabbat (f.), c:^\ ti(^^. (f.) 

Fright, jj dar, uJy>- khauf^ vj^-wJbJ dahskat (f.), ^^^i.} sahm. 

Fringe,^lp- J Aa/ar (f.), Jas^T anchaL 

Fmit, J^ pAaZ, ^^^ meri^a, (profit) ^^ samara^ ^a} no/^. 

Fruition, ^P^^ kamyabt, ^aj tamatti^, i}y^^ fiusuL 

Fulness, \Jjy^^^ mc^muriy \4^j^^ puryi, ^jf^ ^^h ^jH bhartu 

Fun, L-»UJ tamashd, J-^ khel, ^^jh bazt, ^^^ sKoldn. 

Fund, i^^^f^ P^^Pf ^^ maya, ^U y»i» sar-maya. 

Funeral, jj^-ijJ te^/lw (f.), J-^v*?^ ^o/'^wr (f.), »jL>- Janata. 

Fur, ^J^i-»^ po^/f «, j^-*-i ^amur, ^^ pashm (f.), (scum) 4^*!^ 457. 

Furnace, ^j^^ bhatht, Jlf JA5r, ^^1 J ^T atasJnlan. 

Furniture, d^L^l \^ j^gkar ka asbab, ^UL saman, ^U saj. 

Fun*ow, k> |yb bj ^^ Ja hal se bana kud ^att, ^j^i^j reghdru 

Fury, ^Ji^jazba, (J^/>- Ji^fr josh kharosh, l,, ^r ghazab. 

Gain, (earning) ^^ U^ kama% J-^U- AosiZ, (profit) j-4; «a/*. 

224 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

A Gallant, jb (jJt^ tshk-baz, \^j rasiya, (jt\x> aiyash. 

Gallows, jb dar, ^y^ suit, ^IS'^^^l^ pkanst-kath. 

Game, (play) «^b bazt, J-^ khel, (prey) jlCi shikar. 

Graming-house, <0U^ si?fr jM'^-M5»a,J|^ phar. (f.) 

Gang, J^^l, \{^jatha, ^^ tffifa, ^y^juth. 

Gaol, 40lsL i/«Xvj bandi'^Ana, Sj\^ juS kaid-khana. 

Garb, ciil-*^ poshak (f.), ^^U /iia«, (guise) (^--4; 6Ac«. 

G^land, XU Jj^ phul-mdla (f.), I;^-* ^i^^'o, jU A5r. 

Gamer, ^U-jUl ambar-MAna, "i^gola, ^Ul^idi ghaUa-^khana. 

Gas, jlak; buldiar, ^b ftapA (f.), ^l^ &AapA. (f.) 

Gauze, Jj^)-^ kapar-phul, JjJ^*^-^ kapardhuL 

Gazette, lUUjl^l akhbar^ama. 

Gender, ^j^^i^jins: (fern.) C^l; *ani5 (f.), (masO^JJ ^asftir. (f.) 

Generation, jJy tatoallud, (race) J-J twwZ (f.), (j>w1j |9ti«A^ (f.) 

Generosity, CL>jU?- saldyawat (f.), cA^-aiC baldishish. (f.) 

Genitive case, jj>i^^ «^l>- hdlat-i-izafat. 

Gentleman, ^4^^ ^3;^ mard-i-admi, ^\^ khzpaja. (..^...s^^ltf ^a^i&. 

Gentlewoman, c^*^5i'— Ir^' ashraf-zadi^ ^^--j j^^ JAaZ? 6iii. 

Geography, ^jj\jk>^ ju^rafiya. 

Geomancy, J^j ramal, ^J^l rammal-u 

Gesture, ^j:^j^ harakat (f.), ^jtx^ jumbish (f.), «^j toaa^. (f.) 

Ghost, (spectre) ^^^, bhut, v^s-^^ pret, (spirit) -j>j rfiA. (f.) 

Giant, ^ ^Jia^ J^ 97iard-i aztm tan, c:^(3 daiyat. 

Gift, |«U3l ifCdmy ^^ila^ baJdvshish (f.), (jb cZaTi, dL? 5tZa. 

Gilding, cf;\^)lt tilonkart, i^J^jj zar-nigarl, J^ AaZZ. 

Gills, (of a fish) \j^ gahphariy (dewlap, 8lc.) s^^ m ghabghab. 

Girth (of a horse), s^S^ tang, ^JLo pett, (^^r.^,^ pushtang. 

Gladness, ^^yi^Mitishz, (^Jl& «AaeZt,j^^ surur, jcjT dnand. 

Glass, (substance) «i^\^ kanch, iJLJ^ shtsha, (vessel) L»^ ntlna. 

Globe, 2r^ kura, "i^gola, (world) ^^^^ jahdn. 

Gloom, Gloominess, ^\iJt^} dhumlfft, (sadness) kzJSLo maldlat (f.) 

Glory, (praise) iU^ hamd (f.), (splendor) j^ nur, j;5^^ raunak. (f.) 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 225 

Glossary, (^J^ji farhang (f.), ^}J^ d^U lughat matruka. 

61ae, cAt/^ ^amA. 

Goodness, ^^ ji^ bkalal, i^ ^ nikol, L^y^ khuhi. 

Goods, (furniture) c-^L^I ^ j^ ghar kd asbab, (effects) Jlc maL 

Gossip, *^^ifjj^ harza^gardy (sponsor) U U c^\j a^ J dharam-bap or 


Government, %z^<^ hukumat (f.), ^j raj, (state) j\^ sarkar. (f.) 
Grace, (divine) ij^faxl, (favour) fjoJfaiz: see Beauty. 
Gracefulness, <i.jy lutf{{.), t^'^^j zebal, <-i^U^ sajawat. (f.) 

Grammar, ^a^^ ^— i^ ^^^'l/' ^ ^^^^ (^-)y '"^^ i^a'iefa. 
Grandee, irxi^ umda, j^t amir, ^ ruin, (^jJL\ askraf. 
Grandeur, j^Tj^ bara% vj:.^>»\^r azamat (f.), tX^ buzurgi. 
Grant, ^Ujt in^dnij ^^t.\^ bakhshish (f.), Uac oj[a. (f.) 
Gratitude, jLS» shtikr, t^jM^^^ shukr-guzarl. 
Grave, j^ gor (f.), ^ ifcair (f.)> j^H ''^^^^^ (^O* ^:;**^ madfan. 
Gravitation, ^JL^ L-i^ l5^J^ markaz lei tarafmaildn. 
Grease, iP;>^ charbt, 4^ l:il>* cAi/:na7, ^^^ci^^ raughan. 

Greatness, 4^ h* 6ara*i, ^Jl^ kalAnty ^jji buzurgh 

— •• 

Green (the colour) 2f^ sabza, (grassy plot) jlj *^ sabza-zar. 
Greyhound, l;^ t^J^ tazi kutta, \s^ 4^U1m» shikari kutta. 
Grief, Ai£ gham. ^J rfvAAi J1 aJain, wU matam, ^ ran;. 
Grimace, (j--^ khts (f.),y\^jJcj bandar-ika'd. 
Gripe, (grasp) J^|>aAar (f.), Aioi kabza, (squeeze) ^ej? nichor, (f.) 
Grot, Grotto, uJ^ A»A/, a[^ A:AoA, <UU. iG tah-MAna. 
Grove, ^ ftogA, ^ Xrun;^ jo^ \^ c.l^J'^ daraldttdn kajhund. 
Groundwork, jLj bunyad (f.), J-p1 o^Z (f')fj>-jar. (f.) 
Growth, (vegetation) ^^^j rd*idagt, (increase) ,^ii^J^ barhti. 
Grudge, i:>S klna, ^ l^ ulsj^ muddat kd klna : see Envy. 
Guard, ( watch) j^Ju^^ chauklddr, (protection) vj:^U^ hifazat. (f.) 
Guess, JS\ aikal (f.), (^IJ itiya^^ jIjJI anddz,J\d>iJ pinddr. 
Guest, yjy^ fitiAman, jJU t}j\^ wdrid §ddir. 
Guidance, ^j UcJh; rahnumdl, fj:^\*iJb hiddyat. (f.) 

2 G 

226 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Guide, Uj if\j rah-numa, \j> \ agwa, ,^jlib hacCi. (m.) 

Guilty A:Sgunah, ^^ J dokh, jyoi Icusur^ Has*- khata. (f.) 

Guitar, j\aJ kitar,j\s^ sitdr. 

Gum, ^^ gpnd (f.), wi«0 samagh. 

Gutter, i^j*^ muhrty ^l}^ pamala, ^^ J^l3 nabdan. 

Habit, (dress) ^^U libas, (custom) c^jU ada^ (f.) : see Mode. 

Habitation, ^^gAar, ^^UU makan, ^U^ mukam. 

Haft, .1^ mvf A (f.), ^^«^ A:a&sa, 4i^ <l6»to. 

Hag, (witch) ^^1 J da'en (f.), (fury) J^j^ cAwfaiZ. (f.) 

Halo, ^U Aa2a, Jjc^o nuzndal, JjCi^ kundaL 

Halter, (for a horse) jj*><ifb bag-dor (f.), (noose) ^<«-3^ pliansi. 

Ham (of pork), ^^j 5 Jj)T (JiUj ^ j^* «i'ar Ai namak-aluda ran. 

Hammer, (sledge) ^jyfJ^ hat&ora, (small) t^j^fJ^ hathauru 

At hand, *^j>'y« mavjudy jti>\^ hazir. 

From hand to hand, (.^.^Jj ls-^J 6?a«^ bordast. 

Handfiil, ^<^ mutht, ^ c^ lap-bhar^ \^^L,^ musht. 


Handle, ^s,*^ dcuta, dL^, bent, ULi l:abzaf ^y< muih, (f.) 


Handmaid, iX^ sakeU, J^^ ofil (f.), ^^«^j^ laundi. 

Handwriting, lasL A:Aa^^ ke^ c: - >»»J dast-khatL 

Hap, (accident) jUJt t^^i/Sit, (luck) <j ■^♦,.*i Ar»ma<. (f.) 

Happiness, a\j\ dram, JcjT dnand, ^J]/*^ kamrdnu 

Hardware, j^ tokharj ^jiJ->- ^^ ^J^jJ toht ktchtzen. 

Harm, ^J^oSj nuf:§dn,jjJ zarar, ^^\}J ziydn, ^ ra-y. 

Harmony, J^ mely Jla^ ittihdd, i^j^)^ sdzgdri. 

Harp, L;^ ftarftaj (f.), iS^ cAang (f.), ^^^-j bin. (f.) 

Harvest, (time) jj^J ci-J^ wakt-i-^irau, (grain) ^\j\ andj. 

Haste, t^*i^jaldi, ^^ shitdbl, ^/tf^ utd'olt: see Rage. 

Hate, Hatred, (JL>/j nafrat (f.), c:-?y*Xc addwat (f.), ^ (f.) 

Haughtiness, jfj>^ j^Auriir, s:»a^ ghamand,j^ kibr. 

Health, ^pu-i;JjJ ton^urt^^^e, (j:*^^:-^ ;iA^a^ (f.), ^5;^ aram. 

Heap,^^JO dher,jLj\ ambdr, *jy ^oda, ^jm\j rds. 

By heart, ^^Vj**^ nok-i-zabdn. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 227 

Hearth, l^^ chauka, \^y>- chulha^ (dakh.) "iyf- chula. 

Heat, ^j^ garmi^ **-!;l/^ f^'^rarat (f.), ^J^jalan: see Summer. 

Heathen, y\^/:a^ry c:*^ui^ but-parasty j^ gahr. 

Height, ^5 \afj[ uncha't, ^5 Ijb^ ckarhal, uioJj bulandL 

Heir, Cj^I^ toon*, ,J|^ tra/?, 4X^ ^J^ walt-ahd. 

Help, J«x« madad (f.), uuJUs^l isti'dnat (f.) : gee Aid. 

Hem, (border) ^^g^ magkzu uJlaO-j sanjaf (f.)o^ ^^- (*•) 

Hemisphere, UoT l^ (^ iure /ra adha, 11^ ^j\ adh-gola. 

Hemistich fj/^^ misra^^ CSi tuk (f.), ^^^^ charan. 

Heptagon, ^n .^ musabbc^y \3j^ cii^U sat-kona. 

Herd, (flock) jb nar, id» gaZ/a, (crowd) J^ JjAoZ, iSu^jkund. 

Heresy, u:.^Jj dicfa^ (f.), jlfit i/AoeZ, <^2#;^ kupath. 

Heritage, Cj>|;-»>« mtra/f (f.), C^^ irs, ^^ bapauti. 

Hermaphrodite, J^^;:^ iAunsa, \ys^ kijra. 

Hero,^ Kr, ^\^^^ pahlawan, jt:\^^ bahadur, ^jb^ shuja\ 

Hexagon, (^Ju^ musaddasj (J^ j^j u^ shash-pahlu shakL 

Highlander, b^\^ pa/tariya, ^li^Jh^ ^A»^aftt. 

Highness, i/jJii bulandi, (an address) tZJjo^ hazrat (f.): see Height. 

Highwater^^y*- ]^ bharajawar, JU^«X« madd-v-kamaL 

Highway, 2i|; alS* ^AaA rah (f.), <ibMi1j |^ i^ar a rasta. 

Hilt, ^^ 97tu^A (f.), ^dJ kabxa, is,^^^ dasta. 

Hinderance, jlC\ af Aa'o, JlS^^ ruka% JjU- ASVZ, JfT ar. (f.) 

Hint, »j\J^\ ishara, Uj^ imo (f.), i^ kinaya. 

Hire, t-^ toZaJ (f.), iJ^^ kiraya, HjfA qjura, |«l^ bhara. 

Hireling, ^biT;^! ajurcuHr^j^t^^j^j rozinordar. 

History, ^jV ^owo^rildit (f.), -^^U tarikh (f.), <*:-^^«{^ rawayat (f.) 

Hive, 1::^ cAAa^^a, JU^Ctf makhiyal, <Ul>ji^j zambur-khana. 

Hock (of a horse) ^^JjI ^ ^^jf^ gAorc ki erj. 

Hole, (pit) \ib^garha, (rent) Jufj- cAZtcrf, ^^^r* ^'•^M- 

Hollow, ^t) v-.'wJJ nashlb gah (f.), i— i^sj- j^^ffj^ khalar. 

Holyday, Juc »d (f.), ^Ito^ /e'oAar, c- ^ parab. 

llome,jp ghar, ^UU makatif ]^J dcra, ^^C-r* maskan, Jbj watan. 

228 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Homicide, ^JlS aJ^ mardum-kusht : see Murderer. 

Honesty, 4^*Us^ sachffty ^^-^j rastt, ^*\j4 khara% jJu^ ^idk. 

Honey-comb, ^s^ chhattd ^l2» shan, A}1> Jl^ shahdrKkana, 

Honour, c^ xzzat (£)> (^ pat (f.), (rank) Lj^q martaba. 

Hoop, ^^>^ halka, ^*^ kundli^jfii^ chambar. 

Horoscope, g?/:j *i>- janam-patrt, to? 1^ ^ralcAa. 

Horror, <Z"^> haibat ((.), Jyb haul, u:..w>j wahshat. (f.) 

Horserace, JjJJ^ ghur-^ur. (f.) 

Horseshoe, Jju no^/. 

Horticulture, ^^j;^^,^ cAaman-ianefi, ^V^V baghrbanl. 

Hospital, ^U^jU^ btmar-khana^ \iJ^\j\o daru-^hrshafa. 

Hospitality, «j^^^y^«><^ musafir-parwarlf i^j\tyj\^^,^ mihrndndarl. 

Host, (entertainer) ^^^j:^ mear^an, ^IjuU^ mihmandar: see Army. 

Hovel, 1^^^ j^^PT^yjt^ chhappar, ^J^ A:«ff. 

Hound, l:;^ i^J^ shikari kutta. 

Hour-glass, l:u%cL» <CqiA shtshorc^a'at, t^j^ ^S j^V ^^^ A< jT^^H' 

Householder, tjL h.^ ^^l^j^*^ j\j ^IsL khana-ddr. 

Hubbub, 2r^Uc Ji ghul-ghapdra^ ^jij^ harbafi. 

Hue and cry, jUj tl^obb hdnk-pukar (f.), ^^^ ghuL 

Humanity, <j:..^^jT ddmiyat {f.), L2jL»iJ^^ bhalmansaL (f.) 

Human kind, ^Lj\ insan, /^\ _:j J^ani ocfam. 

Humility, l<^ ghariln. l:jNJbJl adhlntd, (f.) 

Humour, (juice) ^^^ rcw, ^^ ^ar?, (of the body) LLi* AJ^ift. 

Hunger, ^^^ bhukh (f.), lf>rj^(f')y ^J:^/ gursinagi. 

Hunt, Hunting, jlCi) sAt^r, Ju^ 5aic? (f.), ^S^ khader. 

Hurry, i^A^jaldi, . <j\s-y* shitdbij ^j^^ harbafi. 

Husbandry, ^J;^ kisnal, ^^^^^ khett, ^UclI^ kishtkaru 

Husk, Kl^ cAAtZ/ca,Kj bakla: see Chaff. 

Hyperbole, ^dL« mubalagha, j^jl\ ighrdk. 

Hypocrisy, b^ Hya, ^j^jlLi solus jj^ makr, u£.^ kapaL 

Jack, (engine) J^ &aZ (f.), (for raising weights) K^J damkala. 

Jail, ^l>^ Jui kaxd-ldyoLnay ^la^Jcj bandikhana. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 229 

Jalap, J>- ^ c/*V^ J^ gul-i abbas kt jar. 

Idea, Jl:p- khiyaU j^ ta§auwur, ^U^J dhyan. 

Idiom, /i!i^ jjo tarz'i'kalam (f.), ^lUs«p^ istilah. (f.) 

Idiot, -^^ ^^^^is^ janamt murakh, i^*^ gidt, J^^^pogal. 

Idleness (want of employment), t^J^, bekart, (laziness) |A>mm» susti : 

see Sloth. 
Idol, (ju^ but, ^ §anam, <^jj< murat. (f.) 
Idolater, ^-^^^^^ v::^ but-parast, cSj^^^ muskrik, j^ gabr. 
Jealousy, Jia zanUj ^Jl^ jj bad-gumanty CU;-*^ ghairat. (f.) 
Jest, ^\^ khilRf ^|j^ mazaldif l^ thatha. 
Jesus Christ, /\«^>.««i^ (Ji^fO^^ hazrat-isd. 
Jet, Jet d'eau, sj^^fawwara, sj}^} abkhezi* CDy^sot. 
Jew, J^ yahudf i^*^y^ yahudi. 
Jews-harp, «^,j!x>y^ murchang, \1^-'^ muchang. 
Ignorance, ij:^\^ jahalat {(.), ^^*^^ nadanl: see Folly. 
Ill, (evil) ^']ji bura% (harm) CiJT a/af (f.), 5b bala. (f.) 
Image, Ibj putta, f^jj^ murat (f.) : see Idol, Likeness. 
Imagination, jf^ tasauwur, JUs^ khiydl, ^Ui^ dhyan. 
Immodesty, ^l?^"* 6e-Ay56?, ^^ Uacu be-fuiya't. 
Impatience, t.^jr*^ besabri, 4^ W^^ na-^AiAefta'i. 
Impertinence (disrespect), ^Jl ^ bt-adabtj ^ji^aJ^ gustaJdu. 
Impiety, (J^fisi, ^Ji \^ U nd-khudortarsl, ^ibt:] adharm. 
Import (meaning), («^a^ mc^iu, ^ja4>*^ mazmun. 
Impostor, jb Uj daghorbdz, i^S^ thag^JL^ makkar. 
Impression, (mark) ^J^ naksh, (print, edition) ^l^ chhdpa. 
Imprisonment, JuS kaid, ^j-^-^^ fiabsy JOJ band. 
Improvement, u^^/s^ bihtart, ^J tarakkty JL^^ i^ZoA. (f.) 

Inability, ^V^^li nortdkatt, lJjj'^^^ ^ bt-makdnrl. 

• •• 

Incarnation, (of a divinity) jUjl autdr, (of a wound) JUjJI indimdL 
Incendiary, J^yl ^jtfi dtcuk^afroz, (seditious) jJjt ^^*T dtash^angeZm 
Incense, ^by tobdn, jja^bajdmrj J^ ud. 
Inch, j«J tasm, Jwl wngaZ o^Jxl^ angulyj^^por. (f.) 


230 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Incision, ci\^ kat (f.), ^^i^ burrish (f,), \j^ cktra. 
Inclination, ^JL^ mailan, J^ mail, (wish) f^:>^j raghbat. 
Income, (rent) &A^ kirayay (revenue) Jt<l dmad. (f.) 
Inconvenience, cu^l^U nOrmuwafakat (f.), ^,.ttJC takUf, (f.) 
Increase, t<J^ barkti, ^jj^^ afzunt, ^J» taralcJcu 
Incubus, f^yi}^ kabus, (dakh.) c/^j^ ^^^*^ sina-kondi. 
Indenture, ^U j^ ahd-nama^ ^^^Jf^ machalka, ^\J kabala. 
Index, (pointer out) Jb da//, JJ J c2a/i/, (of a book) v:;''**^;^ fihrisL 
Indigo, (die) JJ nil, (plant) ci^^ a^j J \^ Jj n? / Aa darakht. 
Indisposition, (disinclination) ^/^^ riamarzi, (illness) ^^^ man- 

^ dagi. 
Individual, 4)^ /ardy ^jcsf^ ^^^-^^ ^^ shaIA§, J^|^ waftid. 
Indolence, ,J2«.ma «u«^i, ^<Ul^ kdhiti, (^ JUhJ dhtlal. 
Industry, v£-«iis.'^ mihnat (f.), <Xy>- j J^jidd o jahd. 
Infancy, ,^^ bachpan, ^^y^^ tufuliyat (f.), ^Jit .<i/?i. 
Infection, c:^|/^ sirayat (f.), ^jujy^p t^/tina^. (f.) 
Inference, ^^^Vi} natlja, J^U* Aa^{/, J^l af/?a/. (f.) 
Infidel, yil^ kdfir,jS gabr, ^^*^ bedin, di^ mushrik. 
Infidelity,^ kufr, C^ shirk, viUj>^_j be-tmam. 
Inflammation, ^^^jalan, fj^jy^ ^zish (f.), c^lyiSl iltihab. 
Influence, yt asar,j^\j tasjr, S»^ fiukm, (mJ^^ byap. 
Information, ^ khabar (f.), ^\ ittila* (f.), J^Jui sudk. (f.) 
Informer, aUJ Ttammatn, ^j-J^ ^Ua»^ khufya-nawls. 
Infiraction, :^r^ faskh. o«JL& shikast (f.), tg^^'c* ^hang. 
Ingot, ^ J da/a, l^ MaA;ia, l!^J int. (f.) 
Ingratitude, (^^CmiU na-«Az(iri, c:,^^<ju ul;^ kufran-i-ni^maL 
Inhabitant, ^^^^ sakin, *JU) mukim, 2rj^b bashanda. 
Inheritance, C>^\ irs, cL)];tf^ rniras, \J^, bapautt. 
Injury, (hurt) c-^^:«-^t aseb, \^ Iza (j.) : see Detriment, Injustice. 
Injustice, ^\-^' y^ be-in^afi, (wrong) jia zulm. 
Ink, L<ibL-» siydht, ^j L^j roshna^, (red) lc>;/-» surJAl. 
Inkhom, Inkstand, C^ljJ datca/ (f.), ^b Ji kalam-dan. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 23 1 

Innocence, ^^i^ begunaht, vs^..*«i«ac tsmat (f.), ^J^ pakt. 
Inquiry, -l?"^ "i^H p^c^^^^^^ (f')f {J^ji pursis/u (f.) 
Inscription, ^\s^ kitaba, f^::^^ likhat (f.), /^^^ markum. 
Insertion, Jlf^jl idkhal^ 'rb'^^ indirajj ^1>14> dajddla. 
Inspection, ^oj nigah (f.), ^ nasar (f.), l^ls /i^az. 
Inspector, ^«^1 ami», >k^<»2^ muhtamim, i>c^j\j darogha. 
Inspiration, (drawing in the breath) ^J^/^ti damkashi, (divine) ^>-j 

wafS* (f.) 
Instalment, (to office) ^Jb^iJu^oU^ IddVat-diht, (portion) k«J kist» (f.) 
Instance, (entreaty) omi|^j darJdmast (f.) : see Affair, Example. 
For instance, "it^ masalan, ^ [m^^^jaisa ki. 
Instruction, mAm ta^Rm, (f.), ^ ^Cu ^Aa'i : see Education. 
Instrument, ^ ala^ j^:»s^ jantry ^LfJ^ hathyar, ui^^b ba%^,. 
Musical Instrument, l^U &a;a, jL saz. 
Insult, J;;^ chktr (f.),^ Ja?i;zf (f.), Ci^U-l shamatat. (f.) 
Insurance (against loss), U^ iima. 
Insurrection, \^ balwa, nJiiJb hangama, jLi fasad. 
Integer or Integral number, <«^^ 4)0^ adad-irsakih. 
Intellect, Intelligence, JiU a/b/ (f.), ^yb Ao«£, JbJj budh. (f.) 
Intelligence (news)^^-fi5- khabar (f.), cStl ittila^, i^^ dgaht. 
Intent, Intention, JuaS i^af£?, 2rj|^l iracfa, u:^ nlyat. (f.) 
Intercession, Lz^vclftMi shafa'at (f.), cJ^l^L^ wasatat. (f.) 
Intercourse, 4X^0 J^^T amadshud (f.), <Gle alalca. 
Interest, (for money) by> md^ <^Ij &ya/ : see Concern, Benefit. 
Interference, Jf^J daMd, c^^JJl o«iJ dast-anddzi, 
Inteijection (in grammar), \^lJ>^ ^rf'-irnida, uJ^ ^^v/- 
Interim (in the), ^^ ijVl^^ U^^ ^ darmiyan men. 
Interposition, Intervention, (j;^Lj wasatat (f.), <d^ waslla. 
Interpretation, i^^^^y tarjuma, fC/^ tashrili. (f.) 
Interrogation, J^J&J^ istifsar, |%lyfls*.»^ istifham. 
Interruption, (ju-^;^ harakat (f.), J^ Jdialaly -yib Aar;. 
Interstice, JucU fafihi, (between fingers or toes) ^^ lf> gAa*?. 

232 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Interval, ^Wv^ ^o^^iy^^f ^, itch,jij\ antar. 
Interview, cl^UL> mulakat (f.)> ^-^"^^ bhent. (f.) 
Intimation, ifj\J^\ ishara, dj}cS kindf/a, Uj^ tma. (f.) 
Intoxication, \Lj nashuj ^A"*^ masttj ^<^y^ bekoshl. 
Introduction, JU>o\ idkhdl^ (of a book) i^\^«i dtbaja. 
Invective, ^\? g5Z?, LSj]jf^ fj^j zaban-darazi. 
Invention, *i\^\ yad, ^jusA ikhtirc^f C.**t ^ L sakhi. (f.) 
Inventor, «X5^^ mujidy ^\^ wdzi^^ ^[j bam. 
Inventory, lifcU-» siyaha, ^Jt fard (f.), ^SiXfu tc^Rlca. 
Investigation, Jt^ talash (f.), fjLpij tafthh. (f.) 
Invitation, iZJ^*} da^wat (f.), \J^ nyotd^ c^JJ^ J(a2ai. (f.) 
Invoice, (jm\:^\ tj:^.»*^»^ fihrist-i-ajnas, ui^^ &t;a£. 
Job, (work) J^ ^a^/ (f.)^ («^ ^^ Mifta ftam, (stab) Jyb huL (f.) 
Jointure, ^^ maAr. 

Joke, \^ thatha, ^^J^ khillif ^j^ mazaJdi. 
Jolt, UjbJ dAa*ft5, «!L<^ JAoA (f.), 51^ hachkoJSL. 
Jot, Iota, ^ J mrray ^daS) nuito, J? ^Z. 
Journal, ^li Jjj^ rojr-nama, ^jUT dwdtja, \j^ khasrd. 
Journey ,yAM« «a/ar, CL^L^ musdfarat. (f.) 
Journeyman, |^^ AamSra, 2r jj^\^ kdranda. 
Joy, ^y^ kkushi, ^j>- ^urraml, ^^L Ji/&, ^jai. 
Irony, ^U^^ Aa;o maZiA ((.),jS^ tasa khkh ur. 
Itch, (disease) -^l^ iAo; (f.), ,^^^-f^ AAtj/ff : see Desire. 
Judgment, (decision) cJLa3) insdfj (sentence) S^ hukm : see Intel- 
lect. ^ 
Judgment (day), cu^lJ kiydmat (f.),^;jL». Aof Ar. (f.) 
Juice, (^^ rflw, j^ ara^^ HjJU shira^ {j^j>'ju8, ^\} pant, (m.) 
Jump, ^K kuldnch (f.), *>/ *M (f.), c: ^^^^ jast. (f.) 
Junction, J^Jor, JJj^ paiwandj ij^^wasl. 
Juncture (time) i£^^ waX:t, o^lU- kdlat (f.) : see Junction. 
Ivory, cuJ^J i<€^^ hdtht^dntf ^U q/, ^^«3J jLi ftl-danddn. - 
Jurisdiction, S^- ftukm, (j:.«v«yc>. hukumat (S'\x>(^ kalam-rav. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 233 

Jury, uu<olsu panchayat (f.), ^ panch. 

Justice, 4^la3t infaf, Jjic adl^ ^ nyaw: see Judge. 

Kalendar, aJ^ takwim (f.\ \jij patra. 

Kali, .Jj kali, ^^ sajji. 

Keepsake, ^^b yadgarij «3yi3U y ad-bud, ^ll3 nishant. 

Kennel, (for dogs) ^U-4^jl5 tazhMAna: see Gutter. 

Kennes,J^ i^'rmt^r. 

Kernel, JiU maghz. \j^ guda, (of cocoapnut) y^f gari. 

Kick, c^J K^ (fO^/W* ?A5*flr (f.), J^ fatad. (f.) 

Kiln, ^Jl^ bhafht, (especially for grain) Jl^ bhar, (potter's) t^f atra. 

Kin, j\j\j\j natordar, ^ saga, j\*iisJ^j rishta-dar. 

Kind, (genus, race) {j^^jins, c^b zat (f.), ^y nau^. 

Kindness, ^\j^ mihrbam, ^y tawajjuh. (f.) 

Kindred, jcj 4^1^ bha*i-band, U^\ akriba, ^^^ khwesh. 

Kingdom, kc ■^■;lal.,.i saUanat (f.), iji^^Im jb badshahat. (f.) 

Kinsman, jb^Sii^^ rishta^dar, ^]/ karabatt. 

Kiss, U^ cAuma, ^^^ fto^a, ^^^ff^ macAAi. 

Paper Kite, ^^ guddi, {^S^cj patang, J^ tukkal. (f.) 

Knack, (habit) k-^J ^/mi&, ^tSXatfanAra; see Dexterity. 

Knapsack, "i^^jkolift^ thaila, ^^JiJ9\p^ jamorddnt. 

Knave,jblcJ daghji'baz,J^aiyar,J^ mahkar. 

Kneading-trough, \j^ kathra,j\ij tqghar, y^^ kathautl. 

Knight, jjlyj bahadur, \jj^ mirza, (at chess) \j^ ghora. 

Knob, ^^ ganth (f.), (dakh.) i^SiS gundi. 

Knocker (of a door), iA>^ ftalka, ^ J iA>- palkardar. 

Knot, ^\^ ganih (f.), d£c a^d, if^girih (f.), ^ pUcA. 

Knowledge, Ae- tlm, Jbjj budh {(.), cu-H.Jb danist. (f.) 

Label, \sj pata, yj^^ chitthi, i^\jj^ sar-nama. 

Labour, ui^^s^ mihnat (f.), ^J dukh, (in birth) ifj 4>;i3 dard-i-zih. 

Lace, (gold or silver) ^f goto, i^J^ kinart, (cord) i^j^J ddri. 

Lacker, (varnish) ul^ luk, ^^j raughan. 

^^^Jf L5-rf WK> ^y^ M5^S» (f-)» f^ Muinam. (f.) 

2 H 

234 Vocabulary — Nouns* 

Lamentation^ dl5 nala, ^J^j zarlj 4^y liauha^ <0j? gyriya. 
Lampblack, J^^ kajalj irJ^J duday ]Lsr kajla. 


Lampoon, y^ hajo (f.), |^«3c^ bkandauwa. 

Lancet, jS<1j nashtar. (f.) 

Landlord, jljCi^J zamindar, (of an inn) ^b|^ m^z&an. 

Landmark, ^|^* ^tt7a7Ui, *M^ mend (f.)> fj^^«> danda. 

Landscape,^^^ ^ j)^ b uiX« y>^ kisu mulkya sawadki to5trir.(f.) 

Lane, ^i? ga/i, »J^ r5A (f.), \^U na/:a. 

Language, ^^bj zaban (f.), ^J|^ MZ«, l^^ bhakha* (f.) 

Lap, J^ god(f.), i^t^fgodi, -y^ \Sji^ lS ^li ^anfi ftc fipar kljagah. 

Lappet, dU^ shamla, ^^]Ji^ pairaman. 

^^^f \Jij^ i/i ^J^y^ ^^*^^ ** pakki charbi, 
Lascar (from ^jjj^ lashkartf soldier), ^i^ khalasu 
Lasb, (thong) \j^ kora, (stroke) CS^^f- <---^ zarb-i-chabuk. 
Lass, (young woman) ir^^j doskiza (f.)> ^>\3 tiffeka. (f.) 
Last (for a shoe), ^Jti^ i^lS Jcalib-Ukafshj jJ\^ kaXbud* 
Lathe, j|^ Ma^5d (f.)» ^]/^ IdiarraL (f.) 
Latitude, v/*];^ cAawra*?, ^jd^ arx (f.), Joj&i^p^jd darja-e-arz. 
Lattice, uJ\. mi shabak, t^j^ff^^^ jhanjhrij i}\^jal, ^^ khirkl. 
Laudanum, j^ l^ a^^ a/7m X:a arak. 
Laughing-stock, Xjir^ tnaslAara, CSs:^^ musL^ik. 
Laughter, Laugh, u,C>(r^ tazhtk (t.), ^^^"^ hansi. 
Law, (rule) ifiXclS i^a'tefa, (statute) ^^*T a'tn, ^y IS i5:5nun. 
Lawn, j]^^ marghzar, (^^«X;^ maidan : see Muslin. 
Lawsuit, 1^ J dc^ica, &^ l^aziya, dUAA^ muArocUaina. 
Laziness, ^^^^^^ sustl, ^>y^ mafliuliy J^J ^AI/. (f.) 
Leader, |y^J peshwa, j\jj^ sardar, ^^fj^ sar-guroh. 
Leaf, tj patta, lu\j pat, v2J^ ^^rg, (of a book) jj^ toarai^. 
League, (alliance) J^ me/, (three miles) cJ^ji farsang. 
Leanness, b^bo dublapa, ijjsH laghari : see Poverty. 
Leap, J^ A;ti{2 (f.), LZ^^^^^jast (f.), JJlf» phand: see Jump. 
Learning, J^ tZ^n, b Jj iu£ya (f.), u: >%\ jai fazilat. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 236 

Lease, ij}^ kiraya, ^Uj-1 ijara, (deed) \3j patta. 

Leather, )j^ chamra, ^j>^ charm, ji>- jild. (f.) 

Leave, f^j^\ ijazat {t), Uj rai^a (f.), (to depart) fji^^r^j rukh- 
sat, (f.) 

Leaveo (fennent),^;*-*^ khamtrf djU maya. 

Leavings (offal), ^^^ jkutka, iJjy>^ ^ pas-kkurda. 

Legacy, <Uib hiba, o^j wa§tyat, (f.) 

Legerdemain, v^J^ «f2Li j dtth-bandi, v^Wjcju^ sha^bada-bazi. 

Leisure, wr-^^^ /wrsa^ (f.), c:->c}/ faraghat (f.), ljS^ chhuttt, (f.) 

Length, y^ L«j /am&a?, Jjt .^,&/, 4>lja««\ imtidad. 

Lesson, Jf*«) saba^, (jmjJ dars, (precept) Jcj ;7and. 

Letter, <-J^ hatf, (epistle) )o:^ f^th ^5«2^ chitthh 

Lexicographer, cu^ v-alj/o mu^allif-irlughat. 

Liberality, t^^jud (f.), ^ju^yJU ali-himmaii: see Generosity. 

Liberty, (freedom) i^J\J\ azadl, ^^'Ij^ ri^al : see Leave. 

Library, AiU- l^^ kutub-^na, k,,^ ij:.'^}^^;^,^- jamVat-i-kutub, 

License, S>- pukm, ^\^j9farman, ^\jjJ^ panvana : see Leave. 

Licorice, (^y^ sus, (j^yJ\ J-^^ aslu-s^s, JbXo ^^j^^ jethi-madh. 

Lie, ^yp^jhuth, ^^j^ darogh, u^^ kizb. 

Lieutenant (deputy), ^iLo jjli kffim makam, c^l3 naVft. 

Life, ^ji (m.\^jtt^y J^jan, (living) ^^j zindagi. 

Lighter, (large boat) ^ bhar. 

Likelihood, JUi>.l ihtimal, ts^^ surat (f.), ^^Uf gwrnan. 

Likeness, c:.^L^ shdbahat (f.), c:JjU* mumasalat (f.) : see Form. 

Limit, Limitation, Jo- Aarfd (f.), a^Ip-^ ihata, \3\^ «tt?an5. 

Line, (string) jyi dor (f.), l-.^ Janaft, (streak) ^ faAtr (f.), (of a 
book) jL-j Mtor (f.), (hemistich) ^^.^ mi§ra^, (equinoctial) 
1^1 Li^ JAatt-i'istiwa : see Limit, Row, Lineage. 

Lineage, J-J na«Z (f.), J^^\^ IMndan, v-^^ nosaft. 

Lineament, JU. ftftaZ, ia:^ Mfl?/. • see Feature. 

Linen, ^\s£ kattan or kataUy \^ kapra. 

Lining, ji-^^ astar, ^^^t markan. (f.) 

236 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Link, (of a chain) iSiS fcalaba, ^^ kap, (torch)^|J*l-« mash'al. 
Linseed, ^^\ abt, ^Jsi ^ tu^m-i-katan, ^^\ atasl. 
Liquefaction, jH^jngAZa'o, ^galan, jjl^Sj^ gudakht. (fj 
Liquid, Liquor, jy: ara^, J,\j pant (m.), (j^j ras, s^^ shurb. 
List, (roll) s^:>^ fihrxst (f.), ^J fard (f.), (bandage) ^ pain, 

(border) if;U^ kinara, (palaestra) |jfl^ \ akhara : see Desire. 
Litharge, (^j^j\jj^ murdarsang, tg-f*-* ^i3«^ murdasang. 
Litter, (chair) ^^U /^aZAi, (straw) j^T a^r (f.), (brood) J^fr J^^- 
A Little, ^ kuchhf Hji zarroy J-ljj*>3 kadr-irlcaUl. . 
Livelihood, ^j^j rozij ^jj rizlc^ vj ; ^» ^ a ma^hat. (f.) 
Load, -^y bdjhyj\i) ^kar, ^y moth (f.), oS Krf. (f.) 
Loaf, lSj^j rot, Jl^j roff, ^^j y\j panto rda. 
Loan, ^2 karzy ^JbJ d^jU driyat»dih$fj\:bS\ udhar. 
Lock, (of a door) JiS ifcti/?, lIlJ tdla, (of a gun) v—^U- champ (f.), 

J^ Aa/ (f.), (of hair) «^J zttZ/ (f.), J^ *«&«/ (f.), (for water) 

Lodge (small house), ^^ljjf>^ chhota ghar, ^^j^f k^thrt. 

Lodger, ^J^ muklm, ^J^b bashandajj\jiAji kiraya-dar. 

Loftiness, (height) u^JcL bulandi, (pride) jy^ ghurur. 

Log, jrjci^ kunda, <Ujf toim ; see Block. 

Logic, j;la:M« mantilc (f.)^ JJ;!?^:^^ Ac i/m-i-munazora. 

Logician, ^^ila:>>< mantikt, ulX^lJ naiyayik. 

Longitude, Jjib j^fi/, ^^L:J lamban. 

Looby, (^^d^ 2r«XM&|^U na-tarashlda shakhs^ (dakh.) j^x^Jb hendra. 

Loom, (,£^\j tint (f.): see Instrument. 

Loop, ^^^^ phali, iA^J tukma, iS^ ^Ika, ^^^ phansi. 

Looseness, ^j\JL^ kushadaglf h/«3cAJ bet^idt : see Diarrhcea. 

Lord, (master) ui3U malik, c^^^^-U ^oAift, (nobleman) ^^U^ M^''* 

C^ begfj^ mir: see Husband, God. 
Lordship, ^^^U sahiK, ci^UI tmara^ (f.), cuJ3U maliklyat. (f.) 
Lore, Jl^ ilm, Ijj ^'d|ya (f.), fJ^fazL 
Loss, j^lflii nuk^an, C^Lo- M^^ra^ (f.), (defeat, q. v.)jU Aor. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 237 

Lot, c^.gta? nafihj vj: ■..^..^^ kismat (f.), (share) A^a^^ hi§sa. 

Lottery, lAt* 9^^(}j s^V *^ Jcur^a-baziy J-^ IJ ^5^^ cAiWAt fta 

Lover, Jn^ile 5sAii, 4^\t talib, Jo yar^ ^^^jk-* sajjan. (m. f.) 
Lowland, v_ -^^ ^^j jzramin-t-no^Aei, ^l^ nicAan. 
Lowness, (^ \^ ntcAal, ^c^ |ntf^I, (meanness) c:^i aft^Za^. (f.) 
Lucifer, (the planet Venus) sybj zuhra (f.), J>^ sukr : see Devil. 
Luck, (chance) jUj\ ittifak, (fortune) w^j.a3 no^ii : see Lot. 
Lucre, ^aJ nq/^, Styj}i fa'ida, Jjmi sucf, ^!t 2a&A. 
Luggage, i^-^j^ cAtZ'bast (f.), ^l^U.«91 ^ jsr* ^^^^ ^^ o^ftoft. 
Lumber, <^^jg^ ^J^ nakari chiz-iasty yj^ agarbagaf. 
Lump, 1^ daHy \^ tukfa, CSi tuk, (of sugar, meat) ^J dali. 
Lunacy, ^^^'^ diwaiiagt, J^ sir (f.), \dy^ sauda. 
Lunchy Luncheon, \^ katewa, ^\j nashta, ^^^ tafannun* 
Lust, ^A»^ fRos^I, <i^:^^^ shahwat (f.)> u^^^ ^^ Jiawa o hawas. (f.) 
Lustre, jy nur, uX«^ cAamaft (f.), 5^-JiH (f.)^ n^jalwa. 
Lute (instrument), laj^ &ar&aj(, (f.), ^j*it tambur^ ^^ bin. (f.) 
Luxury, (JDjLc^ ^JUC' aish ashrat (f.), ^<£»L& aiyashu 
Lyre, k^ barbat (f.) : see Harp : (constellation) ^lj]\^ na«rtt4- 

Mace, (club) \^y^ sonta, loe ^sa,j^gurz : see under S/nces. 
Machine, J^ kal ({.)fji:^jantr, JiT ala, Li-^jc-^ §an*aL (f.) 
Madam, ^^^i &t&I, i,,,.^ rw U ^^^ fttii §a^ib, ^U^U J!Li de^am fapiba. 
Mademoiselle, ^/jl larAt, t^^j^ chhokri, ^L^ gabtya. (f.) 
Madness, J.«> Wr (f.), ^y>^ jtfnSn, ^\^j^ diwanagi. 
Magazine, (store) ^|^ ^izana, ^^^jk^ maj^an, (book) <k]U; rmZa. 
Magi (one of the), ^^^^ majusy ^ mugh.jSgabr. 
Magic, tj:j\j0a\>^ fiazirat (f.), jjU* jocfu, ^^^ ^r, U3y totka. 
Magician, Jy^^ jadugar, jL f^J^j^J nairang-saZf ^L» ^oAir. 
Magistrate, j^J^y/aij/dflr, *^U- ^akim, J^Ui JmiZ. 
Majesty, (royal title) '^^4;;Vv>- jahan-panah, (ZJ>j»a>^ ^axrat: see 

238 Vocabulary, — Nouns, 

Maintenance, (protection) ,^jSjf^ l^bargiri, (food) ^j^/^ par- 

warish. (f.) 
Majority, (greater part) d^^ kagrat (f.), (ftiU age) ^ hulu gh . 
Make, (form) J^ J daul^ (structure) <^^Uj hanawat (f.) : see Fashion. 
Maker, ^S karta, )|^^ bandnetodla: see Creator. 
Malady, ^jOj^ maraz, ijj\^, blmdrl, ^^j rog^ jij\ azar. 
Malice, i^ kina, ^^/aib bughzy cu^j^J^ adawat (f.), v^Jj ftodfl. 
Mallet, \fy< mogra, ^^^y^ ^^g^^?^^^ mekhrckUf ^^ koba. 
Mam, Mamma, UU fnama, U amma, U ma, L« maiyd. (f.) 
Manacle, i,^ .ifJb hath-karij (Manacles) ^V.^ 'f^ katk-kariydn. 
Management, ^j^];^ sarbardht, i^J^^J^ kdrguzdrt : see Care. 
Mane, Jb yaZ (f), JV3 aydl (f.), ^J^^ c/^onff. 
Mange, (j^j^ kkdrish (f.), ^^^Lsr ^ {z^^jy^ jdnwaron kJ khujU. 
Manger, ^j^ khurti, \j^ kathrd, ^IfT thdn. 

Manhood, ^)^ jawdni, ^-9L^ ^Aa&aft, t/^ mar^. 


Manikin, UJb ^a'ona, (.153^ mardak, l^^ ZarH : see Dwarf. 
Mankind, ^LjI ey naut in^ara, aJI ,^ ftant ddam^jLi bashar. 
Manna (in medicine), c:^.!^^ shtrkhisht^ \:fit^j^ taranjuSin. 
Manner, ^J^ tarak (f.), J^j ciauZ, Up^JbJ dhab,j^ taur» 
Manners, (morals) ^jhi^\ akhldk. (politeness) i^\S\ dddb. 
Manufactory, <0U^\^ kdrkkdna. Manufacture, ^jSiJ^ kdrlgaru 
Manure, ^^b pdns, iZ)\^ khdt (f.), Jl^ /cAa<f (f.) : see Dung. 
Manuscript, (writing) ksL*^ J daskhatty (book) SsJiy K^L^'^^M^dast-navAshta. 
Map, iLSj naJcsJuiy cS^ ilJj naishorumuluk, <JU» pat. 
A Marble (for playing with), l2i^ antd, ^f goTi. 
March, (journey) ^^ kuch^jL^ safar, (month) <-i-%*^ chait (?). 
Margin, 4J!)l>- hdshiya, aj^ kindra, c-J lab. 
Mark, (sign) ^\Lj nishdn, (stamp) ^J dd gh : see Coin, Butt. 
Market, cU^ cAawA;, jljb ^azar, cilib Aaf (f.), .^5ijj j^enM. (f.) 
Marriage, «Ij &^aA, ^l^ nikah, i^oli «AaJi, ^^^tjci-j^ kadkhuddl. 
Martingal, *3^ jij zer-band, tXxf ^jLj pesk-band. 
Martyr, Ju^ shahtd. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 239 

Mass, (lamp) 1«X^ pinda, )l J dala, (multitude) j U>. jama'd. 

Massacre, Jsj Jcatl, aU Jsi katlrirdmm : see Carnage. 

Master, (proprietor) d^U ma^tA, (lord) C-..0-U 5aAift, (teacher) 

jU.^^ ustad. 
Mastich, ^ia ^ ' c mastaku 

Mat, b^y ftoriya, ^^ la>- chata% i^J^ ?ajf (f.), ^Jli paji. 
Match, (contest) A}\S^ mukabala, ^\j bazl, (an equal) ^^Jlai nazlr. 

Mate, (comrade) ,4f^L» ^aMi, u;>i>- Ju/i^ : see Husband, Mate (of a 


Materials, c^Lm»1 asbab, ^UU saman, i^j\ji lawazima. 
Mathematics, i^\)^ ilm-vHyaxi. 
Matrice, Matrix, (mould) IoktU sancha, (womb) ^j rihm. 
Matter, (substance) SjJb hayuliy (pus) c.^-^ ptb (f.) : see Affair. 
Maxim, (axiom) 2r(X&lj kffida, (adage) ^yU ma^la. 
Meadow, j^jc^ marghzar. i^'\y taral, *^)/>- charagah. 
Meal, (flour) \3T afa, J;T ardf, (eating) l)\^ khand. 
Meaning, ^A^^ mc^t, ifd\j\ irada, ^j\ arthy Jua&« maksad. 
Measure, ^^U^ paimffish (f.), i^\j nap (f.), c->to iwop, (in verse) 

f^j^ wazn, [J^ji^ mlzan, (in music) JlJ ^5/, (portion) ^*fl>- ^i^^a, 

(means) JjJ daul, ^>^^f tarklb (f.), (a land measure) c^^'^^ 

jortft (f.), \^ katiha, (for clotli) jf ga^r. 
Meat, (flesh) i,:^^^ gosht, ^^JU ma77«, (food) l}\^ khana: see Food. 
Mechanics, J^ j>> J^ ilm-'i'jarr'Usfi^L 
Medal, 44ju taghma, iLa sikka, \jt\^ mudra. (f.) 
Mediation, j'lssT ^ bich-bichffo, u^l^ wasatat. (f.) 
Meditation, ^Ui^ dhyan, (thought)^ ^ftr, J^ljf ta'ammuL 
Meed, 4dLtf 5iia,y>-l a;V, 1^jaa^a(f.)* **«^ ^ttA/a. 
Meeting, lf«i«» «a&Aa ({.\ /\a^ jama% {jL^^JiA ^ ^ jamiyat. (f.) 
Melancholy, Uj>U makhuliya, l4>^ sauda, J)U maHL 
Melody, ^UJu naghma^ Jjj^ sarod, ^^,^1 ahang. 
Memoir, f^Jiy tawarilAf o--«i^ sar-guzasht (f.), *^Jj tazkira. 
Memorandum, ls^^W jU yad-dasht {f*)fj^ ^k y^d^awar. 


240 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Memorial, jl^ob yad-gar, (petition) v;>J»b ^j^^ arz-dasht, (f.) 
Memory (faculty of), dlai U* ^o^xa, ]aA>- hifz, (remembrance) Jb yad. (f.) 
Mendicity, ,^*\jd gadal^ i^^Ji fakiru 
Mending (repair), u-^ve^ maramma^. (f.) 

Mensuration, ^AJU-j paima'ish (f.), (of land) ^^_^ l^j^ jartb-kasku 
Mention, ^^J f tAr, ^>^;>* charcha,j^A^ maxkur, Jl^ c:u-j bat-kahSo. 
Merchandise (goods), JU ma/, ^j-^jins (f.)> a^^ roAom. (f.) 
Meridian, (noon) jly^l cJ^ niffurn^nakarj (line) jl^t uJ«^ la:^- 

khatt'i-nis fu-n^nahar. 
Merit, ^gun,jJi kadr (f.), Jt^^ jauhavy ciJU liyat^at. (f.) 
Mermaid, ^Ul^JaZmanttf (m. tra^»'-fitan),^^£S^tc£^ fttn/if-UaAr.(f.) 
Merryandrew, Xjis'^ maskhara, JJl^ bhind, tJ^^y^ swangi. (m.) 
Message, >Uj payam, a\^ patghaniy Lj j^^ sandesa. 
Messenger, ^^ILj paigKambar. ^^^x^ rnndesi, xJSyb harkara, J^i^U 

Messiah, .^^...^ masth, lficu»« masifui, A^*^ iz^j^a^ Iiaxrat %sa. 
Metaphor, itj\icJs isH'dra, jLsr« majaZy (simile) \aj\ upama. (f.) 
Metempsychosis, ^l:J tanasuldij ^j^ autar, ^y\^ awagawan. 
Method, (order) ^J[^1 udub, (manner) jjb taur, J^J daul, ^i^lL 



Metre, ^]}t^ nUzan (f.), jac^ bafir (f.), ^ nam (f,), j^j^ too^m. 

Metropolis, cs-^JbLJI^^J daru-s-saltanat, ifwxa^ tafdUgah. (f.) 

Mettle, ^-S-^ pAwr^ (f.), v^,.%4Jb himmat (f.), c^LiW JawJiart. 

Mice, ^La^^ cA&AiySn, ^^ cAu Ae. 

Mien, Ai\J kiyafa, g^ ckihray ^J dhaj, ^^ was^. (f.) 

Might, CJ>y Autrcr^ (f.), Jj balyj^j zoTyj^dSuc makdur. 

Mildew, UjcJ Itndka, ^^j^- chittt, lj'^j^ g^ru% 1*^ harda. 

Mile, J^ miZ, ^^^ \ibJ] adha kos. 

Milestone, j\i^ numar, j\i^ nunar, jfiJ j^ JJltJ ^ Ju« mi/ Aa ii»Aaii- 

dor patthar. 
Mill, ^^^[>- chakkt, C/U- cAaft, tJW- janta, LJ ariya, (wind) 

f^/^y^ pawanrchakkl, (water) ^/-^^ pan-chakkl. 

Vocabulary. — Noun$. 241 

Minaret, ^U^ manar, 5;L« fnanarafj\:»^ mtnir. 

Mine, ^\^ khan (f.), ^^ kan (f.), (under walls) iSift^ surang. 

Mint (place of coining), JLiS ^a/»aZ (f.), t-^]^^J daru-z-xarb. (f.) 

Miracle, tSJjU ,^^ Muirk-Uddat, \jl^^ karamat (f.), ij^J*** mu^jiza. 

Misbehaviour, ^^ Oj bad^uluki, ^Xuibd^ kudhangi. 

Miscarriage, (failure) ^\j}jj6 na-sarbarahz, (abortion) J^««>* l^U^t 


• •• • 

Miscellany, J^^ kachkol (f,\ i^f^jung (f.), ^y^^ mtymu'S. 
Mischief, ^^Jj badi, ^\j) bural, ^^^oSj nuk^an^ jj»c zarar. 
Misery, ^^\^ kharabt. cuJ J zillat (f.), ci^-^^ pareshanl. 
Misfortune, ^^^»s^*^, bad-bakhtl, li^ bipat (f.), lb &aZa. (f.) 
Miss, (young woman) c^j^ Aor«, j^^^» befi, (lady) 4^jlji^>^»^U «^aAift- 


Miss, d^ cAtiA (f.), J^ bhul (f.), (loss) j^ ku§ur, ^joaj naks. 
Mission, c:JL| risalat (f.), ^^^fjJui paighambart, JL^^ ir^aZ. 
Mistake, Ik:^ M«.?a (f-X ^^ chuk (f.), Jj«j 6ASZ- (f.) 
Mistress, ^U sakiba, ^^^ ftifii, (sweetheart) u£;^ jpyart. 
Misunderstanding, ^^^ lali gh alaUfahmt : see Disagreement. 
Mite, (particle) 2r^i zarraj njij reza, (insect) ^ ghun: see Weevil. 
Mixture, ^ jU milffo, (jtj^\ aniezish (f.), (compound) l^j^ mu- 

Mob, J^ ftAir (f.), ajjb^ Ati/Sm, 2r^t am&oA, ^^4^ majmXa. 
Mock, Mockery, ^^Csi^ maz'haka, /\y>^ chira'd, l^ thattha. 
Mode, (custom) (jL^j rawish (f.), ^T aln (f.), (form) C->;^ sural 

(f.) : see Manner. 
Model, 4t*A} naitvAa, ^j^ namiiTm, J^J dat^Z, c^lS i^aZi&. 
Moderation, ^\dss\ i^tidal, c:,^\iS kanffat (f.), J*ib^ parKtz. 
Modesty, ^It Z5; (f.), a^ «Aarm (f.), L^ Aaya (f.) : see Chastity. 
Moistness, Moisture, ^^:^,^j rutubatif.), iZJ^Jotarawat{i.\j^ narnt. 
Mole, (spot) Jj til, JU- M5Z, (mound) <teL^ ptishta, xSi\) bandh. 
Molestation, uJ-Kj takRf(f.), \j^ tza (f), j^^ju^a? to^cfi* (f ), Jla^ 


2 I 


242 Vocabulary*-^Noufi8. 

Monarchy, ^lAjb badshaht, c:..oJaLi saltanat (f.), ^j raj. 

Monastery, ifUiU- Idwnkah (f.), y^b di'ira. 

Monday, 4^jJ cIo tfAamfta,^ P^^'^jJ^y^y^ somwar. 

Money, jj arar, ^^ /^aisc (plur.), ^^^ rwpai (plur.), ^ fake. 

Monk, {J^^j^ darweshy jJi falfirf ji^ kalandar, c-*^V> rSAiJ. 
Monument, jl^b yad-gar, (pillar, 8cc.) ^^f^ sutun, (tomb) Ai^^ 

Mood, (state) vjiJU. )ma< (f.), ^^ toaf* (f.), (in grammar) JJu^ 

Moonlight, Moonshine, ^'^^ chandnt, lJ^\^ mahtab. 
Moor, (n^o) ^j zangi (m.), lA-^ habsht (m.) : see Marsh, B<^. 
Moral, (of a fable) u:,.^flCVflj na§ttiat (f.), <ulfi^ MtcZo^a, <(£cyx} natija. 
Morality, Morals, J&c^l aJMalc^ c^J^ a£2a&, l/^^ d^ niAnSti/tfA». 
Morsel, ^Ui! lufcma, a)y nat£'a/a, J^ kawal, \/j tukra, Xj\j para. 
Mortality, Ui fana (f.), i4>- cAAai (f.), (deaths) ^^^ mauten. 
Mortgagee, ^j^pj^ murtahinf jS cl^JCJ b y^ giraur or handhakrpr. 
Mortgager, ^^]^ raAtn, ^^^^jj^ giraudar, i\^ ^J uI^jcj bandhak 

Moss, c^'l^ fta'f, j|^ tfitrar (Vallisneria spiralis), (dakh.) ^^j run 

(? Harris). 
Mother (on vinegar, &c.), ^ cly^ ^ ^^;-» ^ ^^.Jfc^i phaphundi 

JO ^rft^ par hoti hau 
Mother of pearl, v^ J^ fadaf (f.), ^<--» sipi* 
Motion, C^^^ parakat (f.)> ^y^^SiSf- jumbish (f.), /Lb hila*o : see 

Motive, j^b ba'tsf, V^^ wifi;ift, l,^w>i «afta&, ^\j wasita. 
Motto, <ji^\a^ ii^afta^ (f.), vj.-JLc a/ama^ (f.) 
Moveables, ^jA&^ JU fiiaZ-t-mani(:u2a, u:..^ J^ cAt^r bast, (f) 
Mountaineer, bJfLyJ pahariya, ^^ kohl, ^^ parbaS, J-f 6Ai/. 
Mourning, (grief) ^i gham, ajU matom, (dress) (^U ^<4jU matamt 

Vociibulary. — Nouns. 243 

Mouse-tiap, ^^b l/!^ chuh&dan,Jjt} dahkar. (f.) 

Mouth, <%Y^ munhy (of a river, &c.) Uly* mtc/iana, (of a water-bag) 

^Im dahana. 
Mouthful, 4US! luJcmOy ^|y nati^aZa, Jj^ ftatra/. ^ 
Mucus, U!S^ cAif^, c^U Ztt*a&, lS^j ren/, JJj halgham. 
Mud wall,^!^*) ,c«r kachcht diwar, j|^J ^^ ^Xo witffi ft? diwar. 
MuUar (for grinding colours), ISi battay \jb^^ V&rhiya^ bb^ torha^ 
Mulatto, V..>/m..^ masiisa (m. f.) : see Mongrel. 
Multiplication, (in arithmetic) <-^ zarb (f.), yJj^ jofii, (table) 

Ijl^ pahara. 
Multitude, (great number) lz>^ kagrat (f.), J^ g^Ao/: see Crowd. 
Mummy, L«ye mamiya, (a medicine) v^'L«^ mdmiya% 
Munificence, (JL^^Jss^ scMiAwat (f.), J^ jtkt (f.)> yj^-^^^ hakh- 

shish. (f.) 
Murder, ^j». Mt^n^ W^ Aa^ya (f.), Jri ^ ^^^ ftggAf «e katL 
Murderer, ^ji MS't' (m- ^Ofjij utf**" ^ttHrez, ^ j%«3^ mardum- 

Murrain, b^ ^J? ^^^b jW cAar^ayon it too&a, ^ys^ JVj w'flftSZ-i- 

Mushroom, J^ 1^ L5i;^ dharti ka phul, 9^jUmi ggmarfiyA. (dakh.) 

jJ^jJ Icudratu 
Music, iX*^ mfmJci^ ijM naghtna. ^Wl aZ^an, v«/\j rag. 
Musk, cL^we mushk, uX«^ mwft. 

Muslin, J.«4l« malmal (f.), a:m^ shdbnam, ^Ijj c-^T ah4rTawan. 
Mustaches, ^^ mficAA (f.), ^^fi^y muchKen (plur. f.), c:-^ hu- 

rut. (f.) 
Muzzle, .^:^ munh (f.), |^ tRuAra, (bore of a gun) iJj^ muAri, (for 

cattle) L^yp^jab. 
Myriad, (ten thousand) j]jJb ^^J da$ hazar, ^Uy toman. 
Myrrh, (a gum-resin) j^ micrr, Jy JaZ. 
Mystery, j|; ra^r, L^^* r . ghaib, Ju^} &ASrf, (trade) l^*^ kasb. 
Mythology, JlUjiJ de^o-mala, ^y^ ^^ u/^^*^ dewta'on ft? kahanh 

244 Vocabulary. — Nouns* 

Nag,^by5Att,yS tattu, \j^ ghora. 

Nail, (of iron, &c.) ^.^ wieM (f*)> Jt?^ *'^ (^0* 0** measure) »/ 

giriA. (f.) 
Nakedness, ^^^^ji barahfiagl, ^^j^ uryam, s?*^ >Minya7. 
Name, i«U nani, yU noiki?, i^\ ism, (title) c^ lakab: see Fame. 
Namesake, i%\3 ^ Aam-nanif ^^^4^ sam, ^\^^ sananH (?)• 
Nap, (short sleep) JoJ 4/Jf^ ^^p ^tncZ (f.); (of cloth) AIj^ resAo. 
Napkin, JU:;«m3 dastmal, JUjj rumal, l^j^\ aiig&cAAa. 
Narration, Narrative, Jii wait/ (f.)i c:^K>- /likayat (f.), ^^UsS itifia. 
Narrator, 4^^}; ^5ti;i, J3l5 no^tZ, ,^^ nai/?, l/^ Aati. 
Narrowness, ,JcJ tongi, «,^*1A* ^^^% (meanness) ^A-J v*X;J tong^ 

Nastiness, \j:^.^\af najasat (f.), J^ mat/, iX^^I aludagi, ul^JslU 

ghilazat. (f.) 
Native country, ^^ toa/an, ^^J dZ^, a^ jtj zad-bum. 
Nativity, jJy tawaUud, ft^janam, (place) jJ^ maulid. 
Nature, (constitution) kz '^nXj^ tahVat (f.), ^yo mizaj : see Custom, 

Navigation, ^^1« mallahi, u^ t«Xs^l3 nakhudal. J^ ijj\^jahazi t/m. 
Nearness, fJ^*^y nazdikl, c->y ifc«r&, Jl.^^ i^^t^^/ : see Covetousness. 
Necessaries (things needed), ijjj^j^ c^L^f a«&a&-i-xarari, &«;fjS /o- 

Necessity, f^j^j^ zarurat (f.)^ ^-^J^J toujub, (need) tji^'^^-U. ^'a^ 

(f.) : see Force, 
Necromancy, jJW jadu, t^^y^^ jadugarl, s&*"^ sa^iri, 

tasldur. (f.) 
Nectar, (Jl:'j^ amrit, \;^ V^r^ sharaban tahurd,J)jf c«>t a&-i-A:at<iar. 
Need, ^W^^^ U^^iyy (f* m.), ^j^^ gharaz (f.), ^^ C^U iatparj : see 

Needle, (for sewing) ^^ ^ «i'i, ^^J^ «5za« (f.)> (packing) 1^ «i'a, 

(of the compass) t^ y^yS^ ^^ kutb^numa In sul, \Sj\^ kania. 

Eye of a needle, \^U naka,j\ij^ sufar. (m. f.) 

Vocahulary — Nouns. 246 

NegatioDyjlCf inkar, ^Ju naft (m.), u^Ju salbf Oj radd. 
Neglect, Negligence, (c^Jii j:Aa/2a^ (f.), ^yjb^ kahili, . A^m^ sustl. 
Negotiation, ^lb« mu^dmalayj\i^jS karobar. 
Negro, ^J^*-^^ habsht, ^j zangi, s\^ siyah, i^«V ^^^ o^ 

shidi (?). 

Neighbour, ^L^AJb hamsaya, ^j^ paro8t,j\ys^ hamjawar. 
Neighbourhood, c^t^^ paros, j\^ jawar, <LiL«4Jb hamsaya. 
Nest, l^^ghonsla, l^JJ^ khondha, <OL&l ashiyana, Ub &a«a. 
Nestling, \x^ geda, ^JLSiT ashiyam, IjJ S(fa. 
^c^ JV J^2> V^ dhabd, f^J dam* 

News,^U>.^ akUbar, (sing.) j-^^ ^uibar (f.), CL>U5lj wakVdU 
Nib, (point) vl^ noA (f.), iJ' aw*? (beak) ^^^ Mor. (f.) 
Niche (recess in a wall), jU?, tfllf, iJ^^ takcha. 
Nickname, c^ JJ ioif /aitaft, i*U ^^ urfl nam. 
Niggard, J:^ ba^tl, uX<»«4^ mumsiAc, {^ys^ karyus, /^y^ sum. 
Nitre, Saltpetre, 2r^y» shdra,jAA ab^ir or a&itar (?). 
Nobility, l:^]^ shardfat (f.), vs^^T ««/aia« (f.), (nobles) li;^ 

Noble, Nobleman, j^^ amr, J^i^.»*a:»^ man§abddr, s^A>e> umda. 

Nobody, ^^^ ^*tf kol nahtn, (figurat.) J-jf- li nd-chtz. 

Noise, jjA shor, tSJt}U 6ang (f.), J^^T dwdz (f.), Ji gAttfy \iye. 

gha ughd. 
Nomenclature, SU aU ndnnndld, i^S^^farhang (f.), lt.^ lughat. (£) 
Nominative (in gram.), J^li/a'fZ, (.I-^U \^\^ ttdlat-i-fd^iUyat. (f.) 
Nonce (purpose), ^j|;l tro^ia, Ouoi i(:a;</, c^^Jii^ matlab, y^^ 

gharax. (f.) 
Nonentity, Nonexistence, mSs> adam, ,^<^ ne^/I, ij*^y\j nd^budi. 
Nonsense, ^U ,<:a4mJ bhmc^/A bdten, h/'^'jV ydwa-gol. 
Nook, U^ Aona, ^j) go«Aa, (narrow place) ..^^ s^^ (^ ^^^~ 

Noose, ,^^^ phdnst, Wl^ phdndd, tX>A^ kamand. (f.) 
North-east, ^j^ (jW^ tsa?trA5ii, ^)U^) i^an. 



246 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

North pole or star^ i^^^ i^'inii kutjk'irshimali, f^Jbt^ dhruh. 

North-west^ w^V bayab* 

Nosegay, ^SiusjJl^ gul-dasta, ijb turra, ^^ \i U^Hi P^^^ ^^ 

Notch (in a log of wood), \i\x»^ khandana. 
Note, (mark) ^\Li nishan, (letter) i^fi>- chittkl : see Comment. 
Nothing, ^«^ «fP kuchh nahtn, ,^ fuch, (worthless) J^l3 na-chtz. 
Notice, (attention) jy^ ghaur, iZj\iai\ iltifat (f.), (mformation) cXtl 

ittiU^ (f.), (notification) As\ f'tam^j^ Idiahar, (f.) 
Notion, cu^Ujfc) daryaft (f.), j^^ pindar (f.), k/]j ra*e (f.), JUo- 

Novel (tale), ^Lil afsana, ^ k^f^9 ci^^ ioAant, ^\&mi1j dastan. (f.) 
Novelty, JtXesr tajaddud^ ^j>\^ nayapan, i^jj^ y nau^tarzi. 
Nought^ ^j^ .^ kuchh nahtn, ^^fJb hech. 
Novice, jyc\ y ruiwimSz, i^Ocu^ mubtadif i^j\i\ atiafi, aIc^ khanif 

Ur kachcha. 
Nomi, m\ urn, a13 nam. 

Nourishment, (^^^^ paru>ari8h((.), \scghixa((.\ iJL^^jy^ M^ak. (f.) 
Nuisance, J^ J^^J ^iyonkar chtz (f.), Jbj wabal, jpj ^ 15^^ 

chhatt ka patthar. 
Number, JJ^ adad, CJ^l inky (reckoning) ^^^:^ gintt^ j\aJ^ shumar: 


(in gram.) singular, «x>-1j wa^id; dual, <U.iji tamiya ; plur. ^4»:f- 

jaj«*. (f.) 
Numbness, iS^j^ thithrahat (f.), ^_<<<i£^ bS'/nssi, ^^j^ be- 

Numeration, c-)L». hisaby ^^^ gintt, c\smj ti^dad (f.), jUJIi shumar* 
Nuptials, sL) byahj ^j\J^ shadi, .\^ nikah. 
Nursery, AiUc '^ dffl-JMana, (for plants) jy.^ fttAnattr, jf\^^ K'ar. (f.) 


Nursling, ifj\^jJL shtr^khwaraf Jil? U Jb J^J dudh-piya Hfl. 
Nutriment, Nutriture, Vd^ ghiza (f.), (J^j^J^ parwarish. (f.) 
Nymph, \j^^ apchhara (f.), j^ hur (f.), tj^j«^ Aw^J- 
Oaf, Ci^t ii^, j!l uZ/fi, Jh4»*1 ahmaf: : see Idiot, Dunce. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns* * 247 

Oath, i^mj kasam (f.), jc^ ULugand (f.)^ '^^ <SnA (f.), (dakh.) 

Obedience, (ju^cll^l tj[a'at (f.), ^^^ JjuIj tab^dari, \s:UbS\ adhinta. (f.) 
Obeisance, c^IjT ac2a&, (^jj^ komish (f.), aL» salam, iJL^y^J dand- 

wat. (f.) 
Obelisk, jU^ minar, (JUi lat (f.), UjCi^ kandasa. 
Object, (purpose) d^oLc malcsad, ^jo^i gharax (f.) : see Affair, 

Objection, ^yjiA i^Hraz (f.),^ pakar (f.), (argument) ls-'sjc^ ^m/- 

Oblation, jlJ ni^ajsr (f»),j^ nazr (f.), ^^b^ kurban, Jj 6a/. 
Obligation, (contract) t^ «Aart (f.), ^y^ ahd, (duty) (joifarx, Cy»y>- j 

wujub, (favour) ^L.>>1 iA^an, \;f^ nihora. 
Oblivion, ^J^j«\ji faramoshl, ^U>J ni^an, ^j)j^, bUrawat. 
Obloquy, ^^ i^^f f.j;17 ^«^ to*n tashnf^ (f.), |*|jSl ilzam. 
Obsequies, ^^-ii^ J J^V^ <q;Ai2r 5 takftn (f.), ^^ b^ kriyorkarm. 
Observance, (respect) i%]^! ikram, (attention) 43>X« mulahafa. 
Obstacle, ^U manC, JjI>* ^a'//^ jT ar (f.), vju^^i^tj^ mt^ffaAama^. (f.) 
Occasion, (cause) ti-^b 65*15, (need) <-s^jj/^ farira^ (f.), (time) 

K.z^ji fiirfat. (f.) 
Occupation, (business) i»\^ /cam, U JcJb J dhandka : see Calling, Abode. 
Occurrence, l9ti\^ wafcVa, ^jW kadisa^ WL» «aniAa. 
Ode, Jj£ ghazal (f.)> (long) ^rju^^i kasida^ (Hindustani) <ti^j 

Odour, jj 6o or 6u (f.)» ^J^ ganJA (f.), uX^ mahak (f.)^ c^L.* 

«tt6a«. (f.) 
Offal, iLai fuzla^ jySJ{ ajduir (f.), ifJyi. ^^ pas-Khurda. 
Offence, j;m^ toit^ir (f.), 2fUf gunaA : see Injury, Displeasure. 
Offender, jlxjhUfgtcna Agar, jVj^^:^^ takslrwar, ^\^ a$u 


Offering, ^b^ ^r6an, Jj 6aZ, (present) j jJ na§fr, ^ JJb hadiya. 
Office, (service, duty) vju^J^^ lAidmat (f.), afjiy^ tiAda, (room) 4//vf^ 

248 Vocabvlary,^Noun8, 

Offset, Uj^ paudha, \S^ kiilghu (?). 

Offspring, (child) oJj^ farzand (m. f.), (children) jSjt aulad (f.) : 

see Lineage. 
Oil, J-j ^5/, ^jj rau gh an. (scented) JJ^ pkuleL 
Oil-press, j^jf kolhu, j\^ghanu 
Omen, ^j^ shuguUy ^]\AfaL (f.) 

Omission, CJy>- chuk (f.)^ J^ hhul (f.), y^ sahu (f.), ji^ /biifSr. 
Omnipotence, ci^oi kudrat (f.), «jf;fc)l3 kadiri, ^ C>^j3 kudrat^ 

Opium, ^^^1 a/yfin (f.), ^1 a/t«i (f.), jVy rf»"y#- 

Opportunity, \^l^^^ fur^at (f.),^l3 Araftti, c>ij waktj ^ gaun. (f.) 

Oppression, Jia zulm, fP^ sitam,jjg^jaur^ f^*^ ta^addi. 

Oppressor, JU^ ^im,Ji4S,0^sitamgar,j\j\ ^j^ mardumrizar. 

Optative (mood, in grammar), ,^as^ mutamannt. 

Option, jLac^^ iMitiyar, *U- chah (f.), ^j^ marzt, jcm.«j pasand. (f.) 

Opulence, v::-Jj*> dawZat (f.), ^^J^^y tawangart, cu-^m**-* sampat. (f.) 

Oration, aH^ kaldm,jijS taknr (f.), ^^-» su^un, cub 65^. (f.) 

Orb, ar^ Arttra, ^t^^ charkh, ^y^f gardun^ J jL« mandal : see Globe. 

Orbit, 2f^J dffira, (of the eye) JL>^^A>- halka-e-^hashm. 

Order, (command) fS^^ ^uknij^ amr, (method) u^y tartlb (f.): 

see Class, Rank. * 
Ordinance, Cj-l shar% ^^ylS fcanuUf (rite) *«*; ra«m: see Law. 
Orifice, «X^ chKedy Ajy^ mraldiy uJ\C& ^^^^f' '^^^ manfaz. 
Origin, ^\ a§l (f.), jLj hunyad (f), i^J fteM (f-) ^ see Root, Family. 
Ornament, jjij zewavy cs-oj 2?fna^ (f.), jULs singar^ trib^ arffish. (f.) 
Orphan, |i^ yatlm, U^ mi^rAa. 
Orthography, L^a-j^ rasm-i-khatt, U imZ5, ^jj;^^ achhrautl. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 249 

Oecilitition, jiJ dulffoy /l^jfmla'd, kJj^j^ tharthan. 

Outcry^ jyJ^ shor, U^ gkaughd. J^ ghulj aj^ Ji ghul ghapara. 

Outrage, sXiezulni, ^a^ sitam^ ^^jofa (Sdy jj^ j^^^' iO 

Oatside, yftb bahar, t^j9jib\) bahar faraf, ^^f uparyjit^^ iahir. 

Outworks, CjS yb\i bahar kota^ llJ?! artala, i^j^ marhala. 

Owner, ul^U maliky j\j&>^ haJcJc^dar^ jjjlsw khawind. 

Oxymel, ^jy^(.,rt gikanjaKn. (f.) 

Pace, (step) /^jj Iccuiam, (gait) j[iij raftar (f.), ^j ^jf l5^^ chalne 

ktwas . 
Pack, (bundle) IfSS gattha, itiL^j &<»to, ^^ mofA (f.), (of cards) 

*AJsS$ ganjifa^ (of hounds) UiLj RndhoLj <L^ jhufui: see 

Package, Parcel, i^j^ gathri, JJ^ po</t, *i-J basta: see Pack. 
Packcloth, ^^;|S^ ie/Aan, ^U) /i/a/a. 
Packet, (mail) <dy^ J^riUiy i-ff ^ ,^^jlj- cAtf Mi kt thaili : see 

Packhorse, \jyp^ J^ partal ka gkora^yH ^ k^J^*^jij^. barbardarl ka 


• •• 

Packsaddle, ,^f^gaddt, ^SU palan,jSy>^ k/ioglr. 

Padlock, ja kufl, U^ kalafox kulaf, )U tala. 

Pagan, uuw^ u:>o but-parastpjS gabvy {.L^^Z^ muahrikj jl^ kafir. 

Page (of a book) K^^ ^afha^ (servant) ^^^ Ichawass.Jj^^prjilaudar. 

Pagoda, a^J^ but-kada, ^\id[j but-khma. 2t|^ ^AstraQ: see IdoL 

Pain, «^J <fttAA, J; J dard^jfj pir (f.), ^ ranj : see Labour. 

Pains (toil), cu-iac* mi/inat (f.), j<«-» «tf*i, (of labour) sj J^ J dard-i- 

Paint, iSSij Tang^ ^^ baran, ^^j rau gh an, 

A Pair, ^J^^'ora, u:.^ jw/iP, (SS^jvg; (one of a pair) tlyrA'. 
Palanquin, ^^U^aZ&I^ ^l3 naUcu 

Palisade, )^ kathard, ^j^^ kathgkara, ICi^ mutakka (?). 
Pall (for the dead), j*x>- chaddar (f.), ^^ Aq/bn. 
Pamphlet, ^,^ chaupait, ^Uf risala, 

2 K 

250 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Pan (broad vessel) ^ji \jy>- ehaura bartan, (of a gun-lock) JLi 

Pancake, |^U malpffa, \y^ pffa^ ff kuku. 
Pane (of glass), ^xll^ parkala, ^f^ SitmJf shisha-^'chaugosha. 
Pang, «3;J (i::^V^ nihayat dardy cr-^^MiL^ siyasat (f.)^ (of death) f^ 


Panic, j<i>^l^ nagahan dar, vjr^fJ^ haibat ((,), Jyb /lateZ. 

Paper, licl^ kaghax. (jJio^ kirtas. 

Par (equality), (jl^IjL^ musawat (f.), ii^};; barabart; (at par) ^jt^ 

Parable, J-U? tamitll (fc), Jl« moisa/ (f.), c:^\ii;*> drishtant. 
Paradise, ^j^^^^ firdaus^ ^^^ adn, \j:^![,yj bihisht. (f.) 
Paragraph, x^fijara^ Ij^ kifa, ^fji prakaraju 
Parallel, Parallelism, c/j|/ barabart ^ Ur^^ tasawl. 
Paramour, U^Tvo^Ana, ^^U ashik^Jo yar^ J^ jar^ |^J dhagra. 
Parasite, ^^«X«l&y- IdiusJianuidi^ jy^ (j:..^ mufukhor^ JJio tufail. 
Parasol, Ijl^ ^^^ cAAofa chhata,j^>- chluitr, 4,/r/^ chatrh 
Parcel, (bundle) Af^ itiitcAa, i^j^ gathri, (part) Aia>- >ltffa. 
Parchment, J^ raitii;, ^<.i-^ meshi (?). 
Pardon, iiU^ mu^aftj y^ o/u, (./«^T omurjruA. (f.) 
Parent, c^b b U ma (C) or &ap,jjU b jJJ jm2ar or mo^r. 
Parents, c^b U ma iop, (^.o31j walidain^ ^juj pitarau. 
Part, A.a>- ^i;;a, |;asr &a^ra, (JU3b bant, (duty) a\^ Aam. 
Parterre, jlj bj^ sabzorzar, ^^^ chaman. 
Partiality, ^^^JiJ^ taraf-dart, ^J^ A)^ pallorkasln, .^^pachh. 


Participle, (active) J^li f^\ ism-i-fa^il, (present) <)JU- m^\ ism-i-haliyaf 
(past or passive) Jyw^ |^^ ism-irmaful, (past conjunctive) 
^Jl6 t— ijViir.c ,<«^U mofi ma^iuf alaihi. 
Particle, CJj tuk, ifjJ xarra, ^ kan, (in gram.) uJp* ^rf' 
Partition, M«i7 taksim (f.), j;^^ to/riA (f.), (fence) j\ ar. (f.) 
Partner, CSijJ^ shartk, jl^)]^^ bakhradarj ^^^\^sajKi: see Com- 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 25 1 

Partnership, cu^J^ sharakat ({.), lp-L» sajha, i.^jJi» shirkat. (f.) 
Party, (of men) J^ yAo/, *jj^ guroh, (in a suit) Jl^y foTl^ : see 

Pass, Jb gaZi, cl^l^ yAaf. »|^ r5/i (f.) : see Passport. 
Passage, 2[^^«x gtaara, is^j rasta, lL^ sarak (f.) : see Paragraph. 
Passenger, ^L^ musafir, jSib]j rahgir, ^^, batdhi..(m. f.) 
Passport, Lfy^^j 5uVjy j9aru7ana-^-raA£2ar?, ij\^j rawana. 
Paste, ^^ /S7, jW a^ar, (JJ U mapii, ^;--«^ khainir. Li-%J i?^. 
Pasteboard, ^j;-iifc) dafiin (f.), ^Ju^^ ira^Zt. 
Pastime, 4,<f;«»; CL'lS^t aukat-basarl, Cj3^ kautak, jjL^ bahla'd : see 

Pasturage, i^jf^ chart, uiL aiti/, (or Pasture) *«]/>* charagak. (f.) 
Patent, JCi^d «ana^ (f.)', ^U/ farman, ^\j^ parwana. 
Path, Pathway, cl>b 65j (f.), ^ti-^ ra«/a, li/j-* «ara& (f.), *!; rSA. (f.) 
Patriarch, jfj^ \^ ij\^ gharanB ka sardar, CLl^Jj huzurg. 
Patrician, (»J^y«0 shafif, ifJAS- umda, ^IcJU aRshan. 
Patrimony, C^|^ mira.« (f.), ci^ hapauii, cl^l ir/f. 
Patriot^ (^:^<«i»jJ ^^ watan-dosty ^jio^\s^'^'^ hahbu-Jrwatani. 
Patriotism, ^jJ^v.;.'^ habburl-watan, UL«j«3 despaltd. (f.) 
Patron, ^j^ mtera5&i, ^JcuiO dastglr, ^<«^ Aamt, ^^J^tJj kadrdan. 
Patronage, ug/^y^ murabbl-gart, oiU>- ^imayat (f.), (ji;«^ 

parwarish. (f.) 
Pattern, 43^ namiina, 15^^ bangi, (leader) 5^ jj kidwa : see Leader. 
Paucity, ^<4.^ iaml, ^J^S^ gkattl, ^^^ kamti, c:Ji A:t//a^ (f.) 
Pavement, ^J^i farsh, Isr^ kharanja^ ^l£b pata*d. 
Pay, (payment) bl orfa (f.), (wages) *|^acl? tanKbpah (f.), c-JJs> 

la/a&. (f.) 
Peace, ^^ fuiA (f.), l<**^ a*A<i, (ease) aJJT aram, (concord) J-^ 

Peak, (top of a hill) ^^ ckdntt,j^ sikhar, (point) cSy nok. 
Peal, \^l^ thahaka, ^JL^\f^ gargarahat (f.), \C«J^ dkamka. 
Pearl, vJj^ mo^i (m.), ^J dur, /b^ gauhar, ^^ lulu. 

262 Vocabulary Nouns. 

Pe2iSBni,j\y^ ganwaVf ^L*^ kisauy tJ,\SjbJ dihkam. 

Peasantry, \Acj rVaya, ^^^ JUfeJ dihkam log, *-s-^-^ ra'iifat. (f.) 

Pebble, jL^ kankaVj ifjlj^ J^ gol sangreza, \j^j rora. 

Pedestal of a column, ^^ ^ U pd*e Htun, ^^yi«j ^J) bun-i-Mun. 

Pedigree, 4,,.w fuisab, A Ju silsila, (table of) ^U v-^^w no^aft-nama. 

Peel, cu.-.^j po5^, Jl|5- cAAaZ (f,), l<i^ cAAiflfca, Sij ia/cfi. 

Peer, ^ ^ ham-sar, (nobleman) j^\ atntr, c^^^^-U ^a)ii6 : see No- 

Peg, ^^ mekh (f.), ^^ /cA6»<7, l2j^ khunta. 

Pellet, AAJl ghuRla^ ijy S^^y a>^*^ girdgan. 

Pellicle, i^^jhilUy ^\^ chhali. 

Pen, Jli ialam, ^U- Idyimaj (enclosure) ^Wi tAo/a. 

Penalty, |j^ «a2ra (f.), ^1^\J tawan, 0J\h> ^laTid^ ^Uj^ jarlmana. 

Pence (money), j<«*fj paise, ^J3 fa/re : see Penny, 

Pencil, (of lead) ^5*^ salal, (of hair) (^^ mu-^alam. 

Pendant, iji^i aweza, ^^-^^>^ jhumka, ^^^ latkan^ 

Penitence, <uy tauhay ^^z^di nadamat (f.\j\iJG>>J isti g hfar. 

Penny, L^ c^j^^ ^ ^ ^^^} ^^ ^^^ ^^ angrezl paisa. 

Pension, is^^ wazlfa, j^\>'joLgir {JL,\ ^Uj^ bandhan. 

Pentagon, ^j^AJ^t^ mu^ammas, iJ^f^^ J^ shakUupanj-gosJia, 

Penury, ^^^St:J tangdastl, ^^^s^ tihidasiiy ^^mAj^ mujlist. 

People, ikf^ log, ^jo[sA\ ashlMs, JjU. JduilaUk. (f.) 

Perception, t::.^\jjJ daryaft (f.), -^^ JiyA (f.), CJ>;laj basarat. (f.) 

Perch (for birds), (j>«*^ chakkas, \j\ adda. 

Perfection, Jt*^ takmtl (f.), JU^ kamal, (completion) aUJ^ i^mom. 

Perfume, y tr^ Jdiush-bo (f.), ^ a{r, (^L-i «tt&atf. (f.) 

Period, (circuit) j^J daur, (time) ^Uj ^ramana : see Sentence. 

Perjury, ^ ^^jhutht kasam, uj6\^ *y:^j^ saugandri-lcazib. 

Permission, Cli^U-l yazat (f.), i^o\ izn, c:,^»n r» ^ rukh^at. (f.) 

A Permit, L<f^ j^ ^^ »£fca«i fti cAi^f Ai, ^1^ parwana. 

Person, ^^ak^ sfuM^, i^*^^ adml (m.), (in gram.) ^m sJgha: see 
Body, Form. 

Vocabulary Nouns. 253 

Perspicuity, v:l^ i) Iu salasat (f.), cu^^]^ fardhat (f.), k/'U-^ ?c[/57* 
Perturbation, cf.^]^ ghabrdkat (f.), ^^^ tashwiah. (f.) 
Petal, Ju ^ J^ 2)Am/ *i pa«I, v,^^ paftAn. 
Petition, ^jP. arz (f.), ^je- arzt, (^\jj\ ardas. (f.) 
Petitioner, "i^^J ^^ arz-karnewalif i\y>' jl J ddd-khwdh. 
Phantasm, Phantom, J^ J^ namiiJ-t-&i&tMf, Ulf>> chkaya. 
Philology, yar^ uJ^ Ac i/m-i-^arf o na^o. 
Phrase, cyb Ja^ (f.), ^\ i§tilah (f.), c^jU iMra^ (f.) 
Piece, (bit) J^ ^/ra C^ tyJc, ^j\i parcha, (patch) ^sfrjor. 
P^cty, ^<p ta^wa, 4^ b^ bkagta% (to parents) j^<^^ j*^'-*^^*^ 

Pilgrimage, J^W ja^ra (f.), <^^J ziyarat (f.), (to Mecca) -f^ hqjj. 

Pill, ^y goli, *-r^^ ^a46, J^ ^ l^J dat£;a Ai go/i. 

Pillory, ^^i^^j^:^ chambar-i^ardan, ^^LljJ doskdjdia. 

Pimp, IjJ^ bharwa, l:i^ itc/na, ^U^li /cuZtoftan. 

Pimple, (on the ftice) Ul^ muhasa, (on the skin) ^^«i>2i^ phungi. 

Pin, 1^^ «u7, \S}1^ kanidy (peg) <^ me^ : see Peg, Straw. 

Pincers, ^\x^ sandal, „X\uy sangsij ^^^ muchna. 

Pinion, ^J'^^ guddi^j^ P^^fjfj^, bdzu, (quill)^^^byJ^ shahpar. 

Pinnacle, ^jM kolas y ^jy^ kangura, (peak)^;^ sikhar. 

Pipe, (tube) Jj nal, .^ nati, (musical) i^j^^ bdnsri : see Cask. 

Pitch, (resin from the pine) JJ; rdl (f.)>^ i«^- see Degree. 

Pitfall, CJjbJ dahak, ^^j^ chor-garhd. 

Pith,Jjc« fnaghZfj\^ sdr (f.),jJb Air, \t}^ gucR. 

Pity, A>y ra^j t^jt^ dardy ^j^y tars, b J dayd (f.)i (^ gham. 

Place, ^^L>^jagah (f.), ^JL< makdn, (oflSce) xx^^ uhda. 

Plainness, ijjy^ hamtcdrt, (sincerity) ^^*^^ sddagt : see Clearness. 

Plaintiff, i^t^Uy faryddi, »\y>^ o\o ddd-kkepdh, ^X« mudda'i. 

Plait, AJ tah (f.), Jj^ shikan, ^^^ chm (f.), (plaits) us-c^ chu- 

nat. (f.) 
Plan, (scheme) ij^^au^ mansuba, jif^ tajtolz (f.) : see Model. 
Plane (joiner's tool), x^^jj randa, (tree) j\:i>- chandr. 

254 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 


Plank^ iQjkr takhta^ ^^ kmh (f.), |^ patrd, i^JSj pairl. 

Plantation, (place planted) ^lii^Ia^ nalMxstan^ (colony) ^^A^ bastt. 

Plaster, (cement) ^s^j rekhta^ ^ gachj (salve) Jbj^ marham. 

Play, J-^ khel, ^^j\} bazi, J^ kalol (f.), lI^j^ kautuk. 

Plaything, U^i^ khilaund, cu^«x! la^bat (f.), ^^^J^ ftaztcAa. 

Plea, (argument) cs.-cc^ b^jj^t (f.)> (suit) l^J dc^wa : see Excuse* 

Pleading, Jtl^L« mubahasayj^^ takrar (f.), ij>j5^ hujjat, (f.) 

Pleasantness, uu^UeJ latafat (f.)« Pleasantry, ^U« mazakh. 

Pleasure, ^^^ Idvushu ^^»^ aishy ^u>- hazZf (assent) ,^5*^ marzh 

Pledge, jf^giro, d^Jcj bandhak, ^j rihn : see Bail. 

Pleiades, U^ ^uraiya, ^^^j{ parwiriy \i!^^ kachpachiya. 

Plenty, W^l (f^^f* Jl^j toafur, (enough) jy^ bhar-pur. 

Pliers, li4>- chimta, ^\jii^ sandasi, ^^^ cAe'un^a (?)• 

Plot, (^JCJ bandish (f.)» ^^>ai^ man^ba, (of ground) l^ /<2f2- (^0 

Plug, \55 datta, ^^Aff ?/<«»?Ai, ^^^ jA«pt. 

Plume, (ornament) ijo turra, ^^^ kalghi : see Feather. 

Plummet, JybU sahuly J^^ sahdl^ (plumb or lead) ^^^ laikan. 

Plunge, y«^»> dubkt, i^y& gAofgy ,^Jj iurfti (?). 

Plural (number), ^4s>-jam^ (f.), ^^♦»5j-'<Uj-tf stgha-i-jam^. 

Ply, A? toA (f.), ^^^-^ cAiTi (f.), ti^ paraty ^^fj^ shikan. (f.) 

Pocket, L.^.^jeb (f.), L^ AAwa, aIsj^ lAartta, J^jhoR. 

Pod, ^4j^>- chhlmty ^^^ phaUy 1^1^ chhilkaj <-:>^ j>d«^. 

Poem, ^^ ghazal (f.), ^asida, k^y^ masnawu 

Poesy, Poetry, ^^ sAi*/*, |Ja3 napi (f.), ur-^ Aafti^. 

Point, (end) C^ noi (f.)^ (Jl ani, (stop) t^j ^^ nu^ta-e-waif. 

Poison, ybj zahr, (jmJ ^, ^ Mkhy Jjb^Lb halahal, m^ samm. 

Pole, -^S Kf A (f.), ^->^ cAoft, (of the earth) wJai kutb, 

Polestar, i^^rH ^utb, ^UJi w^Vti itu/i-i-^Atma/i : see Guide. 

Police, ^; J ia^ i^j^ shahr kJ zabt rabty ^^y^ kotwali. 

Polish, (.S^^l:JL>- chikndhat (f.), Ji^^ §aifcal, (of manners) j;L^ Mtc/jt. 

Politics, c:..^»>L»i Ac ilm-i'siyasat, \j:.^S\a^ jy<\ umur-i-mamlukat. 

Polygon, <Oj|j]\ j^ J^ shaklrirkasirU'Z'Zawiya. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 256 

Poppy, J^3^ hoknar, (head) ^-s-w^ postj (seed) ,jts^^ Idmhldiash. 

Populace, (j^\ ^^ awammvrn-nasj jy^>%s^ jamhury ^U dmm. 

Population, 4/*^^' Sbadt, y^^^ bastl, iJjy^^^ ma^muru 

Portion, A-a^ f^isfa^ \^^ bakhra. {hxide's) J^^^jakez. 

Portmanteau, ^j^j^ khurjtn^ ^J^ j^^Uj- jamadanu 

Portrait, <UwS» shaKh (f.),^^ taswtr. (f.) 

Position, ..^^jagah (f.), J«^ mahall, e:-JU A5fa^ (f.)> ^J^ toro^i. (f.) 

Possession, uJj>aj tasarrufy J.4^ ama/, i^d3 kabza, Ixm^ ^aiif. 

Possessor, ui3U malik, u^^'s^U ;aAi£, uJ;«<£.^ muta^arrif. 

Post, (stump) l^;*;^ khambka, ^-'^ cAo&, (business) 2rj^ ^A^ia, aI^ 
Acom, (for conveying letters) iL^J dak, (post office) ^ C/U 
dak-ghaVy (man) L^U dakiya, Ju^lS i&a^, cl/b daft. 

Postage, J^«<afi^ ^ cl/tj daA; kd ma^ulj a^ rt<«t<m. 

Posterity, J1 a/ (f.)» «^);^ auZo^f (£.)» cr -^ santat, JuJ no^Z. 

Posture, wj trof* (f.)> '^jy^ §urat (f.), cu-— 13 nishast. (f.) 

Potash, jl|^ Mar, ^JU j-^i-* sajjl mitti. 

Potsherd, \J^ thikra, JlL> rifal. 

Poverty, (,^1 i/7&, ^<Ji^ muflisi, ^\m}St:J tangdastl. 

Pound, (weight) j;j-JwT adh-ser, Jiy rajPZ, (fold) Ujjj fterAa* 

Powder, ,^iJo fttt/mi, (medicine) uJ^ safuf, (gun) <^jb barut. (f.) 

Power, 1^ \i^y tawdna% (authority) jUxri-l ilditiyar: see Force. 

Practice, (use) ^JZ^ mashJp (f.), (custom) cr^jlc acfa^ (f.), Jj-4jc« 

Praise, uJjyc to*rif (f.), (j-»L-» «pa« (f.), UJ 5a«a (f.), -«x« mac2A. (f.) 

Prayer, (request) ^\^\ iltimaSy (to heaven) jUi noma;?, (f.) 

Precaution, i^.«x3l v::^l& akibat-andesht, d^ljJ tadaruk. 

Precedent, ^^ namuna, J^}j|^J dasturu'l-amal. 

Precinct, «\>- Aacifi? (f.), ^Ol^ siwana. 

Precipice, (^jtiUj dhang (f.), {^Jjj^ sring, Sjci kandala. 

Predecessor, ^j;*^ peshtn, J^^ sabif:, a<X&« mukaddam. 

Predestination,^ j£f takdir (f.), c:^y^ sar-natoiskt. (f.) 

Preface, ^^Vd"^ dJhdja, (f.), ^^Uj[fa> dibacha, ^Ji^ muiaddama* 

256 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Preference, f^J tarfih (f.), uu^Jy fauldyat (f.), i/ ^r• sarAl. 

Preferment, i<J^ barhtl, ^Ji tara^kt, lJ^j]/j^ $arfarazi. 

Pregnancy, J-«»>- hamlf ^JS garbh, ^^ys^^ abistavS* 

Prejudice, v,. ^^nwT ta'a§§ub, gr;^ji^ tarafdart : see Detriment* 

Premises (houses, lands), ^^ax« j^ J V^^ amwalri ghair mankula. 

Premium, (on bills, &c.) ^JL^^ beshi, iS^ chota : see Gift, Bounty. 

Preparation, ^^IJ tatyari, \^j^, banawarij s.^.^ tahtyat. (f.) 

Prepuce, t,^^ khalfi, uiU ghalf, ]jf^ chhichra. 

Prerogative, j;»- ^U- khass halc^. 

Presage, J\i fal (f.), ^^ «A«gtfn, vj:J)«> daXalat. (f.) 

Prescience, ^^ Ju^ ghaibHlanu .;yl.*» peshbtnl. 

Prescription, (medical) ^Ls^ nti^AAa, (custom) w^ ro^m: see Custom. 

Presence, 4,^^ Aaxir?, ^jy^>- AwySri, (view) ^^ Jo J ^dar. 

Present, ^JiZjkrbaJd^hish (f.), (in gram.) JU- AaZ: see Gift. 

Preservation, ^lef^ ftocAa'o, v£^U>- fAfazat (f.), |^T «wro. 

Press, (for oil) y^f kolhu, (for bookbinding) AaC& shikanja, (for 

printing) J^ ^ ^^W* cAASpwc ft? kal ; see Crowd. 
Pressure, (weight) (-.^b daft, <--^^ cAop, (urgency) UU} teJcaata. 
Presumption, (arrogance) c5 l^SjN> ^Ai^Aa?, ^\iJ^ gustakhi : see 

Pretence, ^lyj &aAana, ur^c&^U «a^^. (f ) Pretension, l^J dawa. 
Preterimperfect, ^Jj^y^^^ ^^^ mazt istimrart. 
Preterite, ,^^U ma«f, ^bJi«3^ guztzshta. 
Preterperfect, u-^^ 15^^ *w5xi karlb. 
Preterpluperfect, Ou«> ^<-*U mayi ba'fd. 
T?TevmcBJdon, jLoJj^- chakar^makar, ^^^A^ htlorhawala. 
Prey, cl;jS Zuf (f.), C ^f^jcJ^ ghantmat (f.), (game) Ju.^ §aid. (f.) 
Price, J^ moZ, vi^-^ ij-ima^ (f.), lyj ftaAa, (reward) ^1 ajr. 
Prick, Jui^ cAAecf, z^ bindh. Prickle, li}\^ iiran.fa, jU- Miar. 
Pride, ^^-i-i J^ kkudrbint, jyj& ghurur.MiJb\ ahankar. 
Primogeniture, ^^^J^i J^^ awwal paida'ish (f.), ^/^Jji bardn. 
Principal, (head man) j\^j^ sardar, ^j^j rals, (sum) ^<flf^jJ jw*w/** 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 267 

Principle^ J-<»1 a§l (f.), jsj* jar (f.), (tenet) f^\j ra*e (f.) : see Canon. 

Print, ^^^ naksh, ^ItJ TiisAan^ S^W" ^^^4P* 

Prison, ^l^ JuS Icaidrkhana^ <0\fik2JCJ bandi-Muina, ^^<J^j zindan. 

Prisoner, ^^OuS kaid-l, \ybS:j bandhu'd, ji^\ asir. 

Privilege, i^jjli ^yok^ ma^i§u§ fa^ida, fj>^ hakk. 

Privity, (secrecy) Ju^ bhedy (collusion) ^jU sazish. (f.) 

Prize, (reward) j^\ju\ in'dmj (winnings) ^^jh bazi : see Plunder. 

Probe (surgeon's), ^^X* ^ -|^ jarrdh hi sald'ly J-^ iwi/. (f.) 

Problem, JIjmi suwal, dL*^ masla. 

Proboscis, JJ^ ^ 15^'^ AaM? kt mnd, ^^j^ khurfum. 

Procedure, \^j>- tiarakat (f.), JU- cA5/ (f.), dUWc mu*amala. 

Proceeding, Process, a\^ Acam, <^y/ kartut (f.) : see Method, Affair. 

Proclamation, (^jL« manadl, (by drum) \^ybJcj^j dhandkora. 

Procuress, _iS^ izi<nt, <s]2|j dalUla. (f.) Procurer, U^ bharwa. 

Prodigal, ^j:«3^ ^^ ^<i>^J ziyada kharch kame-wala, ^\j\ urffu. 

Produce, Product, Production, J-pW ^a§%l, ^J^}*^ paida'ish. (f.) 

Profit, iJj\ifa*ida, waj naj^, .^S Za&A, ^^ manaji\ 

Progeny, Jj^l au/a^ (f.), J-J nasi (f.), j^-^ ftan«. 

Progress, Progression, ij^j^j^^ ptshrawanij ^Ji taraJcku 

Prohibition, (juoOU^ muimna^at (f.), ^^ man*. 

Project, ^^ai^ man^a,ji^ssr tajwiz (f.) : see Invention. 

Promise, JjS itauZ, ^^^ bax:han^J^J\ ikrar, 2^Ja^ wa^da. 

Promotion, ,Ai^ barhti, ^Jj taralcki^ '^j\^j^ sarfarazl. 

Prong, lS3\^ kantij ^l^ shakh, Jj«j suL 

Pronoun, j^^ zamlr, (demonsL) Xj\J^\m^\ ism-irishara, (interrog.) 

Aly£L«9l ^j^ Jiarf'i-istifhamj (relat.) J^^ ^ ism-i-mausuL 
Pronunciation, IoaIj talaffuzj ^rj^ makhrajj jU-l ucAchdr. 
Proof, ^J^\^j\ azma\ish (f.), (confirmation) CjLjI isbdt, jLJo ciaZiZ. (f.) 
Prop, (J^ tkunt, ^JJi tekan, CS^ ilk (f.), cu^ pu^A^ (f.). 
Property, cs-woU- Idta^siyat (f.), (possession) vli^ wiitt (f.), JU 

Proportion, 2j^^Jj) a?u/a2ra, j1«Xi« mi^ddr, ^)^»^ sudauU. 

2 L 

258 Vocabulary — Nouns. 

Proposal, fjL^\^j*i dar^apast (f.). Proposition, aL^ masla. 
Proprietor, ui3U malikf JJ^l^ Mutwind, l^>^^\^ §altib. 
Prose, j2j na»r (f.), j^i^ aK kalam'irmansur. 
Prosecution, (suit) ^UdS kaxiya, A^«Jki« mukaddama. 
Prosody, {j^^jC- Juc i/m^t-arttx, uli^^* ^«^5». (f.) 
Prospect, (view)^ 9ia«ar (j.\Jaj iV« maddA-namr : see Hope. 
Prosperity, ^V«^ kamyahl, ij^^^s^ ba^awart, CUjlu< sa^adaU (f.) 
Prostitute, L--^ Jmi£?5 (f.), Jlif^ cAA»»a2 (f.), <IU«* Jcdhba. (f.) 
Protection, vju^U&- liirmyat (f.), ^W; ftacAa'd, (^^^ parwarish. (f.) 
Protector, ^l»- Aaml, ^IJbUf ni^aA^&an, IsiU. ^a/h. 
Provender, j[;U- chara^ ii\t^ dana, Ix^ Ze^na, (^\^ ghas. (f.) 
Proverb, Jl« nut/iaZ (f.), f^^^ kahawat (f.), Ji4ll4.p^ xarbu-l- 

Providence, (of God) 4^1 Jew ^udal, ^^jj razzakt : see Foresight. 
Provision, (food) lil^ AAana, \>xc g^too (f.) : see Preparation. 
Proximity, l^^ kurb, ^j^j» nazdlkt, ic^t;^^ seanlpi. 
Prudence, jjk>- hazqT^ tLa>-l ihtiyat (f.), ^-x*> yjLfj peshrbtni. 
Psalm, \j:.^:iJ\ astut (f.), J«^ sIAj paA: sarodfj^j zabur. (f.) 
Puberty, v::^ijb bulughat (f.), v^\^ jawaht, c^^lw^ shabab* 
The Public, jU M^ZA (f.), JjU MaKVA (f.) : see People. 
Publication, jlyl?! i^'^^f (of a book) U^^U^ 15^^^ chhapUe Ahir 

Pulley, ^5^^^ char^t, jf^ pAirAi, Jj^ghimt. 
Pulpit,^^^ mtm&ar, ^I^m^m* mgA&an. 
Pump, ICc^i^tcAaAAa, \^ya^ |MicAfiAa, U:j bamba. 
Pun, {j^S^^jugut (f.), J5j jzrafaZ. (f.) 
Punch, (tlie instrument), ^.v..^^ cAAe»t or (J^:r^ cAAe'oni. 
Puncheon, (instrument) c^\^ cAAop (f.) : see Punch, Cask. 
Puncture, (X:f>^ cAhed, ^jj^ surdkh. 
Punishment, \j>^ saza ({.), c^^ j^ azab, ll^L^ siyasat. (f.) 
Puppet (doll), ^^j/guriya, ^^ putR. 
Purchase, Jj/S^ Idlharld (f.), sLj ^uaA. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 259 

Purchaser, j\*>>^ kharidar^ CJjt^ gahak, i^jiL^ mushtaru (m,) 

Pureness, Purity, ^/b pakl^ 4^*U-9 safa\ laL«y nvrmalta. (f.) 

Purport, ^j.jf^ me^Mj JuoS^ maksad, j\j< murad. (f.) 

Purpose, if j|;\ iro^ia, Ju^i ^ofcJ, ls^ niyo^ (f.)* i^ji- ffharaz. (f.) 

Purse, ^^Lf^ thaUiy i^ klsaj 5^ f itrra, |?y /ora. 

Pursuit, u^<Uiu ta'a^kubf i^jjsi P^i^^^^h ^j raged, (f.) 

Putty, aa^JJ ^vJi i(:a2a'f-» kushta, ^ Ci, ^^ «arc«A (?). 

Pyramid, jU^ manar, jU^ minar, f^J^^ gaw-dum. (f.) 

Quadrangle, iJi»^^ JC«» shaldri^haugosha. 

Quadruped, fi^^ charpaya,jf^ sutur. 

Quality, iju^i.^ 5i/a^ (f.), uJU^^ aM?5/, (rank) iLJ^-c martaba. 


Quantity, j1jki« mikdar, (heap)^;J^ dker^jSi kadr (f.) : see Part. 
Quarantine, ]U- chiUa, (after the death of a relative. Sec.) i^^^\>- 

Quarrel, ^^f^jhagra, l^Ji kaziya^ftj bigar. 
Quarry, ^l^ L^jfi p^ttkar kS kan, ^Kmy\**^ sangistan. 
Quarter, iJV>?* chauthal, (district) ^dsr* nuikalla: see Abode, Pardon. 
Quean, ^llaS kuttamay ifj>'\i fofira, Al^li ^ zan4 fafiisha. 
Query, Question, J\ya suwal ^ji^jl pursish (f.), ^lyia^i^ istifham. 
Quest, -.^ khoj, J^ taUsh {{.\ ^^ij:..^.^^ just-o-ju. (f.) 
Quickness, ^^ shitabl, f^S\^jaldt, ^Si^ chalaki, ^jJ tezi. 
Quietness, Quietude, ^^^ sukun, ^\j\ aram, j\Ji karar. 
Quill, Ji 1^^ par ka kalam^j^^ shahpary (porcupine) \2)\^ kanta. 
Quintessence, ^It^ IdkuVa^a^ ^^l>^ satjj^ sar. (f.) 
Quire, (of paper) is>^ dasta, ^ij btihay (choir) ^^ ffi'lfa. 
Quota, Aid»- his§a, \jb^^ balAra, 4,^^ bihri, if^ bahra. 
Quotation, (jJ^] ifctibaSf ^js^\ istikhraj^ A^\j daMiiia (?). 
Quotient, J^U- hofilj ^J^ mablagh. 

Race, JjJ daur (f.), K^j^^^jy^ daurordattrl : see Breed, Family. 
Rack, (engine of torture) ^U^vO* shikanja : see Anguish. 
Radiance, ^UA sAtt'a* (f.), yj^partau, As^tajaUi, (JL^f^jot. (f.) 
Rafter, \^ barga, j^*^^ ftawdl, ^j»^ Aoro. 

"260 Vocabulary, — Nouns, 

Rag, \jfj>- chithra, bJ latta^ ^^^^ dhajjlf j^^ gudar. 

Rail, Railing, \j^ kaihara, \jp^ kathghara. 

Raillery, l^ thattha, ^y* mazakhf ^^^ thatholi. 

Ramrod, J^ gaz, ^^^i^ tkasnt. 

Rank, (row) j\LS katar (f.), *— a-^ faff {(,), (d^ree) *»-;J datja. 

Ransom, \,^i Juia (f.), ^Jdifidya, (^JcJju nalbandi. 

Rap, Jy^J dhaul (f.), ^^ thappar, 1>-UJ tamacha. 

Rapture, *X>^ t£?q/d, (^d^jasby Jl^ A5Z, i^^«^5»*j wajdan. 

Rascal, xj\j^\j>' haram-zada, Ci3^ mardak : see Base. 

Rate, (price) d^-^ ftliwa^ (f.),jl|^ fiAa'o, ^ nirkh: see Tax. 

Ratio, ^Ijjf andaza,j\^^ bha'oj ^y nirkh, 

Ray, ^ kiran, (f.) Rays of the sun, cU-l ^Au'a . (f.) 

Razor, ^^t ustura, ^j^ ckhura. 

Readiness, c5;ly taiyarij ^/^UT amadagi: see Alacrity. 

Ready money, J^Si n^ilJ, tl^ Tokj^^^ rokar. (f.) 

R^®r, l^^lj plckka, Ul^^a^ pichkwara, ^j[^^ pichhdfi. 

Receipt, (reception) lib j^ana, (for money, &c.) Ju-*^ ro^Tcf. (f.) 

Receptacle, ^;^gAar, ij\^ khana^ -v^ J^S^** (^0 

Reception, ^^^^ giriftagi, J^l a^2, c:-^U yo/V. (f.) 

Recess, ^Sj rawanagi, cs^l^ rihlatj (respite) ^j iDolcfay «i^U 

Recipe (medical prescription), ijBs^ nuskha. 

Reckoning, ^^i^ gintl, c^Li>- hisabfj\^ shumar. 

Recollection, jb yad (f.), ij^^^^b yadawart, JbJu.) «U€2A. (f.) 

Recommendation, (j>:^U«3 nfarish (f.), u^^ talcrib, (f.) 

Record, jiijj daftar^ t^J^f tawartkh. 

Recovery, c:^b jb baz-yafi (f.), (from illness) UA ^At/a. (f.) 

Recreation, Jlyj bahWo^j^ sair (f.) : see Amusement, 

Recruit, (soldier) ^J^^ ^ naya sipaht, (supply) lc^I;^^ sarbarahu 

Redemption, \;li^2f> chhutkara, ^ls^\ istilMa^. 

Redness, ^J>-/^ surkhJ^ ^JS laR^ (pale) ^^ \^ guraH, 

Redress, ii^l-^'*;^^ chara-sazly v:>oU>- kimayat (f.), cli;\jJ tadaruk. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 261 

Reel, (frame) ^^j^\ aieran, (dance) ^U \^ m^ uiol ek kism ka nach. 
Reference, ^^j ruju*, juJ lagSoj <o)U alaka, vj: '^*** J nisbat.if.) 
Reflection, (throwing back) ^^l^^ in'ikas, ^jSe. aks : see Thought. 
Reform, Refonnation, JU^ i§ldh (f.), ^^^s^ tas^ih. (f.) 
Refuge, 2fl:j panah (f.)y ^^ amuy \jJ\ asra, jlU ma2a«. 
Refulgence, ^J^ tajalli, ^j^jalwa^jy nur, iZJ^jot. (f.) 
Refusal, jld inkaVf ^Jtj nafl (m.)f ^^ i&2, wi^ man*. 
Regard, <d3>-Le mulahaza, ^y tawajjuh (f.), (look) Jlai nazar* (f.) 
With Regard to, ^^i:. %,»-.*« t ba-nisbat, ^^ Jk>- AaitAr mH. 
R^on, ulA^ muZA, ^;!^«;j^ sar^zamtn (f.), f^Sil i^/im. 
Register, (book)ji3J daftar, (officer), jl J ScJ^jj^ sar-rishia-dar. 
Regret, (jmy^\ afios, iZ^j^»>' hasrat (f.), ui-oU ta^assuf: see Grief. 
Regulation, aUssJI inrizam, cu^jJcj bandobast : see Law. 
Rein (of a bridle), ^^Ui^ l«an (f.), v«/Ij 65g (f.), ^^J; ra«. (f.) 
Reiteration, j|^ takrar (f.), ^J^^^ dohra'd. 
Relation, (recital) ^^SJ takrir (f.), (affinity) u: .^^-J nisbaU (f.) 
Relative, j^ J ^b^ rishta-dar, i^]/ kardbati, \J^j>^ kfapesh. 
Reliance, jUcx\ i*ri»ia{f, jUxcl i*tibar, \jJi asra, (^\ as. (f.) 

Relief, JJi* madad (f.), ^^^^ pushtl, u-fl-iflk? taJdifif. (f.) 
Religion, ,j[ J (fin, l.^«3^ mag'habj ^jSbJ dharam : see Piety. 
Relish, 2rj^ mozra, d^jJ laz^at (f.), j|^ sawadj y<^f>- khusht. 
Remainder, ^b Jaiti, ^jxcj^ f^^chtt, ^UcJ tatimma^ l5*^^ wiaJaifci. 
Remark, Jy AwuZ, ci^b J5i (f.), (note) ^^ ^AarA (f.) : see Regard, 
Remedy, Sj\^ chara, ^JU tlaj (f.), (^'bl upd% d^ljJ tadaruk. 
Remembrance, Jb yad (f.), c:.'^ cA?^, JbJu) sudh. (f.) 
Remorse, 1j^::^fa^ pachhtawa, (^ymj\ af^s, i^SJj ta^assuf. 
Rencounter, A)\Lc muJ(:abala, jfU U jt^ baraz-i nagah. 
Rennet (for curdling), ^\^ j^^pantr-mayayjJ^ ^U maya-i'Shlr. 
Renown, a\j nam, v^^b nam-wart, d-^;^ §kuhrat. (f.) 
Rent, (split) <JL/1>- chak^j^^ chtr^ (hire) ^jl^ kiraya, ^j>' Jdiiraj* 
Repentance, \^c.^^ pachhtawa, ciU^ pashemanl : see R^ret. 
Repetition, j|^ takrar (f.)o5y^ dSAra'o, (rehearsal) ^^Ij bayan. 

262 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Report, ^;^ Jdmhar (f.), (ramour) 2f^ shuhra, (sound) jljT awaz. (f.) 
Repose, (^J\ aram, ^jt^^ asSish (f.), ^j^^ chain, ,^ sukh. 
Reprehension, Reprimand, (ju^l« malamat {(.), lljljf tarna. 
Reproof, ^^ tf^n^ ^\a2>^ goshmoRf fJLjj ja sar-zanish, (f.) 
Reputation, ^^^U^ ncft-nawf , ^T abru (f.), /•U nam. 
Request, iji^y^-j*^ darldmast (f.), ^Us)\ ilHmas : see Question. 
Research, j^ljf to^o^A (f.), cAjsiJ taftisk (f.), «y|^ fcAo;. 
Residence, j^ gfuxfy aXL^ makam, {J^i^*^^, bad-S-bash. (f.) 
Resin, Rosin, UybJ dhunaj J); raZ (f.), t-^^J dhup. (f.) 
Resolution, Resolve, a.^^^^ Ju^ /bo^^f-i-mzf^ammam. 
Resource, 2[;l»* cAara, JIU tZo;, i^ M tepa'e, ul^j*- fiikmat. (f.) 
Respect, ^Jlbu ta^ztm (f.), aJjO toXrim (f.), c-»j1 odoi: see Re- 
Respite, ^j foafcfa, ^j l^ J::i ita^Z /sa ^J^hfa* ^^ nagha. 
Rest, (^^^ «u^n, (quiet) a^jT aram, j|^ A:arar : see Remainder. 
Result, J^tfW Ao^iZ, zy^ samara : see Consequence. 
Resurrection, yj J C*^ &a*5 o na^Ar ; see Judgment (day o(). 
Retaliation, Revenge, ^l^ut intii^am, ^jd^ twax, idJ badla. 
Reticle, JU- ^yVf^ chKotajaly ^Juff ^y^ chhoG thaili. 
Retinue, ^^jilau (f.), c/^j^ satrari, d^ tuzuk,j^ kor. (f.) 
Retirement, Retreat, c:?^ Iduilwat (f.)^ ^ilxJjlfiw khalwatgah. (f.) 
Revenue, <x«l amacZ (f.), J^^Jl^ madakhil^ ^y^^ maf^uL 
Reverence, aJ^ to*rim (f.), Aj^»^ ihtiram, (bow) |»-Lj ^o^Ztm. (f.) 
Reverse, (opposite side) ^^ pAer, ,jJlc a^ : see Adversity. 
Revolution, (going round) ^jLj^ gardish (f.), (change) tmJisj\ inleUab* 
Reward, y»-l ajr, Sjp^jaza (f.), M^y ijatraft, ^_/Ll^ baM/shish. (f.) 
Rhetoric, (ju-^f^b b Jl^ Ac IZm-i-A:aZam or -bcdaghaL 
Rhyme, iUilS Ao^ya, t-fij J; rarfi/, j^ «a;*, vlCf tuk. (f.) 
Ribaldry, ^^/tf* fiihsh,^^ phakkar, ^^ jiticA. 
Riband, Ribbon, ^ l^ (A!^^ abresham ka fita, j^ kor. (f.) 
Riches, ij:J^J daulat {(.), JU wiaZ, c\:^ JU maZ mata*. (f.) 
Rick, 2^jy ^ikZa, J\5 /aZ, il3 taZa, j^JbJ ^/ier,^lJt ambar. 

Vocabulary — Nouns. 263 

Riddle (enigma), l^^ pakelt, Ua« mu'amma, i^^s>*^ chistan. 


Ridicule, ^^"^^ hansi, ^iCsf^^ maz'haka, ^^^ thatholi. 

Right, ^f^ f^^k, \jRt^ da^iy (hand) UjbJ dahtna : see Property. 

Ring (circle), ^Lal^ halka, ^*^ kundR : see under Apparel, Dress, 

Ringleader, A^^ sar-halka, ^^^j^ sar^guroh : see Chief. 

Ringlet (small ring), ^J^y^^ {^^^ chhop anguthJ : see Curl. 

Riot, jU hulloTj l^^ScJb hangamay ^^yi*.^^ khar-mastu 

Ripeness, ^^vanf; pukhtagif (^ \Cj pakal. : see Perfection. 

Risk, 2r^S3£>- Matra, ^^^jokkim (f.), \s:»>> cAin/a. (f.) 

Jlite, ^j^jJ ^^T 57n.i rfiw, jj:-^j rif (f.), Ji> tort^ (f.), j^j rosiw. 

Rivet, ;^ mekh (f.), (^js^pachrl, i,g;:Jb«x3\ an^fAm (?): see Nail. 

Road, iz^j rasta, KlSy sarak (f.), *]; raA (f.), tiU bat. (f.) 

'^^'^ ^/s^ C^-)* f^g^V (f')y (JJ- ghurrisk. (f.) 

Robbery, t^>>" cAori, t^*3J J duzdi, ,^yi-^*> dakaitl, ijj^]j rahzanl. 

Rocket, (used in battle) ^b bdUf (skyrocket) ^ \^ hawal. 

Rogue, ifti\) /^J>^ haramrzada, i^f^ fkag^ W luchcha. 

Room, (space, place) -^^f^-jagak (f.), a\1< maiam r see Chamber. 

Roost, \j\ addif [j^^ ckakkaSf \^^ bascra^ 

Root, Jsj- jar (f.), Jy« mfiZ, <^ feeAA (f.) : see Origin. 

^pe, ^^^ rassl, ^Jf^ypr fi'ofiy sjj^:> rfort, ^^j rasan. 

Rosary, (of beads) ^^'^ tasbt/i (f.), (rose bed) ^lx»^]b gulabistan. 

Round, (turn) (jl3p gardish (f.), j^ ^ur : see Circle, Ring. 

Row, <-itf |ajf (f.), jlLS *ater (f.),jy *6r (f.), cuJU ^jan^. (f.) 

Rubbish, (i^ kurkut (f.), (iA^U. JdAshaky )J/ ftiira. 

Ruffian, ^1;^ haramij JldO^- chanddl, j£ kutar, j)bj- jallad. 

Ruin, LtfjJ/*^ Idkirabl, ,JUjU j^a'emaZe, ^U? to&aAi . 

Rule, ^ylS /baniin, j^JlcIS Aatda, (sway) Jl»- ^ukm, J^e a ma/. 

Rumour, arlyl afioah (f,), 42.^;^ shuhrat (f.), \^ gap. (f.) 

Rupture, jlj J darar, cly JSJ (f.), (hernia) ^/-»/ JJl and-kos. 

Rust, c2^J ^a«g, j\^j zangar, ^jy^ morcka, J^ mail, (f.) 

Sabre, ^j^ ^A ^Aam^Aer (f.), UJ teghaf aIo**^ §amsam. (f.) 

Sack, (bag) ^fgon (f.), \^jj 65r5, (plunder) ^|^l} c:.*%fvl? takht-taraj. 

264 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Sackcloth, lIM tat, ^X^-c mekhtt, cl;C ^j^^ matamt tat 
Sacrifice, ^^^ kurban, Jj bal, ^J zabh (f.), \jj fida. (f.) 
Saddle, ^^J zin^ ^^ kathi, (pack) ^b palan, (earners) i^\J 

Sadness, ^^<^^ udasl, ^i gh am^ JIU malal, kJj^^ dil-girh 
Safety, ^<cL» satamati^ ^1 amn, ^W' bacKffOy \^j rachchha. (f.) 
Sage (person), ^«>t Ulj dana adml, JU a/im, J^^^yHsrt/, ^ muni. 
Sago, <U1Jj$u «agil-£2ana. (From the pith of the Sagus Rumphii). 
Saint, ^j Ira/t (m.), JhJu^ sidh,j^^ plr, v±^ ghaus. 
Sake, ^dii«)|^ tro^to, c,.^;imi 8abab^Jo\:>' khatir^ (f.), c>*Jb Ae^ or Kctu. 
For the sake, ,<^)^ waste y l,. >^ *..i sabab,Js\s>^ khatir (f.), ^ Zt^e. 
Salad, (English) ^IL «aZato (?). 

Salary, <OlJL saliyana, ^kio^ wazlfa, i\^ss^j tanldmah. (f.) 
Sale, ^'(C bikffo, t^Jj bikti, ^'^^^9/ farokht (f.) : see Auction. 
Salvation, d^lsfT n^a^ (f), Vi::.'^C> muA:^ (f.), t^J^^ rastagarl. 
Salutation, fULa saKim, yj^jf kornish (f.), ^J^ bandagt. 
Sample, ijy^ natnuna, ^fi\i bangt, t^jU madari. 
Sandal, Ixll aZga, b^ kharpa, (pair of sandals) ^^J^ na^lain (?). 
Sandal wood, Sanders, ^ji^^ chandauy Ja:^^ fandaL 
^^P> u^ ^^' ii;^ 5raA, tjb pant (m.), Jfc*^j*> rfiWA. 
Sarsaparilla (Smilax, sp. ?), ^Ut^ ushba, t^/^ mako^e. 
Sash (for dress), Jl>- JaZ, \^ patka, ^^^u-j *cZf, ^J^ baddJa. 
Satiety, ^5*1^1 agkal, ^jH bharti, ijr;--» «eri, t^ lil^ chhakal. 
Satin, ^^pjol a^Zo^, |»1j j)iZam, ^teilj ^a/to, ^L «5<m C)- 
Satire, ^ hajo (f.), |^«V:>#^ bhandauwa, 1 JcJ ninda. (f.) 
Satisfaction, (content) ^A^4f»- J^lsL kHatir-janCi : see Retaliation. 
Saturday,«,» sanlchaVf ^Lm» shamba, ai&ft hafta. 
Sauce, ^^i-il>- chdsfint, ^^^^^S^- chatnt, ^;S=b biryan. 
Saucer, ui/^ tashtart, ijj^ sakort, ^y^ pirich (?). 
Savour, y &o or (u (f ), Jb,^ gandh {(.), ifyo maza, *^\ya sawad. 
Saw, o^]/ karant, ifj\ dra, \J\ ara, j\JLi^ minshar. 
Saying, CL^jlv^ kakawat (f.), J^ wiasaZ (f.), trjb *«^* (^O 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 266 

Scab, ^^ kkuthl, \j^ khasra, tl^ chat (f.), «<«-j papfi. 
Scabbard, aXj niyam, ^^ kdthl, 4^5U ghilaf. ^L« miyan. 
Scaffold, ^J^ machdn, IflfjJ daunja, ^b payath,j\j par. (f.) 
Scale (of a balance), lb palla, \p^ palra, (fish) Ul^ chkilka. 
Scalp, Jj4>- l^ *B?;i^ khoprl ka chamra. 

ScammoDy, \iJy^jL» sakmuniya. (From Convolvulus scammonea.) 
Scandal, u^.^ Sib, ^J dagh, clXJi kalank, ^^bjj badnamu 

Scapula, Vj^JUb ^ ^Jjl^ kandhe Ki haddt. 

** ^ 

Scarceness, Scarcity, j<i4kf kamtl, ^V*^ kamyabl, ^oJ tong? . 

Scarf, ,«^j^ orhnl, ^S.^ ek-patta, *2j •*> do-patta, \)jj\ upamd. 

Scene, «XjJ didfjojd^ madd-i-nazar, (theatre) \j\^ akhard. 

Scent, y bo or bu (f.), ^^b bds, JbX^ gandk (f.), uX^ mahak. (f.) 

Sceptre, ^bi» ^l^f a^a-wAa^I, c: ->:>l3l.«i lidJ kabza-i-saltanat. 

Scheme, (plan) ^Lli) nakska, (contrivance) u::,..^!^!?^ hikmat (f.): see 

School, Cr "^"^"^ makiabt ^jS^ madrasa, ^b^j J dahistdn. 

Science, J^*/m, bjj ftufya (f.)> v,s>.'>^<>^ fiikmat (f.), ^fann. 

Scissors, (j^l^ miib'ax, |«^V kaincht, (J^ kataml. 
Sconce, ^^^XmaJ^ sham^ddn, j^j\^t} dtwdr-gtry y^p^ jkdr : see Head. 
Scope, (space) ^j^f^jagah ({.), JL^^ phaild*d, (aim) t\>asL^ maksad. 
Score, (notch) b^jc^ khanddnd, (line) ii»- khatt: see Account, Twenty. 
Scorn, ]j.y::^\ istihzd, vj:^bb\ ikanat (f.), c:J[^Ia»- ikdrat. (f.) 
Scoundrel, jL^ /curram^a/i:, Ijl^ shuhda, o1 J Jj bad-zdt. 
Scoui^e, \^ Aora, <)^bjl7 ^a^riyana : see Punishment, Affliction. 
Scout, (j^y^ jdsuSf bju^ bhediyd, ij^jb harkdra. 
Scrape, ,^^ tangly ^jtLkL^ kashmakash (f.), iS^^^^s^^ jhanjhat. 
Screen, Skreen, ^ te«I, (,^\^jhdmp, ci^bi /cana^. (f.) 
Screw, .^^pechy t^j^j^ marori: see Nail. 
Scrotum, ^y y^.^^? ^^ pota. 

Scrutiny, fji^ taldsh ((.)y^jijL^s.m>-justoju (f.): see Examination. 
Scuffle, ^^sL^l^v^ khainchd'khainchty bjbJ J^J dhaul-dhappd. 
Sculpture, ^J^^Sj na^kasht, (work of) ^ltJi3 \yb \t}^ khodd hffd naksha. 


266 Vocabulary. — Noutis. 

Scurf, \b bafa (f.), i^J-J p^^pfit yjg^j ^^*> ^^ saHmsa. 

Seal (stamp), j^ muhr (f.), c-?^^ cAASj? (f.), f^ Idiatim. / 

Sealing-wax, ^ lakh, a^ lah. 

Seam, fj:^^ dokht (f.), (j^--» siwauy ^f>' jor, jjt^ darz. 

Season, ^yc matisim, c^^ rit or rw^ (f.), J-^ fasl (f.), i*M aiyam. 

Seat, (chair) ^^ chaulcz, (mansion) ^IC« makany (place) ^lL« moj^am. 

Secession, J\ji*\ f'tizal, ^^ |?AuJ (f,), cJ^^a^l inkiraf. 

Secrecy, lii-l i^/a, 2r J^ parda, (^}*^j\) raz-dari, CL?^ Jdudwat. (f.) 

Secret, jl^ raz^j^ sirr, iX^ ftA^^J, c^b ^jf ^-^^ |7cf Ai Ja^. 


Sect, iZ^\3 zat (f.), ^j^firka, {,z^^\^^ jamVat (f.), ii.^«Vc ma^hab. 
Section, ijiai kifa (vulg. IfaVa), «Xi^ khand^Js^juz, ^^ei fasL (f.) 
Sedition, ^l^Jb hangama, Ijb balwij cf^ fasady lx;J danga. 
Seduction, |^\ ighwiy j^^^ bhatka*Oy ^^j\mJb^J^J badrahsazi. 
Seed, ^i &i;, ^^ tukhniy ^ bihany (sperm) ^j^ nutfa. 
Segment, !jC3 iiJcra, (of a circle) <>- uX[\ l^ s^^-^ cKa^V^ ka ck 

Selection, c^Uail intiMuiby lI^I^ chhant (f.), ^b bachh, (f.) 
Self, c-?l 5p, J^ M^> ij^f 5p-ne, cr^U zat (f.), ^^^^^ no/i. 
Semicircle, aj}*^^ ntmrdaUray ];«^^^. adh-ghera. 
Senna, L»d «ana, ^^jC<1:»j «ana-maA:iS:i. 

Sense, Sensation, ^^^m^ fnssy ^J^^ ausauy JbJui sudh (f.) : see Meaning. 
Sentence (decision), ^fifatwa, S^ hukm, L33 kaza. (f.) 
Sentence (period in writing), A^jumlay x^jilgra. 
Sentiment,^ fikvy i^\ ra*e (f.), ^Jff S^^f^i^j -ff-^ bujh. (f.) 
Sepulchre, jjfgor (f.), jJ kabr (f.)> jlr* wiazrar, <ju^y turbat. (f.) 
Sergeant, (military) j^jjmj daf^dar, (at law) J/^ u^aAI/. 
Series, ^ts^^^ sarishtay i\JL» silsilay j^J daur. 
Sermon, )as,^ tva^z, ^ul9>> khutba^ s^^sC^fOi na§that. (f.) 
Service, v^^y naukariy lj/^ chakarl, cr-^J^ khidmat (f.) 
Set, J^ganjyjf^joryJ^ mely ^Ik /aV/a. 
Seton, «^l; na^A, J^ guL 
Settlement, u.>wJj jciJ band-^basty Jl^l infisal: see Abode. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 267 

Sex, tS^ ling, ^^^ fins (f.), C^lj zat (f.), iZj\9r jat. (f.) 
Shackles, ^;;«ssr^ zanjir (f.), ^^^ Jm, Juj kaid (f.), Jcj &an^. 
Shade, y lf>- cAAant£? (f.), <uU «aya : see Darkness, Shelter. 
Shadow, ^}^j{ parchha'tn (f.), jjJl& afc : see Protection. 
Shaft, (column) ^^y:^ situn, (pit)^^l^ khankkar : see Arrow. 
Sham, (Jl^l:^ banawat (f.), L^ pekhna, '^^^j^^t^* 
Shambles, ^-^ maslalA^ ^ilarLaJ kassah-Utflna. 
Shank, ^^^ pfiillt,ybj narhar, (of a tool) v/*X;^ rfandfi. 
Shape, JCi 5AaAZ (f.), cl>j^ jwra^ (f.), jJaS Itaf. (f.) 
Share, «i^5b ftSnJ, ^Ui»- ^if^a, (plough-) Jl^ pA5Z, Ijy /5r5. 
Shark,^U Aangar, cSAy nihang, 9\j> grah: see Artful. 
Sheet, (cloth)^U- ckadar (f.), (of paper) Jjfard (f.),/^ tffo, is^ 

Shell, i^,>yj «p (f.), ^^ ghonga, t^J^ kauri: see Case, Husk. 
Shelter, ^ V:^ &acAa*u, arlw /laitaA (f.), JfT 5r (f.), ^L saya. 
Shift, Jb ^a/ (f.), ^Ij^ ^Ju>- Jnlorhawala : see Contrivance, Shirt. 
Shillishalli, If^ b I aga^lchha, ^jLj j ^^ pas-o^esh. 
Shot, (shootmg) {.L^i^^phenk (f.), c-^ far J (f.), (bullet) ^ygoli. 
Shroud, ^ji^ kafan, ii\ii lifafa : see Shelter. 
Shutter, (of a window) t^^A^ jhilmily {j^ chilwan, {IS^ chik(j.), 

(of a door)j5j-^ kewar, (matted) ^jS tatti, k^\^ jhamp* 
Sickness, cj[;^rf lnmart,j\j\ dzar, ^joj^ marz, cS^l; ^^S' 
Side, jLyJ paAS, ^^acrU panjar, c-J^t tera/ (f.), (party) <G^ ^irAra ; 

(on this side) l^Jo (^\ is taraf (f.), (on all sides) j^\ ^^^J^- 

charM dr. 
Siege, SjAs^ mufia§ara, j^ gff^ra, i^j^^^J^ girdawarl. 
Sigh, »\ ah (f.), i^lih hd*e (f.), jjJU «a?w (f.), t^^*^ dare gh . 
Sign, LSi^^ ^l lf atamat (f.), ^bJ nt^Aan, (hint) 2[^1&1 ishdra, \aj\ tnia, (f.) 
Signal, vi^l&l ishdrat (f.), j Lp- Jana'o, JJj daZiZ. (f ) 
Signature, laacLo dast-Mk^ttj d'jl^ likhdwat (f.) : see Mark. 
Signification, ^^<i«^ mchrvif -^J\ arth, y^y^*a^ mazmun. 
Silence, _i&^U^ khdmoshlf iZJi ^ sukut (f.), ^^ maun. 

268 Vocabulary* — Nouns* 

Silk, (thread) MtJj)\ abresham^ (cloth) \j^ i^jf^j reshml kapra. 

Silliness, ^^ii^, bkola-^an, fj{j^\ anar-^an, (j\t}\j nadanu 

Similarity, t^ji\;i barabarl, c:^1^Lw« musdtoat (f.) : see Likeness. 

Simile, Ji« nuutal (f.), Jll« misal (f.), .^i^U tashbtp. (f.) 

Simpleton, Jiji!^ za'ffurlrakl, '^jy* murakh. 

Simplicity, ^^^\y nira^y \S^^ sadagt : see Folly. 

Sin, s\:Sgunah, L^\jpap, (^jurm, j^^mom^ nu^siyat. (f.) 

Singer, \ifigawaiya, i^f^jj^ sarodi, ^U gaUn, <ju}^ kaldwanL 

Singing, ^\> gan, Ojj>^ sarod, ^jju iaghannt : see Song. 

A Sink, ^ ly^ panbaha'd, ^U naR, gf;^ J^ patal mukn* 

Sivmer, Jsjb\i^ gunah'gar, ^j>}l po^ph J^*^. badkar, ^^U a§h 

Sir, c-^^U sapib, J^^ miyaA, ^\) Joftu, J>'ji. 

Sire, \i\) baba, Cy^lkrv vlX»^ ^ ^^l&jU |>ad«AaAo^ Aa eft fAiiab. 

Sirius (the star in the great dog), ^5^/*^ shf'ra or shi^ri, 

Simame, c^^ b cylLu&» \^ ^\jp gliaravZ ha khitiA or lai:ab. 

Sirup, ^jJ^ shira, lj^j rub, l^Sj rab (f.), ^j^j \^&^ mttha ras. 

Site, Situation, '^^^jagah (f.), l3\^ thikana: see Condition. 

Sitting, 4:^,„rj nishast (f.), CS^^ baiihak (f.), (^^1^ JuZuf. 

Size,j1ji^ mikdar, JjJ ^/, «xi ^add: see Bulk, Starch. 

Skein, ^^2i^ phenft, ^JJ\ anfi, ^K kalawa, \^J hrchha. 

Skeleton, i,^^;^ thathrly loJ ^idda. 

Sketch, A.lAi nakska, WLj «ancAa, ]^ kharra* 

Skewer, ijf^ stlAcha, ;^ stlA. 

Skill, jfd^ shu'ur, ^f U; ro^al, j:Jb hunar, ^j^ gun. 

Skirt, iJcS kinara, ^1 J cJaman, JjJ zaiL 

Skylight, f^\jJ^ tabdan, ^^JcJbjj raushannlan, \^jj^ jharokha. 

Slander, ui-viy tuhmat (f.), ^jlxiJ bandish (f.), u:^-^ glubat. (f.) 

Slavery, i<«^ ghulamu ^J*^Jl laundi-pana. 

Sleep, JCiJ ninrf (f.), ^->ys- Jdmabf 14 ^4^^ ungkal : see Rest 

Sleeve, ^^^^ii^T £»^tn (f.)> ^^ M!flrlta, IfJ^ hattha. 

Slight, (indignity) u:..^ Moffat {(.), (sleight) if Jux^ shi^bada. 

Sliness, ^^ siyan-paUy ^5 \j:j>- chatural, ,XW aiyargu 

Vocabulary^f^^Nauns. 269 

Slope, JUj dhal, j\j\ utar, t^ji)]/^ mrazeru 
Sloth, ^^:«««M susfZf ,i>\^ iaAi/i, clX^i^ lu^a^ (f.)f (^^ a^aff. 
Slough, (of a snake) ^J^f^ kenchU, (of a sore) |}f ^ chhicAra. 
Slowness, ^j!r.^>>T ahistagly Jjbk> dAiZ (f.), ,ji— » «u«^i, ijy^ 

Sluice, i^/iy^ mti^ri, c^\^jc>>. kkurab : see Drain. 
Slumber, t/'^j^ i2ngAa% iXJ ^«is^ kachchi ntnd: see Sleep. 
A Slut, Jib^ phuhar (f.), ^^jU\ aMfin (f.), JiJ>- churaiL (f.) 
Smallness, ^5^^ff- cAAo^a'i, kS^jy>- kliurdi^ i^J^j^ kuckakh 
Smell, ^y^Angh (f.), (odour) Ji^iX^gandh (f.\^ ho (f.), (^U &a«. (f.) 
Smile, cS^yL^ muskurahat (f.), ^»««J tabasfum. 
Smut, (spot) (1^\^ Aajai, (obscenity), c::.)^!;:;- Idmrafat (f.) 2 see 

Snare, aIj dam^ \^\^^phanday (dakh. also) cJj^ sarak. 
Sneer, iJ^>^ d^ nak-charht, \j^\ istihza, \j'^^ thesra. 
Snout, y^y^ thuthm (?)) (elephant's) JJ^ sund (f.), (crocodile's) 

Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), (Jjjl>- J^ gul-irckandni. (?) 

SnufF, (of a candle) J? guZ, (the powder) ^^li no^ (f.), t/^j-» 

Snuffbox, ^Ij^^U nas^an. 

Soap, (jyU sabuTif a^CICij sukllkarm. 

Sobriety, i^J^j^J^^/ parkezgart, (^j\^^ hoshyari : see Moderation. 

Society, ^1 itn^, vj; ^j>,y^ §uhbat ({.\ {j:^j\L^ musharakat (£) : see 

Soda, j\f^ *A5r, ^^^ ^-ff-» ^ a«J tl^l ei ^wm kt sajjt miifi. 
Softness, ^Jt narmtf laL*^ komalta (f.), cs-^l* muldyamat, (f.) 
Solicitation, u:.«iwy;^J darkkpast (f.)> c^^ ZaZai (f.), vjuc^ min- 

nat. (f.) 
Solitude, v/'^ tanhffty (^ mI iklal: see Desert, Retirement. 
Solution, ^1^ j7igiZa'5, J jDgaZa'o, J^haU: see Explanation. 
Somnolency, ^locJ ntWo^ (f.), ^^jlT m|^ ^tpab-iludagi. 

270 VocahulaTy.^Nouns, 

SoDg, Liu^ gitf ^ gCLTiy Jj^ sarod, iJtJu naghma, {^S^j rag. 
Sorrow, ^^^--il afsos, ^i gh am^ c;^ kurhan (f.) : see Grief. 
Sort, ^ kism (f.), c;-Jl^ ftAan^ (f.), -^ j^araA (f.), ^j,.:^jins. (f.) 
Sound, J^jT 5ir5j2f (f.), ^Ju^ ^arf5 (f.), tiJbT aAaf, ^^V ^5»g. (f.) 
Space, ^jC' arsa, ^li fasila : see Room, Distance, Interval. 
Span, (j:^b halUht ((,\ Iixj bittif c^-^j wyab, jJIj biHnd. (f.) 
Spasm, jCsj-Jaftor, .^\ atnfA (f.), (^^i^^p peckish (f.) : see Twist. 
Spawn, i^JJt ^ ^^jj.^ ^1 ^^^J^ y * machhliyon aur mtndakdn ke 

Speaker, JicL« mutakallimy UjS^ bobcaiya : see President. 
Specimen, <0j^ nami^na, t<^^ bangle i^jf^^ madarl. 
Speck, iU rfflgA. b^^^^ chitkara, (in the eye) ^^ phuli. 
Spectacle, l2«UJ tamashay \^}^ c^^y^ a;ai numSish. 
Spectacles, A^r,.^ chashma, (JL,^4r.^ chashmaky Cm^\tr ainak. (f.) 
Spectre, ^U «aya, c:.^ ft/m^, ^^^kJ* shaifan. 
Speech, ^Ijj ^rtt&an (f.), ^y fcoZi, ^jlai ni/jfi, l^l^J bhakka. (f.) 
Speed, i^jisj- joMif ^jij^ harbafiy ^^ shitabz. 
Spell, ^^i:^ mantarj^iS^^jadu: see Turn, Time. 
Spendthrift, J|jft ura% ^j>- ^^yaifazuUldkirch. 
Sperm^ ^j^ manty cijUj dkat (f.), ^^j %' : see Seed. 
Sphere, see Globe. Spheroid, J^ ^y^, baizawi chtz. 
Spike, (of com) JU bal (f.), iJU^ khosha^ (nail) J^ oieM. 
Spindle, )bo toiZa, \^ taku% -4/^ chamrakh. 
Spinning, JJ f^ charjd^zaniy (-wheel) l^y^ charkha* 
Spirits, (liquors) l^\jJ^ sharab (f.), Jj^Jt^ tez arak: see Mirth. 
Splendour, a^^jahoay iJlJitJ>- chamak (f.), J^jj ^<it<nait. (f.) 
Splinter, ^^ kirck (f.), djCyui ^InX: (f.), ^^ khapach. (f.) 
Spoke (of a wheel), IjT ^ J^ ckakkar ka ara, ^^^ icn?. 
Sponge, JjU I^ m&'a &a<2aZ *^^\ isfa^J" 
Sport, (of the field) jlCi «Aiftar, (play) J-^ ftAeZ, ^j\) bazl. 
Sportsman, i^J^ shikari, jVj^ shikar-baz, t^jri^\ aheri. 
Spot, (speck) 9^(3 £2a£^, (disgrace) l^-^ kdlank: see Place. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 271 

Spout, ^y tonfi, SU-J painala, (pipe) ti^ pot (f.), Ji na/. 

Spread, Jlj^ |)Aai7a*5, akW ihata,j^ gher: see Extension. 

Sprig, Sprout, ti^^phungi, <u^l-» ska^cha, ^\i dad. 

Sprightliness, ^^^ chalakt, j^J^^ achpaUy ls^Lj bashashat. (f.) 

Spur, l5j\^ ianfa, J^l er (f.), JjA^ maAwie^r. (f.) 

Spy» cr^^J^^^> ^*^ bhediycLf j\ijaj nazar-baz: see Scout. 

A Square, «^j^ J^ shaklri tnurabbSj \^^ chauka. 

Squib, (firework) U^-li) patakha^ (lampoon) ys^ hajo. (f.) 

Squire, \jj^ mirza, Siy\j u^^..>.l^ §apib'Zada, XH Za2a. 

A Squirt, f^Jis^pichkari^ iCeJ damkala, \ie^ pichukka. 

A Stab, Jyh AtiZ (f.), il^^ bhonk (f.), la^^ ftAoTicAa. 

Stability, ^]^ iarar, ^\ji^ thahra'o, \jj<j^ ustuwari. 

Stack, J6 tal({.), JC^ atal it),J^\ ambar, tiiy tuda. 

Staff, Lac Sfa, _fS ZaMi, v^J^ chhafi, M^ cAo&. (f.) 

Stage, ^^ manzil (f.), (platform) j^Uro mackdn, (of a playhouse) 

2ilf IaUJ tamasha-gaR (f.), Ijl^l akhard: see Station. 
Stain, ^J da gA cXJ Hft (f.), d^ kalank, (on cloth) LjbJ dhappa. 
Staircase, 4,^ j^airl, f^^,^/ nardbdn, ^j^^ pharki. (?) 
Stake, (post) l^t^ khambhd, Ul3^ AAunla : see Peg, Wager. 
Stalk, ^tj ddti. If J daMa, (JUJ^ J^n.^ ^ tana, ,^«^b ddnthJ. 
Stall, (for a beast) ^l^ than, 4ji^ tawela, \fj\ drgard (?): see Bench, 

Stallion, jJL» «anff, Uj^ l^ ^^ bij kd ghord. 
Stammerer, Stutterer, \iAijb hakldhd, ,A^ luknaii. 
Stamp, (instrument) l^^^^ chhdpd, j^ muhr (f.) : see Print. 
Stanchion, IjJ J dandd, ^^ thunt, ^^^^ teknt, ^J^ pushtl. 
Stand, (8top)Jld atkd*o, (station) UlC^ thikdnd: see Cessation. 
Stanza, diJoS kit'a,j^ shi^r c:^ bait (f.), Ij^J dohd. 
Starch, is>^\^ nishdsta, v.,Ji^ kalap, |^U mat£7a. (f.) 
A Start, (l^y>' chaunk (f.), CS^se^ jhijhak (f.), d^ bharak. (f.) 
State, c::^U" Aa/a^ (f.)^ ^j u^a?* (f*)> (J^ a/am; see Kingdom. 
State, Stateliness, j]Jb^ tamtardk, ^Jji^ dabdaba. 

272 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Station, ^^jagah (f.), UlC^ thikana: see Place, Degree. 
Statue, f^jy« murat ((.\ Oi but, 1Lj>^ putla, d.^^ la*bat, (f.) 
Stature, Si kadd, Jj J dll, cu^U kamat (f.), ^f Jul andaza. 
Statute, ^j^yli /canun, 2r*xcl3 ita'u^a, ^^T 5't«, c::-^^ r?^. (f.) 
Stay, j\S fiAa'o, ^^^fc)^ budJobash (f.), cAd^; rahSish. (f.) 
Stead, "j^^jdgah (f.), ^J^ maulcif', (instead) ^jo^ wa;;. 
Steak, 10 ^£AA:a, ^^y lioCi. Stealth, t^j^ cAori, t^fc>;*> duzdi. 
Steed, \j^ gkora, b Jb badpa, JCn^i^ samand. 
Steeple, jU^ mtnar, 4iS lat (f.), ly^iy^*^ rfAawraAra. (t) 
Stem, (stalk, twig) j\J^ shakh^ i^^^"^ danthi: see Lineage. 
Step, ftSi kadam, jt,^ gam, (^Si*^ dig, (of stairs, &c.) ^j^f^ alrht. 
Sterility, c^']/-«j^ usaral, lS)}^ kallardl, ^j-fs?^ banjkpan. 
Stick, ^^ Za/cfi, _^ lathi, W a«a, M^ cAoi, IjJJ danda. 
Stigma, 4^4) <2ag^, ^.f^ chink, (disgrace) uJh\\^ kalank, ^J>' harf. 
Stillness, (JLj^ks mnsani, ^JL^J^^^ sunahat (f.) : see Silence. 
Sting, (JjCi J dank, dJuU dank, ^jLj nish, l^(;^ chabhak. (f.) 
Stink, ^ Jj badrbu (f.), JbJCi^J durgandh (f.), ^^^ ta*affun. 
Stipulation, i?^ «Aar/. (S-)fj^j^ Jy kauUkarar : see Contract. 
Stirrup, c-->l(; rtAaft (f.). Stirrup-leather, J|^fc><— >V[; rikalhdd'aL 
Stitch, 1^3 1j ^ania, ,^^L! lapkl, (pain) (JXJ fa«ai. (f.) 
Stock, ^ tona, (gun-) xx^ kunda, (capital) Jj^ irafiZ: see Cattle. 
Stocks, (wooden) JJb har, -^l^ kath, (funds) ^^^ vV?Oi lT^ \J^^ ^^^-^ 

kist puiifi men. 
Stop, Stoppage, jlC\ atkffo, C^\ atak (f.), (in gram.) a|^ fturam. 
Store, (plenty) jJbJ dher, (house) ^^j>- khazana, j\s^) bhandar. 
Story, (tale) A^ ^wa^ d\^ kahani, (floor) J^ manziL (f.) 
Stove, ^ji^ gul'Jduin,jf2 tanur, ^^^^^ ««g^*A*ij^ ^A^.**- 
Stranger, k-^U-^ gh air-janib, 15— i«^ par-desi : see Guest. 
Strap, (of leather) Jl^J dS'aZ, (razor) ^y^ chamotl: see Belt 


Stratum, c^y parat, ^ tah (f.), J^t toiai^, jLt jfifta/c. 
Straw (stalk of grain), ^JU naU, Jl^ puwal (f.), iSoJ fin/:a. 
Streak,^ izAir (f.),j^ lahar(f.), ^ MSfltt: see Line, Ray. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns* 273 

Stream (current), ]j\jbJ dhara (f.)> j^*^ dhar (f.) : see Brook^ River. 
Street, te-^ kucha, ds^j rasta^ ^ gait, di}- sarak. (f.) 
Strength, jjj zor, Jj bal, iZ^^ l^uwat ((.), ^y^*^ mazbuG. 
Stress, j^J zor, ti^ ckot (f.), -fj^^ bojh,j\j bar. 
Stretch, p^^ pkaila% jL^^ pasar, .L^ Aosa'o: see Effort. 
Strife, l2bj tonlS, )f^ jhagra, ^y>^y tdka-tokl: see Dispute, 
String, t^j»j dori, ^j rassi, ^y^ sutii, Jjj^j-jeZ: see Row. 
Strip (slip), ^ys^J dhajjJ, ^f^ katran, \Jj tukra, ^ paifi. 
Stripe, (line)^.-i3 laklr (f.), (from a whip) jU mar (f.), \j^ kora. 
Stroke, jU mdr (f.), ^j>- chot (f.), vl^^ thonk: see Stripe. 
Strophe, ^Ik« matla% i^ IdVa : see Stanza. 
Structiire,^^;;.«jK; to*/wir (f.), (edifice) CL^Ufi imarat (f.) : see Shape. 
Stubble, Jbj\i badh (f.), ^J^y^ thuntht, i^j\j nart. 
Stucco, c^ t^ lJ^ chime ka Up. 
Stud, (of horses) J^ khaiL \f b paga, (button) J^ phuL 
Study, ^lix« mutala'a, (room) ^U> ^lk« mutala'a'khana. 
Stuff, 2rjU madda, (ji^-^j rakhtf uiUi i^mo^A : see Nonsense. 
Stump, i^<>^^ tundt, jjy f un^f, '^^ t^unf A : see Root, 
Stupefaction, ^J^y^^ be-hosht, \i>-jyo murchka, (f.) 
Stupidity, y^f^, be-xoulcufi, «j:^U>- Iiima^at (f.), ^^JCl^ kundi. 
Style, (idiom) ,.JUa^^ istilah (f.), C^Uc ibarat (f.) : see Title. 
Subject, cu^-cj ra'aiyat (f.), U-^ j)ar;a (f.), (matter) 2f jU madda. 
Sublimity, c::-^ jL& ulwiyat (f.), i^«X^ bulandi : see Height. 
Submission, iJ^y^ /^^ uzr-khpaht*^ bj dabffo: see Obedience. 
Subpcsna, l<^^ l,..\V> talab-chitiht, ^UmL» safina. 
Subscription, (signing) kssXirfJ dastkhatU (sum) ^Ja>- chanda. 
Subsidy, i^Jms^ ^ ^j rifpai ti mo^clgart ; see Aid, Tribute. 
Subsistence, (being) ,^A»»ib Ao^^I, cy»*j toujud: see Livelihood. 
Substance, (being) <<^«»^ Ao^^i, (matter) >jLo madda: see Body, 

Substantive, a^I t«m, /»l} nam. 

Substitute, ^lL« Jlii ka'im-makam, ^^ tii^as/ : see Agent. 

2 n" 

274 f^ocabulary. — Nouns. 

SubtilenesSy Subtilty, (fiDeness) ,XtjV io^rlkl : see Artifice. 
Subtraction, ^jJb haran, ^j toas^ (f.), t^^ ghaiSl. 
Subversion, c- ^1 Uj\ inkilab, \Jjijjlj zerzabarif ^Ujb pa*cmali. 
Suburbs, j^ ^\t^ damanrshahar, \j^^ j^y^ shahar^pura. 
Success, ^V«^ kamyabt, ^j) irJ^ uhda'baral. 
Succession, JJuJ tasabuly ^ ifi lagSo : see Series, Lineage. 
Successor, ^^jJLj\p^ jornishin, a\S^ J\i kaUm-makam. 
Sucker (a shoot), JJ^ kompal,^/ karil: see Sprig. 
Suckling, \J\^jJ^ shtr^khwara, ^af^ \i JbJjJ dudh ka bachcha. 
Sufficiency, ui-oU^ kifayat (f.), j^^ umfur, Uj wafa. (f.) 
Suffocation, ^^^^iJl u'-t^ hahsu-n-nafas, ^^^mu^aJ dambastagi. 
Sugar, jC& shakar (f.), (coarse) ^J^ cAtni, Jj\^ khm^t (candy) 

i^jo^ mip^f «xi kajui, (-cane) ^^\ ukh (f.), Uj gonna, \j\si 

Suggestion, a^S ishara, i^j\^ ^jL^f gosh-guzari, JU falafi. (f.) 
Suicide, ^JL^ J^ khud-kushu (murderer) ^jS J^ Jdntd-kush. 
Suit, 1?^ j5r5> (retinue) c:.>.4. 1f> - fuiskmat (f.) : see Lawsuit. 
Suitor, (plaintiff) ^^^ ob dadMrnah, (wooer) fjJi^c ojshik. 
Sum, ^Ju« mablagh* ^ hilUy (summary) J^ic^ mujmaL 
Summerhouse, sJj^iij^, barah-dari, "iScj bangla. 
Summit, f^w^^ phunang (f.), ^^ chonti, ^ itteZ/a. 
Summons, i..;.JJ9 toZaft (f.), t<€^ ^.JJ? /aZa&*cAt<tAt. 
Sunbeam, ^ji kiran, yji ^ c-^lruT aftab ka partau. 
Sunday, j^l itwar,jLjj rabibar, i^iJ^ d^l ek shamba. 
Sunrise, c^^T c^ tulu^ aftab, 4/J^ ^y» Araj-udau 
Sunset, <»^1ciT <-r^j^ ghurub4raftabj (ju^^ Tjy^ surc^-ast. 
Superficies, ^^ $ath (f.), {j:^.^4l^ wu8*at (f.) : see Outside. 
Superfluity, «3Uj)l izdiyad, (JLJfJii kasrat (f.), c:^^^ ^aAtc/a^. (f.) 
Superintendence, iJ\^ nigahbaniy ^J^/j^ sarbarahu 
Superiority, ,^Jji bartari, fj:^j» faulktyat (f.), ^j ^Jj bara*i. 
Superstition, Jtb ^J dtn-irbaiil, (^^»anl ta^asfub. 
Supplement, ^-J tatimma. 

Vocabulary. ^^Nouns. 276 

Supplication, U«3cu«if UtifTd (f.), Uj du'a (f.)i i^j)) zari. 

Supply, ^j^^ bkarttf Jk-y rasad (f.), *x<T fimarf (f.), u^^ ftA5p. (f.) 

Support, (prop) irjla^l istada, (sustenance) ^^^ parwarUh. (f.) 

Supposition, J^\ af/caZ (f.), ^^Uj ^tya«, 2f^\jjl andaza. 

Suppression, J bj daba'd,j U|»- cAAipa'o. 

Suppuration, j l^ pa*a o, vi^UMO pibiyahat (f.), ^^ »««;. 

Supremacy, C^^^ awwaliyat (f.), i^J^*^^^ sardarh 

Surcingle, ^^^ j^e.^i, vsA^^ ^V bala-tcmg, ^ Jj^ kotal-kash. 

Surety, (bondsman) ^U samin, (bail) ^J^\^ zamint. 

Surf, Sui^e, js^^ ^yt mauj-Ubalir^ Hj^hb hilkora,j^ Idhar. (f.) 

Surface, J^ sath (f.), ^j ru, jJbb bahar, LLj Jwa/.. (f.) 

Surfeit, {^jipr^ ajlran, i^];^} aphral, ^^ Ur kachal. 

Sultry (practice of a surgeon), ^^[^f-jarrahu 

Surplus, ^^^ bishl, y^ji barhfi^ \J^ backtt, J-pli faziL 

Surprise, ^^«^ ta^ajjubj ^ly^^ naga/uint, iJSj\>'\ achanak. 

Survey, >\m nigaA (f.), Jaj nazar (f.) : see Mensuration. 

Surveyor, j^U nazir, ^\jb^ nigahban : see Land-surveyor. 

Surviver, irjjU«j pasmandaf 9*yjj ^^ pas-zinda. 

Suspense, Ip^j ^ uJ ^ M^cf/* ^ ^^'^ (f.)i libOJJ dubdha. (f.) 

Suspension, /lilsl latkyd^ (putting off) ^^y^ ^ \^JD ^^ chand 

roz kt IVe mazuli. 
Sustenance, jU^ aAar,(il^^^ khurak (f.), \Lp^jika: see Livelihood. 
Suture, (seam) ^^^ «ttoan, 4^ jL» «iZa7, (of the skull) j|^Jor. 
Swain, ^J^ jawan, ^^ l5^^>?" chaupam jawan, vl^U nayak. 
Swamp, J Jk] J daUlal (f.), ^^^^..JbJ dhamn (f.), ^^^^ jj^ cAor jsramtn. 
Swarm, Jc»|9»- jhund, Jjo^ mandalf a\^Oj\ izdifiAm. 
^yf^jf ci,^yl^ pukumat (f.), 4/*V^;* farman-rawal. 
Sweepings, ^j^jharan (f.), ujW? ^«^5^^» (0> U/ Ai^rS. 
Sweetheart, ]^Ij pyara (m.), <)3yjc« mashuia (f.) : see Beloved. 
Swell, Ji^ phulan^ {*fr^ sujan, (wave) -^^ maty (f.^ : see Increase. 
Swiftness, i^jJ tezl, 4^Ji>- jaldt, ^^^ chalaktj lW^ shitabu 
Swindler, w«jy aJJ;^ mardum-fareb, jLcj butte-baz. 


276 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Swing, /i^ jhula'o, (machiae) "i^^jhida, lyicJb hindola. 

Swoop, iJL'^^^ jhapaU (f.) Swop, Hj^ Ifjl adlorbadta. 

Sycophant, (^Jl<1&^ khushamadi^ j^ (Ja>* chughuUkhor* 

Syllable ^jts^ hijc^ ^uK kalima. Syllabus, see Abstract. 

Syllogism, ^UdS kazii/a, (^\^ kiy^f s^^*^ dalil. (f.) 

Symbol, ^^lli nishan, o..^^^ alamat (f.), j|^ murad, (f.) 

Symmetry, ^^ Ararina, ^"Ourf ^ttdattZi, J^JjI ancfo^r. 

Sympathy, 4^J^»XiJb ham-dardiy ,^jy^^ diUsozt^ cuJ; rikkat. (f.) 

Symphony, ^X:Jb\AJb ham-ihangz, uJ[;|^Ujb Aam-atra^ri. 

Symptom, <>::.^xllr> alamat (f.), ^lU nisAan,y^ axar. 

Syncope, see Fainting ; (in gram.) (^iS>J» ^ ^ lafz In tarkhlm. 

Synopsis, ^aJei^ mukhtasar^ J-***^ tnujmal, JUp-^ ymaL 

Syntax, ^a^ nalijo. (f.) Syringe, ijj^^ pichkarz, 2Ua^ Iiukna. 

System, ^ylS Aranun, ariXelS jta'trfa, (plan) Ali3 naksha. 

Tablet, -jj ZawA (f.), ^JSb ^afi, t/^ takhtl. 

Tackle, Tackling, /i\sfr\^ sar-^njam, \Sj^ J-^ ktl-kanta. 

Tactics, ^^J^^^ fannrirjangj ,^*\j\ i^S^ saffiral. 

Taffeta, ^\j tafta, ^^ bjJ daryal, ^^j*>* che'dti. 

Tail, /•J dum (f.), -fsr^ punchh (f.), JU3 J dumbaL 

Taint, (stain) ijfc> rfagA, (corruption) ^ &u (f.), (jJj bos. (f.) 

Tale, ^U^ ^i§§(ty l^^ kahdnl, Ji) nait/ (f.) : see Calculation. 

Talebearer, jj^ J*>- chughuUkhorj jUx ghammaz. 

Talent, (weight) ^^j^ tra^rw, (coin) <iiL» sikka : see Faculty. 

Talisman, ^^JJ^ fi/»m, (or plur.) CL>U«it tilismat. 

Talk, CL>b 65^ (f.), ls^vj^- c::>b fta^cAi^ (f.), JlJ^ bolchal. (f.) 

Talkativeness, ^^ ^ » jb j ziyada-gol, ^^^jU-j bisyar-gol. 

Tallow, t<^>j- charbi, ^ piA (f.) : see Fat. 

Talness, 4^ Li] ^ Ji X:acf(i /:? lambal, 4^ lo^l uncAa7. 

Talon, ^\j nafchun^ ^ nuk, ^ nakh, Ascu panja. 

Tambourin, i^js^ Idtanjai^^ diLt }flf>l^9 '^^ dopA. 

Tameness, t^ m hilal, y^j Tamt, c5 |^y |?05ti>a7. 

Tap, (-i^ V l^^P (^Oy Li^ thapkt, d^ <AoA, ];jC3 laXrora. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 277 

Tape,^ kor (f.), iA^p^^tth (coarse) jly niwar. (f.) 

Tapestry, ^jS J"^^ diwar-gtrij jjsr*^ mushajjar. 

Tar, f^\^ kitratif J]j ral, (sailor) ^^ khalisu 

Tardiness, ^JL^ ahistagt, ,A>«^ sustl, i^.<^ dcrl : see Sloth. 

Tare, (weed) (jJ^ghas, (in weight) lyfcJ dkariy CL>]^ dharat. 

Tariff (Arab, (..ijju), lUUf^y \^ Jj*^'-^^ mahpil ka nirkkrnama. 

Tartness, ^e^Jj turshij c/TjJ^ kapval, i/^i^ iokhtu 

Task, ^^^ wayfaj ^\^ Aam, ^^ chukauta, ci^ /ru^. 

Tassel, L^JAaifta, Ujc^pAuncfna, ^^^ latkan. 

Taste, »|^ moza, c:.) J3 /o^sa^ (f.), j;^! J zaUlca : see Discernment. 

Tattler, ^^ bakkl, ^^ gappt, \iyy, barbariya. 

Tavern, ^U- c^j^J^ sharab-khana^ ij\»'jSi^^ bhanger-khana. 

Taunt, ^jtdfi tan, ^Jj *i«L tana-zanl, L^^ miAna, J:^? faiwr. (f.) 

Tautology, j]^ takrar (f.),^^ takarrur. 

Tax, fjyos^ fnahpil, J-^U- ^o^Z, -^|^ khirajj ^\^ ]duizana. 

Teacher, aU^ mu^allim, t>L-»^ tt^^acf, 4^^*x« mudarris, ^^ guru. 

Teacup, ^U ^^ U- cha ktpiyaU. Teapot, ^c\>^ cKa-dan. 

Te Deum, c:-^-> l^ '^j^^ *5 i*^* 

Telescope, ^,jy^ dur-htti. 

Teller, 'i\^i^ kahnewala, f^y^^ ginnewala : see Accountant. 

Telltale, j^^ JJ^ chughvl-ldior^ \f^ lutra, ^^J^ nesh-zan. 

Temerity, ,^^ jclj bt-tadbtri, jy^ tahawwur. 

Temper, Temperament, ^\yc mizajj \.:!l^j^ sarisht. (f.) 

Temperance, Temperateness, J^JclcI Ctidal, JJbj)^ parhez. 

Temperature, Jl Jci^^ f tidal, ^^ j ^^/^ iijJU- /ialat-i-sardl o 

Temptation, L^^^jty targhtb (f.), \y^\ ighwa, ^\a^\ imtihan. 
Tenacity, cZ-^LU Uulasahat (f.), lSaI^La^- chipchipakaL (f.) 
Tendency, Jm^ matZ, ^^PL« mailan^ 3'^^^ jhukffo. 

Tenderness, ^^^^ narmi, \sLc^ komalta (f.) : see Pity. 


Tendril, (JL^y^ sut, i^j resha, (of a vine) J«j bel, ^^^ beR. 
Tenour, (continuity) ^J^^j rawish (f.), (drift) ^^fahwa: see Meaning. 

278 Vocabulary. ^^Nouns. 

Tense, ^L^ slgha^ Jju AiUf zamana-UjtL Past, i/^^ mazi. Pre- 


sent, JU- hal. Future, J;Su.,^ mt^toit&iZ. 
Tension, Tenseness, j'L^ kasffd^y^v khicha% ^\J ^an. (f.) 
Tenter (hook), 4,g5^^ ankn, ,^5—^^ anfa?. 

Term, (limit) Jk>. /Uidd (f.), (word) c^b 65^ (f.) : see Condition. 
Termination, J^»^^a<2£f,^t alchir^ (of a word) ^^\ uJj»> harf-irokhin. 
Terrace, ^^y^ chabutara or ^^ cAat(/ara, aU bam. 
Terrour, (ju^UhJ dahshat (f.\ J^b Aau/, jJ ^r, uJ^ khauf. 
Testament (last will), ^U l:uw>j wa§iyat-nama. 
Testicle, ^l::>- M^ya, <U^ khvsya^ ^\ and, tjLj j^i/ra. 
Testimony, ci-^Jly^ shahadat (f.), ^)^ gaicahi : see Evidence. 
Tether, ^^y^ garantoan, l^ pagha or w paga. 
Tetter, J^ J <2a^, 4^ l3 J cfina7, ]y\^ii^ .i^nhu'a, ^Ju^ «e/i. 
Text, ^^ main, J-^' c^Z (f.), J^ fwtiZ, ^ly rat£7an. 
Texture, ^^^, binawat (f.), cl^Uj bunawat^ ^Ui i^mo^A. 
Thanks, Thanksgiving, ^^ shukr, LgfJ^ JJ^ shukr-guzdri* 
Thaw,j*)l^ \^ ^\} pale ka pighla'o, i.^^*^ gudakht. (f.) 
Theft, i^jy>- chorl, (^<3)J duzdi, ^J>^ taskariy ^j>^ sari^a. 
Theme, \JLi^ mansha,jXa^ masdai-y ^^..^sc^ mab'pas. 
Theorem, ^d«»« masla, (^Ui /nya«. Theory, (jJ<3 kit/as. 
Thermometer, <JT uio^ l^ jj\j t^Oj^a ^^ gamn sardi napne ka 

ek ala. 
Thicket, ^^^^^ jhund, "^y^ f.^ jhar^huf (f.), J^jango/. 
Thickness, ^/^y motal, \,£^\^ kanafat (f.), ^\ai$ gunjam. 
Thimble, ^li^l angtishtana, c->y top. 
Thinness, ^^^ tunukl, i^'hj patla*i, l:uJj riklcat. (f.) 
Thong, ij^mJ tasma, jLs sallu : see Strap. 
Thorax, ^ pefi, uJ^L cif^s-^ ^ ^\^ chhaG Ai MtM taraf. 
Thorn, (tree) l::^^jO l^ ^\^ kante ka daraJdU^ (spine) \!3\^ Aania. 
Thought, b^^ socAna, JU£»^ khiyal^ A;1jjJ\ andesha, ^^^Jb^i dhyan. 
Thraldom, Thrall, ^^ ghulaml* ij:^iJ^ ubudlyaL (f.) 
Thread, CJy.* sut, i^\j tag, ^sJ^j rishta, \dUj dhaga* 

Vocabulary — Nouns, 279 

Threat, Threatening, ILubJ dhamka, «V.(X^ tahdid (f*), ^j zijr. 
Thrift, ^j^jj^ juzrasif i<>^ (S kam-kharchl^ \j\^ toSra. 
Throe, J^O \ji bara dardfj^J^ plr (f.), 9j JjJ dard-i-zih* 
Throne, Ls-^as T * talAt, ^\^xu^ singhasan, jcm«^ masnad* (f.) 
Throng, J^ ftAtr (f.), ^^1 ambohy f\>^iij\ izdi^m, /^ys^ hujum. 
Thrust, \sfy4 khoncha, J^ ;AeZ (f.), UjbO dhakka, (1^^ &Aonft. (f.) 
Thump, Thumping, lC«JbJ dharnkd, CS^^JbJ dhamak (f.) : see Stroke. 
Thursday, CP]^te«i^Jtfm'a-ra< (f«)> ^La^cbpayy-^Aamia. 
Ticket, ^^^ ehiithtj k^^^ ftp (f«), JjjI:l.m> dastawez. (f.) 
Tide, (flood) jl^Jawar (f.), ♦U mad^Z (f.), (ebb) \^l^ bhatha,jy^ 

Tidmgs, jU^t akhbar^ Ljjcm^i sandesa, j^\a^ samachar. 
Tier (row), *? tah (f.), ti^ ;iara^ *£J» tabka,J!^ katar. 
Tightness, c/'^ kasa% Jlj tongi, ^^-..^^ chusti,^ \ij tanffo. 
Tillage, iy\s,>- jutal, ^^J^ hahoaHf ^j^r^ kisnal. 
Tiller, Ul^ halwdhaf l3^ Jjh hal^ota, ^^\J ^ ^uUkt-ran. 
Timber, ^^ lakft, ^^ Jji golkathy "i^^ gola, <-->>>- cAoft. (f.) 
Timbrel, ^JJ? j[a£2a, (4^ J^ mirdang, ^^^ pakAatoqj. (f.) 
Timidity, uJj»- khauf^ c:^.«l*2bJ dahshat (f.), itf^^/sr (»^ kam-jur^aS. 
Tincture, (extract) J[;fi arai^, (colour) ts/ij rawg, (quaUty) f^gun. 
Tinder, ^isL^ so^ta^ J^ gic Z, ^dx^ shitla. 
Tinsel, lyJ ^jy^^ ifijj raunak^be-nur o bahd, \x«r^ j^gj<^g^* 
Tint, tSi^^ rang. Tip, ^-i «r, cliy nok, (blow) c-^ ^^^Ojb AaZX:7 

Tippler, ^L^ chiisakkarf^^^ plwakkar, yji]j^ sharabl. 

Tissue (brocade), vj:^^ zar-baft, ]tjb badla^ ;^U} tomami. 

Titbit, y JuJS ZttArmo-^or, Vi£^«^ nimat (f.), ^\y ^^/^ cAari luzuwla. 

Tithe, ^Lj dasanSyjt^ ushr^ u.CjbO dahyak. 

Titillation, ,^^J^ gudgtuitf %4j^j^ sursuru 

Title, c^U>^ Mt.{aft, v^ Zai^aA or (plur.) ^^l^)t al^ab. 

Titlepi^e, ^U^ ^ar-nama, ^j)/nj sar-Ulauh, 

Tittle, (dot, particle,) XjO zarra^ K:J tinka^ yj^ «ar-MiS. 

280 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Tittletattle, l^^JlJ gapshap (f.), tJ^^ bak-jhak. (f.) 

Toast (dried bread), ^^j ^jib ,Jo--» stnkt hVi roil. 

Tobacco, j^Lij tambakUf Li^ bheba, Jl^ gaL 

Toil, LZ^UfF* mi/inat (f.), c^ybJ Jy dauf-dhup (f.\ J^ toA^i/. (f.) 

Token, ^VU nislian, \sj paid, (memorial) 4^^^^ yadgaru 

Tolerance, Toleration, li^I J^ bardasht (f.); y^<^ <aAa'o. 

Toll, ^b 65;, ^j^^ chungi, t^j\*^]j ralidari,^ kar. 

Tomb,^ itaftr (f.), jy g^ (f-)> i^r**^ malcbara : see Grave. 

Ton or Tun, -^j^ ^^^} ^ i:;^ u*^ *-r^y kartb its man ka ek wazn. 

Tone, jly awaz (f.), 'j^ §ada (f.), ^ iaA/a, ^ lai. (f.) 

ft "* 

Tongs, ii\iJ c::.-^J dast-panah, ^IJc^ sandast. (f.) 

Tonsil, v^^ Aratfrl, ^J^ gilft* Tonsure, (J(3Cn« mtindan. 

Tool, jVffJ^ kathyar, u:^ t aZa^ (f.) ; (tools) j^J^\ auzar. 

Top, j»^ sir, {,l^>iii^^ phunang (f.),j^sikkar, ^JS^y>- ckonfi. 

Toper, j^j^ piwakkar, ^^«^ dabusu (?) : see Tippler. 

Topic, ^y^*a^ maxmun, ^yo mauztj^, Uj^ mudda'a. 

Topography, ^Lj l^ ^^^ jaghwi ka bayan. 

Torch, Jbtli^ masWal (f.)) ^sJii foRta, j^\o damar. 

Torment, %:u**A^ siydsat (f.), c::^j1 aztyat (f.), ^ «3j^ i?a. (f.) 

Torpor, ^p^^asy beJiarakati, ^L^'j la-jumbishl, ^-i^ «cni. 

Torrent, 1jUJ|J-j» ^car dhdra, J-«» «ai7 (f.), Jy ^or, 4^jj na<27. 

Torture, ^^ ,J<»* jan-kant, i^s^^ ufcubat (f.), ^^ suti. 

Total, Totality, A^jumla, ^4^jam{(.), ^yc moth, (f.) 

Touchhole, f]^^ ^ ^^^^j '"'o^njak kS, surakh. 

Touchstone, ^^ XEa^au f t, Cjis^ mi/iakk (f.), jUc i^f •- - sang-i-ayar. 

Tour,jijt> ebur, j^ «air (f.), ^J:^^ gardish (f.), (turn) ^^^b ftart. 

Tow, Ll^\i b ^L |yb \j\^ jhara hu*a san or pat. 

Toym,j^ shahr, ^Ua3 ka§ba, 5«xL balda, y b gaihi?. 

Townsman, 4,5;^ ^Jb Aam-«AaAri, (of a town) i^j^ shahri. 

Toy, b^l^ khilauna, ^^^b hazicha,j^ ^ ^^/^ khelne kJ chtz. 

Trace, Track, uLC! Vik (f.), b illiJ naksha-i-pa : see Footpath. 

Tract, (of country) y^^^.^up^jamb, ^ly nawah (f.) : see Country, Treatise. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 281 

TradCi gr/)«>^ $audagarl, f^j^aer tifarat (t.\ J^L^j ptsha. 
Tradition, vju^|<^ riwayat (f.)> ^^^^ tadawulyC^jS^- ^adis. 
Traffic, jLj baipdr, C-^^W* tijarat (f.), i^g^J^ saudagari. 
Train, aO cittm (f .)> (skirt), ^^b daman : see Retinue, Series. 
Traitor, jbU J daghabaz. /^^ uX«J namoA-^ram, ^L baghu 
Trammel, JJlf>- chhand (f.), JU- LJ lambajal, I'^J^ paikafha. 
Trance, 4:;L» 8akta,j\jhi^ lauhar, (ecstaey) ap^j tra;£2: see Swoon. 
Tranquillity, j^l^T arom, ^/*3j-iT ankb^i, J^ ftaZ (f.), ^j;-.^-]; ra/iat. (f .) 
Transaction, J jj|^\^ Aaro&ar, ^U« mu'amala, <^y^ kartut. (f.) 
Transfer, Jif^ tafnoil (f.), |JlJ to^nm. (f.) 
Transformation, J^ b ci>;^ Ji*^ tahdihirfurat or shakL 
Transgression, jjUf^ tqjaumZfjy tor, t^dju ta*addi: see Fault. 
Transit, Transition, jti>dgtqfar,^j«^ u6ur, J^^JuJ tabdiL({.) 
Translation, (version) ^Uc^-y tarjuma, (removal) JUiJt tnditaZ. 
Transmigration, ^ICe Ji) naiZ-i-maian : see Metempsychosis. 
Transparency, ^^ skaffaft, _3U barraki : see Clearness. 

Transportation, Jl&il intil^al: see Banishment. 

Trap, J^ kal(f.),JjJ (labkar({.\ ^\^janti: see Snare. 

Trappings, ^^-i^l;^ arSisJien (f. plur.), (dress) ^^^;^^ pot&aAren. 

(f. plur.) 
Trash, J^jf\ agar bagar, (unripe fruit) J^ Ur kachchaphaL 

Travail, see Throe. Travel, ^^Ami safar, c^U.^ mt£«afara^. (f.) 

Treacle, jfgttr, \jy>- ehota^ l^\j rob (f.), jby riryaA. 

Tread, i%iXj kadam, ^j aJJ i^a^fam-aranl, JU- cAal. 

Treason, 15^]/^^ ruanak^haram, C^^Uj bagkawat. (f.) 

Treasure, *i\^ IduizaTiay^^ rbkar (f.), aj^-a^-O i^khtra. 

Treasury, ^]^ k^ana, ^jt^ lAazina, ^^^*s6^ ganjina. 

A Treat, cu^Li «£y5/a^(f.), ciyj da*uwKf.),jlij-:r je'onar. (f.) 

Treatise, ^Lf risala, ^^ar^ nusklyzy ^«U nama, L^\ii kitab. (f.) 

Treatment, c1^\.j auluk^ (JJLm dhang, ^JU^ mu'alaja. 

Treaty, J^Wo mtt'amaZa, ^^ f uiA (f.), jl^ Jy j^auZ-i^arar. 

Tremour, ,^<^ kapkapi, ^Jij) larzish (f.), <Llx; rasha. 


282 Voadmlary. — Nouns. 

Trencher, yj^ kathautt, (trench-digger) j>4^*\^ khal'gar. 
Trepan (saw used in surgery), ifU mah (?), 2rU^ parmah (?), dj^^ 

pecha. (?) 
Trepidation, \^j^j^ tharthartj xjj larza, JU J^J dol-maL (?) 
Trespass, \k^ Jdyita(S>)yjf^ taistr({.), if\iS gunah. 
Tresses, uJlj zulf{{.)y J^^ kakul((.), y^gesu, sjj*> babrz. 
Tret (an allowance), c-J^^^ uparlap, ^^iacL^ so^tam, ^ \^^pha*d. 
Trial, ^^UjT azmffish (f.), ^^Ucul imtihan, (legal) JmAokt tahlpllc, (f.) 
Triangle, CJ.^*^ ia^^ khati-Umusallas^ ^J^^ i^ si-gosha. 
Tribunal, lsJIj^ adalat(t.), <uCsl'^ mahkama, JCw».^ meuno^. (f.) 
Tribute, --b 65;, -rl/^ Mki^^Jf^ kar, ,^;ii^ii-fj peshkash. 
Trice, Jd&s^ 2aAjfa, a J dfam ; in a trice, i<^(^-'^p- jAop «e. 
Trick, A^ htla, Jy Jl5 <aZ-<oZ, c^^ /arefi, ^^ /ann, J^ ckhal. 
Trident, J^-y rirwiZor ^mfi/. 

Trifle, J-j-U na-chtz, oU ^^J^ f Aori 65^ (f.), ^ AccA. 
Trifler,jU j<|^ makkhj-marf IjybC tapatd'iya, Ji xjyb harzorkar. 
Trigger, J^ ^ Jj*^ handuk kl kaL 
Trill, J^ lahra, k4j^j^ l5^ JV S^'^^'^r A? tharthari. 
Trimming, jy j;J zarA-6arit, JfarXf?- jAaZ5/AaZ. (f.) 
Trinity, CJ^ ^^t^i! (f*)> ^^ ^^^ ^lisf^alasa. 
Trinket, jjjj zewar, ^c^ gahna, \sj pattd : see Toy. 
Trio, iS/j; tlX>^ l^ ^\^^^Lc w^sf^^j^ tin shakh^ milkar gane ka Ik rag. 
Trip, (stumble) clilf lachak (f.),J^ thokar (f.) : see Enw, Journey. 
Tripe, i^\ an^n, c>jT 5n^ (f.), irjjj rodii, ti-o 6af, Ltg^j\ 5;Aan. 
Triplet, ciJd^ musalUzs, s^:^ Jjy tripad-kcMt. 
Trituration, ti^l^ ragraAaf (f.),j*Ljpwa'5. 
Triumph, ^jai, ^fdth (f.), i^j^j^ftrozl, ^^^^ ^jairgtt. 
Trollop, ybj^^phuhar({.\ Jjy Mrfff, ,^^ gcgff. 
Trope, jlsr* majaz, c:.^Lft liara^ (f.), <oli^ kinaya : see Metaphor. 
Trophy, ^^lU \^ Ju /a^A Aa nishan, iji^^-AUix. gh ammat. (f.) 
Tropic, (of Cancer) ^J^j»^ lasL Muitt-i'Saratan, (of Capricorn) i^Jk».lflfl>. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 283 

Trot, ^J dulki, i}\^J/ kukar-chal (f.) 

Trouble, -^J dukh, lM^ taknf({.), jj^Ju^ ta^dt'' (f.), ^^\ t^a. (f.) 

Trowel, ^J kamJ, ^\^ thapl, ^Js^j^ surma^. (?) 

Truce, J^ ^ ^ ^JU; i^j^ tkore zamane ke liye §ulh. (f.) 

^^ ^ " _ 

Truck, i^j^J^*^ L<!-v{ -^y^ ckKote-pahiyl-dar girl : see Barter. 
Trail, ^^Jtj JU malrzadi, ^^jf^ kasbt, \y^^ beswa. (f.) 
Trumpery, k^y^jj^ harza-gol, yj €\ agar bagar: see Trash. 
Trumpeter, 1\jj\efrjJj naftr-bajatiewala, ^^^^ kamacHt. 
Truncheon, J^^W afari-hukiUf Mj^ chob (f.) : see Club. 
Trunk, (of a tree) ^ tana, db^^jarwat : see Box, Proboscis. 
Truss, (of straw, &c.) S^ pula, (bandage) ,Jb patfi, \!Sjm! langota. 
Trustee, jbij^Ut ama7iat-dar, ^^\ amtn,j\ti^ti simmordar. 
Truth, -^ sachf ,^^\j rastl, jJup §%dk: see Fidelity. > 
Tube, ^Jj nalt, ^^ chongt, ^ nai (f.), ^j^ pAuAn?. 
Tuesday, jSLc mangal, ^L:w& A^i sirshamba, 

4t ^^ It 

Tuft, ifj9 turra, J^:>^ jhund, ^ guchchha, (of hair) l^j^ chonda. 

Tug, ,^^u^ khainch (f«), Jut atncA (f.), ^^/Ll^ kashish, (f.) 

Tuition, ^Libl^ ttigaAiani, ^^^jj parwarish (f.) : see Instruction. 

Tumbler, lU naj, jUl^ kala-baz, (pigeon) ijj^ghirnl : see Glass. 

Tumult, Ijl^ bakhera, <ulMJh hangama, <-r^T o^Aoft. 

Tune, jl^T atra^r (f.), Jj^ sardd^j^ sur, ^ lai (f.), ^j^Ij ^5n. (f.) 

Tunic, ^^ choR, ijj kurta, (membrane) ,^^ khalfi. 

Tunnel, (funnel) ^^ chonga, (shaft) }i\j rah (f.) : see Chimney* 

Turbulence, l^SJo^oS izfirabf ^X^ khalhalif grjbw J dangabazt. 

Turn, j^ pJier, jUi^ ghumffo, (tour) ,^fj bari: see Change. 

Turncoat, jU^tef zamanorsaz. 

Turning, Ji^dfgardish (f.)ol^ jpAira'o, (of a river) cl^V bank. 

Turpentine, ^o nJc^ ganda biroza. 

Turret, ^j^ kangura,j\i^ manor, ^^J, i^^f ^j^ kalas. 

Tusk, j^ bzr (f.), i^\^ kkang, (-^l3 naft. 

Twang, j\^ tankar ({.),j^ tankor (f.), ^ tan, kj^j^)^ harhafi. 

Tweezers, ^^ muchna, \i«»- cAimla. 

284 Vocabulary. — Nouns* 


Twig, ^^ his, i^j^ chhafz, ^ paUd, ^U dati. 


Twine, l5^^ ^^/I, ^twij resman, (twist) <^^ pecA : see Twist. 

Twinkle, Twinkling (of the eye), ^S*^^ ^ -|^t ankh Uijhapki* 

Twist, (wrench) .^\ ainth (f.), j^j^ maror (f.) : see Bend, Thread. 

Type, (mark) c:.>%<«llf. alamat (f.), (emblem) J-^l^J tamslL (£) 

Types (printer's), uJj;^ ^^ v^W* ^^^^i'^ *^ ^wrtif. 

Typographer,^lfj- chhapegar. Typography, i^/\j^ ckhapagarl 

Tyranny, ^zulm,j^jabr,jJ^S9\ andheryj^ kahr. 

Tyrant, JU^ zalimfJi4Sm» sitamgoTy JSM^ jafakar. 

Tyro, Jj^Ty nau-ai»02r, i/Jcu« mubtadt, (m.) . 

Vacancy, Vacuity, ^!^ Miulu, lU. Ma^> ^^j^^f* ^^ Leisure. 

Vacation, <iLcU na gha ^ j:j\ antar, J-W ^a*fiZ. (f.) 

Vagabond, Vagrant, (^V^f atefto^A, jr^ly awara, le luchcha. 

Valerian, (.^^jfl JU-ja/iaAri, ^;5^Uj ii//i-25fan. 

Valet, jUcL«tVsL lAidmatgar. 

Valetudinarian, ^jo/i^J\j daHmtt-Umaraty ^^jsiia^jananHrogi. 

Validity, i^J^j^ ustuwariy aU^asLiI istihkamy ,^^^Jb yakinu 

Valley, Vale, ^^\af nichariy ^^ghatty i^J^^ wadiy *jJ dara. 

Valuation, jjL's^^ ^^^ ta^n4-^]^imat ((.)y /K)\ anka*d. 

Value, iJUv4-3 ^ima^(f.), J^ moZ, l^ &aAa,jiXS Aracfr. (f.) 

Valve, ^yJ kewaf, ^J^ kkirkiy (lid) ^i^JbJ dhaknu 

Van, Vanguard, j^^^ mtiAra, J^l^ AaratraZ, i^^^ agafi* 

Vane (weathercock), Uj jb badnumay \ybj^ pharahra. 

Vanity, ^^ \^y^ jhutha faf^r, ^^fi^ sKekht : see Boast* 

Variance, uJ^l&s^l if^lafy ^jSx, aksy Ju^ zidd (f.), cf^^ jpAtif . (f.) 

Variation, J^^tXJ to&^Z(f.), (of the compass) (juJy/iirita^. (f. ?) 

Variety, ^fark, (mixture) ^J^ rj^ffl^f^ ba-tearah: see Sort 

Varnish, u.^ luky ^^j raughan. ^ lakh. 

Vase, iJ^ ilJ^ ^ ^^jy^ l/ iJl/i bartan kt §urat ka ek na^sha. 

Vassal, ^^15^ asami, j^ Jjcly tabfdar. Vassalage, ,<olc j^Klamt. 

Vat, fj0%>- hauz. ^iflcu^. chahbachcha. 

Udder, \yl lewa, ^ Maw, v^^-^ khtrt. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 285 

VegetatioDy l/^^ l/ ci-'UlJ nabatat let haUdagij y^ namu. 
Vehemencey ll^jJ^ ahiddat (f.), ^^y>i^ saMUt, j^j zor, i^JcJ tundi. 


Vehicle, tSj^y^ sawariy fjJ^*yj>J^, barbardarl, k^j^ markab. " 

Velocity, ^^ tezif i^tAp^jaldi, 4^J0j tundi, ^j^j^j tezrawt. 

Velvet, J«4^sro makhmaL 

Veneration, /^^ ikram, ^^ijj takrtm (f.), U-^ puja. (£•) 

Venom, ^ zahr, w samm, ^ bikh, ^^^^ bis. 

Vent, Ju^ chhed, ^j^ sura/ah, ^jJi) nikas : see Breath, Sale. 

Ventilator, ^^l^t^b badkash. Ventilation, ^J^ti\) badkashu 

Venture, sjia»^ khatra, a>^^ jokhim {(.), (of goods) ^Jj\j tanda. 

Veracity, ^^^\) rdsti, ^^ Ur» sacha% ijuJ\»X-» §addkat (f.) 

Verb, JmJCL Verdict, Jj^asr ^a;ti;t2r (f.), JLaiJ^ infisal. 

Verdigrise, ^\xlj zangar, i/]/J pitral, (dakh.) Jlij zangaL 

Verdure, i^jf^ sabzt, ijjjt^j^ sarsabzt, u^'l/fe hara^u 

Verge, (border) c^ lab, ij^ kinara, (wand) fcj^f>* chhafi. 

Vermicelli, i^xS ,^^^ kirmanz gandum, ^Ji,^ sewa^n* (f.) 

Vermilion, uJ^^cJi shingarf,^} tngur. 

Verse (line), ft^.iA« misra, u^ *tift, J^ ^ard (f.) : see Poesy. 

Versification, g^^iaij tanaSm (f.), ^^J^ ^\i kafiyorbandi. 

Vertebra, xj> ^ JJb dand ki girih, (of the neck) Ujw« manka. 

Vespers, aI& jUj namazArshamy l^£sL» sanjha((.), \JLC' isha. 

Vessel, (cask) ^^pipa, (bason) ^Jtji bartan, (ship) j\^jahaz: see 

Vestige, U JJLsi naksha^a, ^^ISJ nwAan, \&» pata. 
Veteran, ^rJ^T ^^J^ jang-azmuda, ^^ V)t^ j>«rana ripaAi. 
Vexation, ^J^ ta§df (f.), \ Jjf t$a (f.), ^J dvftA. 
Ugliness, iJjj^ bad-^uratt, ^^^ 4.s^j 2ruA^-rtt'f • 
Vibration, yjj^j^ tharthari, d^ p/iarak (f.), ^JL:,,^^ jumbish. (f.) 
Vice, c^Jj &a^, i^*]^ frteral, c,ii>r aid, ti^^j^ ^Aararaf. (f.) 
Vicinity, j\^ J aicar, v^};S ^ara5a^(f.), (^jj^/^a^M. 
Vicissitude, J^s-yy naiefta^ (f.), i^b bdri, j'b da'o ; see Change. 
Victim, ^U^ /bttrftan, Jj bal,j^\^ nichhawar. (f.) 

286 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Victor, yjU? Safir^ ^Jlc ghalih, jj^ J<3 fat^-mand, 4^U gkazt. 

View, *l6 nigSA (f.),jlai naafar(f.), uS^J^^mAf (f.): see Prospect 

Vigilance, ^^j^^, bedart, %^}^j^ khabardarJ^ t^J^j^ Koshyaru 

Vigour, j|i|j zoTj d-Jjj Icuwat (f.), J^ ia/, cr^lt Gt,1cai. (f.) 

Villa, 4b &ag^, \2U batika, ib ^Ic^ khana-bagh. 

Villain, irj|^|^ ^aram^ro^fa, J^J^ chandal, ^VT^ p4/'' (™') 

Villany, ^^^}<\^ haramzadagt, j^UUj dgyASftagi. 

Vine, d/U ^aA, us-^t^J ^JJ^^ angtir Aa darajdu. 

Vinegar, 4!^ «irAa, J^ ^aZ/. Vineyard, ^Js^j^S angSristan. 

Vintage, J-oi ^ j^^ angur ktfasl. 

Violation, :^ fasJAf ^j!r«m(A $hikastagiff£j bigar. 

Violence, jjij zdr,j^ toryj^p^jabr, L-,..,Jr ghazab. ^sitam. 

Virginity, i^L^JCj bdkarat ({>),J^ bikr (f.), ^/j-4j*> doshizagi. 

Virility, i/*>;^ mardi, cs^^s^ rajulxyat (f.), *\i iSA. (f.) 

Virtue, ^XJ nei? , i^ ^Lj nifto't, (efficacy) ^ gi«n : see Effect. 

Virulence, xz^tyji shiddat {(.), ^jJ^f^ saMUi, v^JcJ tundt. 

Visage, jj rS, i^jj r6'e,jljjJ didar, iSjj^^ chihra. 

Visibility, Visibleness,^^ mhur, i^j^^^y^ namudari. 

Vision, c^'^rj lnna*i, (phantom) JU»- kMyal: see Sight. 

Visit, cl;U1« muH^at ((.), JL^r^jfj &A«Rf (f.)> )/>^ mujra. 

Visitant, Visitor, \^*\/b:^ mtgrffi, b^b^ bhentu)aiya. 

Vitality, i^j^/^ r)j Tu/i^rwarl, i^ljJU- jaiwEri, 

Vitriol, Jj ;8r5;, (blue) \jy tutiya. 

Vivacity, ^*^if*iij zinda^iR, 4^jU J J diZ^iSrfi. 

Vixen, ^]^ laranJu. Vizard, Vizor, c->^ ^^ mttftA-cAAajp. 

Umbrella, l7lf^ chhata^ji^ chhattar, i^js^ chhatrt. 

Umpire, <JJU saZf/r, ^V V^;^ darmiyant, u^Jiav^i munfif. 

Unanimity, jliJl ittifaJcj ^t}CJ^\ ek-diU, ^il^\ ek-tnant. 

Unbelief, ^^jUatl ^^ he-i^tikadi, ji^ kufry J W^ ilhad> 

Unbeliever, dSojc^jfi^ ghair mutal^yji^ kafir: see Infidel. 

Uncertainty, f^jj^j*^ ghair muiarrari, Cjj^ shakk. 

Uncleanness, ^J\l^ na-pata, tS^^ na-saft : see Filth. 

Vocabulary. — Noung. 287 

Unction, ^U malish (f.X c/^J^y telmaJSl: see Ointment. 

Underling, \£,^^^jij zer-dasty \^ tahlffa, ^^^ talihru. 

Undertaker, (of fanerals) j^J^^ kafanrdoz : see Contractor. 

lJndeTwood,^^^jhar,J^\^jhankar, Lff^jhafi. 

Underwriter, )t^,<^ html-wala. 

Undulation,^ lahar (f.), \j^ Aitoraf j/^ hiUwr. (f.) 

Uneasiness, i<^j\yjt bharaml, t^^ letabl, ^A^:^, becliaint. 

Unevenness, i^j\y4Jb\j norhamwariy i^l/ft^J nashebfarazh 

Unfavourableness, 4^^|/«^ n&muradi. Unfitness, ^^'^;U norrasal. 

Ungracefulness, ^^Uj[JU norzeba'ish. (f.) 

Ungratefulness, ^LmjU na>njpa«t. 

Uniformity, d\^\ ek^sam, Uj>^ji barabarif J^ mel. 

Union, ^li yaganagi,Jy>^jor, ^J^i^^ paiwastagu 

Unit, 1^ tG yakSlf do^\ ahad, \^\ iMa. 

Unitarian, 4X>-^ muwa^id, lL^^^^jJL^ munkir-i'taslts. 

Unity, o£Jk^\ a^adiyat (f.), i^^tij yaktal^^^yaganagi. 

Universality, t.::-^ kuUiyat (f.), c:.>^y^ ^g vmumtya^. (f.) 

Universe, jjlc Siim, c^l^^ AoV;i5^ (f.), CJ^y ^»-BA. 

Unkindness, ciV/v*^ na-miAr&an?, %^j^^, bhrnViri. 

Unlawfulness, ^^yi^j^jU na-durusti, ^J\^^^ be-insafi* 

Unreasonableness, ^jAA^U na-nu^kuli. 

Unruliness, ^Jta-^ ^ be-xtibti, l/«^l<? be-lagamt, l/^^ magra'i. 

Unseasonableness, ^^j ^ b&wakti, ^\x:Jb ^ fte-Aangam! , 

Unsteadiness, 4^\;S ^ bl-JcaraTiy ^\Jj ^^ be^abaii. 

Unsuccessfulness, ^^^.^2 ^ ^^ bhmakfodi, ^L«l^ no-iamyaii. 

Untruth, i^];l^ no-ro^^f , «fjp- J^Sf A • see Falsehood. 

Unwortluness, 4jf;J^ ^P bc-kadri, i^'Lrf^U M^asal. 

Vocabulary, A^viy farhang (f.), (j:^ lughat (f.), )IU aU nam-maC 

Vocative (case), t«x3 nufa (f.), ^;i^«>^«4i^ «am&5<?Aan. 

Vociferation, ,^^jy* shor-pushti, liji ghaugKa : see Noise. 

Vogue (fashion), -^\^j riu^o; (f.), JU- cAa/, ^J^ chalan. 

Void (empty space), .«^x^ ^U- M^alijagak, ij>^ Idhala, ^ Kkulu, 


288 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Volcano, ^J^1^^ jwala-mukkt, ^\Jli^^\ s^ I65h'4itashafshan. 
Volley, J^ shallA^ ^l dehur (f.), (daklL)jJjjJ dewctr. (f.) 
Volubility, (aptness to roll) <^ \jb^ lurKaTi : see Eloquence. 
Volume, jJl>- jild (fl), jii J daftoTj (compass) jTL^ pkatlffb. 
Volunteer, c-^-wjcsr nqjtb. Voluptuary, (^L« aiyaah. 
Vomit, ijhw*^ mustafngh^j^\ ^J i^*]y^ dawa-uljcauawar. 
Voracity, i^jSJ\ ^^jVu-l-balcari, ^^j-lill cj>- ju*U'UkalVL 
YoTteXf ^^^ chakr, (^\t^^ girdab, j^ bhanwar. 
Votary, i^^oifidwif iftXiJ banda, aXc. ghulam. (^Ij das* 
Vote, Jy A:attZ, d^U &a^ (f.), ^y ^H • see Consent. 
Voucher, s\^gawak, JJj lia/tZ (f.), Jij\&«)j dastawez. (f.) 
Vow, uu^ niyal(f.),jJJ na|r(f.), u-i.(:,i.rt sankalp. 
Voyage, y«i fc/\jt> daryal safar, ji^ \i ^jy tart ka safar. 
Upholstery, l^\^\ \^jf> ghar ka asbab^ ^lew ^UL samanrirkhana. 
Upland, ^^j ^^9^^ finest zaraSn. (f.) 

Uproar, »j\^ Ji ghuUghapara. U^ ghaugKa* ^Ulft Aangono. 
Upshot (result, consequence), aIskM anjamy iJ^sj nattja. 
Upside, i^Jff tSy^^ tipar hi taraf. Upstart, uuJ^y Tuai-danlat 
Urbanity, CL^^ muruwat (f.), t/*V./.4\f» &Aa/maii«a'i. 
Urchin, see Hedge-hog ; tjJ^ launda, ^^ bachcha. 
Urethra, 5^U na'lzha or 2^1) nffiza, ^y< fnutnh 
Urgency, UIaJ takaza, ^J^*^ sakhti^ ^^J3j^ zarurat, (f.) 
Urinal, ^j^Ji karura^ ^U J^ baul^dan, ^b ^.^U^ peshah-dan. 
Urn, CAV^ charas^ ^J daZw, ^J^cl^ guldan^f^j^ satiwar. (f.) 
Usage, dj|l»i ^/iiA, oi^ H^ (f.), J^ cAaZ (f.),^ji«flj dastur. 
Use, JImImi\ istCmal, Ja^ amal, ^1^ Aam : see Custom, Need. 
Uselessness, LfJ^^J 7ta*fra/:ari, ^^j^l»^)t lorha^Ii, ^\ akaj. 
Usurer, j^ ^U byaj-M^r, jy>^ Jjm* sud-khor^ (VtW ^4/^* 
Usurper, j|^ J vj:^.«^0 dast^araz, uu^J^jJ zabar-dastf <^,^vtf U ghasib. 
Usury, ^lo iyq;, or (dakh.) jU iy&zr, f^y^ jjr*'^'^, bedastur sud. 
Utensil, ^J!j} bartan, cJ^ zarf, jW^ hathyar : see Tool. 
Utility, Usefulness, a\^ iam, ifS5\3 faUduj ^iJ na/*, ^]) labh. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 289 

Utterance, jU-\ uchchar, IsaIj talaffuz, 4fir j c^ lalnhlahja. 


Uttermost, Utmost, <*s--iV ^i^^y^^ (j')f ^^>i^ ghayat (f*), ci-^ 

Vulgar, (^U^ a1^ atrammtt-n-nof, iJjS^ kunjfey Jj^^l ar^raZ. 

Uvula, 1/ 1^ JU- Aa/it ka kawtva, iZ^\^ lahat (?), ^ tola (?). 

Uxoriousness, ^/J^ jjj zan-mwritR, ^^^J^^jf^jorflt-parasti. 

Wad, Wadding (of a gun), 4^ nawala, ^jmS kasan (?). 

Wafer, ^i^ tikli, \j^ chapra^ \Si tildya^ IS^ chipta. 

Wager, t^ «Aarf (f')fj^ % (f.), j'^ dS'o, u:.^ri.b j^j burd-balAt. (f) 

Wages, »,,,JV> <a2a&, <U\&:^sr« mi^natanaf ^ll^ mushahara. 

Waggery, ^^ jwrt/t, g?;l-H5|5 eAajAcftaz?, ,^.-i* Aaw«. 

•• •• 

Wail, Wailing, t^j^j^^^ nala-o-zartf Ap»y nauAa. 

Wainscoat, ^dcj ^s^kr ta^ta-bandi, c^jcj JfU- khaHm-bandi. 

Walk,^^ «air (f.), ^jL^gasht, (gait) Jl>- cA5Z, (path) i\j rah. (f.) 

Wallet, ^•^jKoHj J^J} zambtl (f.), ^^^jhoG. 

Walnut, <^j[yO-^ alArdt,jk^j\»^ char-maghz. 

Wand, tj?5f>* chhaftf l^^ a^5, ^j^f-*^ AwmcAi, ^^pb patkan. 

Want, ^Ua-^ iArfyo/, vj:^-o-U. ^o^a^ (f.), ^^ toiigi, lIA^ ghat. 

Ward, (guarding) ^y>- chauki, (of a lock), Jp- J Aar: see District. 

Wardrobe, ^\j>^\^ libasdany ti\i'dJ^y tosha-khana. 

Ware, Wares, 1*3^ sauda, {j^^jins (f.), JU nialjj^ chiz. (f.) 

Warfare, i^jjt:>^ jang-awarly i^j\S:^ jangbazi. 

Warmth, ^^ garm^ ^^Jlf^ hararat (t.), (ardour) C/Lj tapak. 


Warning, ^\ ittila (f.), j-fi^ Idyahar (f.), ^^H" agaAi. 
Warp (the threads lengthwise in a loom), ^U tanl,Jj tar. 
Warrant, clicwJ dastak (f.), (j^;i farman, (voucher) di^ sanad. (f.) 
Wash, (cosmetic) ^J5j\ ubtan, ij^ gulguna, (washing) ^ jUj dhul¥t. 
Waste, (land) ^1^^ wirana^ ^\r^ kharaba : see Ruin. 
Waste-book, bl^ khatiy ^^ ^^\s>^jankar ki baht^ \j^ khasra. 
Watch, i^j^f^ bedariy (guard, watching) iS^ chaukl, (guard, 

sentinel) ]^ pahra, j^U-jU pasbarif (time piece) ^^Jp ghari. 
Watchhouse, <0U-. ^^^^ chaukhkhana. 

2 p 

290 Vocabulary .^-Nouns. 

Watchmaker I JHj^l^c^j^gAari-Jananc-tra/a. 

Waterfall, jIIjT abskoTj \^ji=>-jharna,jt:\»- chadar. (f.) 

Wax, Ay^ momy ^^Ji sham (f.), (sealing) ^ lakh, cSi lak. 

Way, (road) i\j rah (f.), <te-»; rasta, tl0-» sarak (f.) : see Method. 

Wayfarer, ^\j rahi (m.), ^^b baioht {m,\ jS>ib\j rahgtr. 

Weakness, k^j^/^ kamzart, <jy ^ natawanJ, ^J«-«-^ ?a »/^. 

Weal, ^^>^^j rafahiyat (f.), ,J^ tora^H, ^^JCy4]U5l ikbalmandi. 

Wealth, vj:JjJ daulat (j,), ^^ibJ <£ian, JU mal, ^^^^Ht ^^^^^^^* 

Weapon, jLfUb hathyar, df^ tuxrbay JL> «i^. (f.) 

Weariness, ^«3jU mandagi, t^^ft\^ thakahat (f.), ^f^^ o/^'* 

Weather, ^^ mau^im, aUI aiyam, lzJj rit (f.)^ (j«^ ^^'i- 

Web, J\>^jali, <ijly WnatiwJ (f.), ^V" ^A«»i (fil«^) ^J^j^^^- 

Wedding, ^U byah, i/JlS^ «Aacff , (feast) (^;ti>' jashn. 

Wedge, ^if^ pachchar (f.), ^<^^ phant, ;^ mJIdi (f.), UL^ tAeA:a. 

Wedlock, ij»-lC vsJU- t^alat-i-nikakt, 

Wednesday, JbJj SucfA, ^U:«&^\»- cAar^Aamfia. 

Weed, i^^j4^ chikhuran, (jJ^ghas, (widow's weeds) )IL»Jj|^ randsalL 

Weight, (for weighing) <ib bat, |;^<-2-^ baUkhara^ v*/x-» sang, ^^j^ 

wazuj (heaviness) j\if bhar, (importance) jOJ ^adr. (f.) 
Welcome, CU^JT ffobhagat {(.), j--^V ^^w^^su* (f.) : see Respect. 
Welfare, tjl^ bhala*i, ijj^, bihtarl, Jl;^ ^-^^ chKemrkushal. (f.) 
Welkin, (^\^\ afta«, lyb Aaira (f.) : see Sky. 
Wellbeing, Lff*^^, bihbudij^ jduiir : see Welfare, Prosperity. 
Wellwisher, s\^,^ khair-khwah, }i\J^ nehkhaoah. 
Wench, k^^j \J^f^ jawan randi, i^^^i^ chhdkrt, v^oJj! laundi* 
Wetness, ^Iv^ naUnna/d, i^%e glial, i^J^*^y^:^,j^j ruiubat-dan, 

ijy tart. 
Whale, ^is^ J^ magar machchh (?), uu^ hut (f.?). 
Wharf, (^\fi ghat Wharfage, ^^J^^ ghaJtwari. 
Wheel, yL>> chakr, Ly pahiya, (potter's) CS\^ chak: see Spinning. 
Wheelwright, j^^ci^^^ pahiya^banane-wala. 
Whelp, h pilla, i£sf^(^Jia sag-iachcha, (tiger's) L^ baghlH. 

Vocabulary^^^Nouns. 291 

Whetstone, ^J^ son (f.), ^i-* «ifi, i^jf^ patthri, ^LJfisan. 
Whiff, fjJia sans (f.)i (•*> damj u^j^ phunk (f.), CJjy^jhurak (?)• 
While, (time) uui^ trai^^, (length of time) c:^«V« muddat. (f.) 
Whim, Whimsey, JU Afeiya/, ^ lahar (f.), tl^ tofa* (f.), ^^ 

matt/, (f.) 
Whip, Vil^l>* chabukf \^^ kora^ l/S^ Jcamcluy ^I^jIj^ tazir/ana. 
Whirl, (J^^ gardisA {{,), ^\a>p ghumffo, ^j Jb bad-resha. 
Whiskers, .^y muehh (f.), <^^ ftwrfi^ (f.)> ^^ef^ gonchh (?). 
Whispering, L^^JbLf^^ phasphasahat (f.)fj^j^ khusar-phtuar. 
Whistle, (musical pipe) c^^r^V bansriy (whistling) ^1^ sift. 
Whit (point, jot, tittle), ^oSj nukta, ^j rati, Jj til, UoJ tinka. 
Whiteness, «^Oui«ii sufaidty ^\j bayaz (£), i^'lf-l i^lal. 
Whitewash (a compos, of lime and water), ^ kali. 
Whiting, ^X^ ^ ^ C^\ Ik kism kl machhU: see Chalk. 
The Whole, <U^ kuUiya, ^4^jam^ (f.), ilL/^jumla: see Total. 
Wick, ^^ batdj ^\i batl, JisJifaRta. 
Wickedness, 4^jj badi, ijyj zaburUf ^^j]j^ shararat (f.) 
Wicket, i^J^ khirkl, <^C;*^ darlcha. 

Widow, Ij-j betva (f.), jj\j rand, (f.) Widower, \y^j randu'a. 
Widowhood, ^^t^ randapa, ^^, bewagi, ^|^ ietrapan. 
Width, ^^ )J^ chavral, ^^l^ kushadagiy (of cloth) ^^/>aj»y ^« 
Wig, ^J J JV ft5' « '?5i>i, ^^ Jar*i (?). 
Wight, ^j^T o^imi (m. f.), ^j^jan, ^j^k^ slmkha. ^ kas* 
Wild, Wilderness, ^j^VV? bayaban, \jsr^ ^ahra, J^^jangaL 
Wildgoosechase, ^^l^ '*^^fj befa\ida sal, o:^^ obyi barbad mifi' 

not. (f.) 
Wile, 4j^ ^J^> ^ maiar, cl^^ ^Jra^ (f.), b 6ii«5. 
Will, (choice) ^^ marzif i\>^ chah, (last) ^U u;-iyi#^ wapyat noma. 
Will-o'-the-wisp, )^5l^ chhalawa, ^g^lfl Zu/rari (?). 
Wimble, U^ barma. Winch, ^bL^J \^ {J^jf^ charkht ka dasta. 
Windegg, \jj\ ^^ khakt anda. Windingsheet, ^ kafan. 
Windfall, \^ cho'a, J^ \y paraphal, (figur.) J^jIj^ khudi'dad. 

292 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Windlass, *^\Sj\ argbad (?), j;:*:»£sl« maiyanik. 

Wink, ^J^-fT jhapkl : see Hint. Wipe, -f*^ ponchh : see Stroke. 

Wire,jl7 tavy ^sJ^»j rishta. Wire chain, i^J^^ sikn, ^JL» sal. 

Wisdom, Jic akl (f.), t^ Ulj daTta^, JbJj iu^A (f.), ^^^ gyan. 

Wise, -^ //zro^i (f.) : see Manner. 

Wiseacre, i^jji ^ kachcha buzurg,yL^^Jii Wrbujhakkar. 

Wisp, J^ puB, ^1 anil, U^ juna, ^j/ gfirAi (?). 

Wit, f^^^ji^ teZ'fahmtj ^^ybJ «iAn ; a Wit, ^ jT cl^J z? rat admt. 

^* It tt ** 

Witch, ^^fc> da'cn (f.), j^c^jCj dankani, ^^^S^ jadugamu 

Witchcraft, ^S^ jadu, \jy tdna,jsf^ si^r, ^ l^jl ojhaH (?). 

Witness, (testimony) (^jly^ shaKadat (f.), (person) JJhl& shahid. 

Witticism, *iC3 nukta, ^jij zlrakij <JtJjj bazla, i^z-Sp^ jugat. (f.) 

Wo, mc gham^ a[^Jj\ andoA, (^J|^ ^g, ^^^^Jl 0/50^, JiU matom. 

Womankind, C^L^ i^jJ; randi-^at (f.), Lj JU dlam-irnisa. 

Womb, ^^>>; rihm, ^b ^ts^ bacAcha~dan, ^^ kokh (f.), (^1^ p^<* 

Wonder, ^.■■'oy*^ ta'ajjub, If^:^^ acAambha, i^jt^ hairat, (f,) 

Wood, (the substance) t^J^ biri, <^\^ Aaf A ; see Forest, Timber. 

Woof, J>^ pud, j^jfj ftAarni, lib iana. 

Wool, ^j;^\ «i» (f.), mZj pashm (f.), ^Vy ro'an, uJ^ ffi/. 

Word, c^li ia^ (f.), ^^ bachan, ^^ys^ sukhan : see Message, Pro- 


Work, a\^ kam, ^ kaj, C^cs^ mi^nat (f.) : see Book, Workmanship. 
Workmanship, i^Xij^ karJgari, {jL-yiic^ gan^St (f.), ^^*a^ mapm*. 
Worship, ^JiA^ parastish (f.), iZ^c\^ ibadat (f.), ^^^. bhajan. 
Worth, (j:,.v»jS Icimat (f.), J^ mol^jSi kadr (f.), uiJuii/oftZa^. (f.) 
Wrangle, Wrangling, y^jhagra, iJL-^fs^ jhanjhat, \fj ragra. 
Wrangler, J^)^^jhagralu, UjIJI laranka, ^J^^ hujjatu 
Wrapper, iiM^ Ufafay ^^ btthan, ij^. (j:.^«mO dast-bukcha. 
Wrath, Cy '^»nr ghazab.j^ l^ahr, ^^i^jazba, c-j^ kop. 
Wreath, (garland) \^ sihra, jyo maur, (thing twisted) ^ peck. 
Wreck, (of a ship) \j^ khakhra (?), ^jU ^ jsJ:^ kishtl kS ^ 
rati : see Ruin. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs, 293 

Wrench, (instrament) jLfJ^ uiol l^ ,J>ii^ ^ peck dene ka ek hath- 

yar: see Twist. 
Wretch, u:.^rg\4Sr kam-bakhL U^ nigora, ^ji^^U na-kas : see Poor. 
Wretchedness, ^jis^l%^ kambakhtif ^^^j^ paresham^ ^lS^ J zillaU (f.) 
Wrinkle, ^^^ chin (f.), (j^ shikan (f.), i^j^jhurijjf^sikdr. (f.) 
Writing, Writ, ^^/Ok?' teArir (f.), ci^l^ likhaiwat (f.), 4^0j*..i^7 ^a^- 

ni/. (f.) 
Wrong, J]^ 2tt/m, ^cAs^-I^ norhakkt, us^^^Jj fttcTa^ (f.). 
Yard, (measure) jf goaf, cl;i sir^, (enclosure) ^^si^sahn, \:fj\ angna. 
Yam, c:.?^ \^ ^^ un ka mty ci;yd sfi^. 

Yearning, ,jtib\^ U 2(l>- 4^ bari chah or fdapahish^ 0;J ciar^f. 
Yeast, 4jU fftSya, y^«^ khamtrf ^<JlJf ^ari ; see Leaven. 
Yell, ;^^ chlkh (f.),J^ chikkar (?) : see Roar. 
Yeoman, {^ji ,^CL« milki log, j\mIc malguzar, ^L^ kisan. 
Yoke, 1^ ju'a, -^^^ ja'aU, (pair) \jfrjora, i^^juft. 
Yolk, (or Yelk) of an egg, i^Ctjj ^ ^^j\ ande ktzardi, I^U mawiu (f.) 
Young (of any creature), to? bachcha, Jit tifl : see Child. 
Youth, ^\j>^ jawantf CyA* A shdbab, ^.j^joban: see Young man. 
Zeal, ^wc^ garmt, ci.'yi^ hamtyat (f.), y^fj^ sar-garmu 
Zone, (girdle) «3cj^ kamarband, (frigid) 2; Jj^ <(«k:w« mintakore' 

»ia£riida, (temperate) ^Jcjc<*<i5Vt,v< mintaka-e-mutadila, (torrid) 

^^^tfs* ^(SL:^ mintaJtare-mahrufca. 
Zoology, d^Ul^^ Jlc i/m-i-^itoana^. 


To abandon, \iasr tctjna, U^ cl^ tark-kama, \^j^i^ chkofTia. 
To abase, \3jl|a^ j^acA/iarna, \j\^girana, \i^ JJ«S ^aZtZ karna* 
To be abashed, Uw lajana^ UU^ ^Aarmana, li^^s^ ^^ucAna. 
To abate, UlS^gAo/ana, U^ ^ civiJ Jcimat kam kama. 

294 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To abdicate, U^ tyagm, ^Jj^ chhapia : see To abandon. 

To abet, \jJS JJ^ madad karna, 1:j J ^^r^^ ^ fj>^^ himmat or tar- 

ghtb dena. 
To abhor, Lm^ j^J dur bhagna, l:^ iZJjij b c:,^]^ karahiyat or 

nafrat rakkna. 
To abide, L1.J basna, U^ thaharna, Lb^ rahna. 
To abjure, l3^ L^|;a^\ inhiraf karna, U^ ^-^.^^^ Ao^x A:ama : see 

To reject. 
To be able, U^ sakna, \j^ ^ Wik hond, \u^j v^lb takat rakhncL 
To abolish, liJfJ 1^1 ttthadena, l3\Le mitanaf \j^ i^yyo maul^f kanuL 
To abound, Uj^\ umadna or bx^^^ umandna, Uyb j^«4jc« mamur ttona. 
To abrade, (act.) Uj^ ragapm, UL^ gAwaita, (act. or neut.) L»^ 

To abridge, ^^ jA^ mukkta^r karna, U^ jtdftfiw^ ikhtifar karna. 
To abscond, Ujb^ Lf>> cAAtpa raAna, liifl^ bhagna, U^ (j^y^ ruposh 

To absolve, l3^ Li^ mubarra karna, U^ i«JIa« mu'df karna. 
To absorb, l:.^^ saiAna, U^ (^i^jasb karna, UL^ khapana* 

To abstain (from), Ijt jV ^ j? ^^^ ^^'^ ^^ 5»5> V/j^?^ parhez karna. 

To abstract, \3^ L^\icl>\ intikbab karna : see To select, extract. 

To abuse, (revile) 1:j«> ^ZgaR dena, (ill treat) U^ 15^^ ^^ bad-suluki 

To accept, UJ Zena, U^ JjJ kabul karna, IjU manna. 
To accept (a bill of exchange, 8cc.), UjlC^ «a£ama. 
To accommodate, U^ tArji^ khabar-girt karna, Ul:^^ nuiTiana. 
To accompany, l3jJb ^rl^^Jb hamrah hona, U^ cr^U; rt/5j:a^ karna. 
To accomplish, U^ j^iy pura karna, l:JblJ ni&aAna, l3jL> soma. 
To account, (compute) U^ .UJs shumar karna, (answer for) ^<^|^ 

\j^ jawabdiht karna. 
To accuse, l:i^(^ dokhfia, ^^^y^*^ da^wa karna, U«JlibJ dhanana. 
To accustom, \jf )aij b ^l^^W* U (^oU a^io/ or muhawara or raU 

Vocabulary, — Verbs. 296 

To ache, \i^*y dukhna, \j\jJ pirana, \jji J;J dard kama. 

To acknowledgei \j^ J\y\ ikrar kama, UjU manna. 

To acquaint^ ^fj^ b cStl ittiio* or Iduibar kama: see To inform. 

To acquire, 13^ J^l>^ AanI kama, \j^ \xj paida kama, UU^ Aamana. 

To acquit (of crime), ^\;^ ^^^ be-gunah thahrana : see To absolve. 

To act, li^ kartui, (a character) U^ Ji3 nalfl kama. 

To actuate, UjJ \j:^j>' harakat dena, Ul^ sarkana. 

To adapt, U^ ^..^U^ b J^)^ muwafiJc or miina«i& kama. 

To add, Ulfl lagana,\jjj>- joma, (up figures) U^ «-^>^ gathrt kama. 

To address (a letter), l:^^ ^l3^ ^ kJ^^ chitthz ka samama likhnd. 

To adduce, U) Kna, UHcj fta^2ana : see To bring, relate. 

To adjust, 1:j J ^^y tor^ift dSna, UIC>> chukana, U^ 4i.:.^J durust 

To admit, 1:jJ c^I ane <fe;ia; (to allow) \j^ JjJ Ara&uZ kama. 
To admonish, Ulfs**^ samjhand, U^ ca-^-^agUtfJ na§ihat kama. 
To adopt, U^ jl^l ^ Jk-V^ mtttoAanna ko ikhtiyar kama, (use) 

^^ c;:^^ J*"^^ amaZ men /ana. 
To adore, \^^ P^J^f ]^^ bhajna, U^ ^^^. bhajan kama. 
To adorn, \jj^y^ sanwama, UjUju^ sttdharna, l3l:j banana. 
To advance '(v. n.), LfeJ; AarAna, U^ ^y taralpJ^ kama. 
To advance (v. a.)y ^^^ barhana, Ul>> chalana: see To propose. 
To advance (money), Uj J ^Jw^ peshgi (Rna. 
To advertise, U^jl^ix^f ishtihar kama, U^^JbU^ saAtr kama. 
To advise, 1:jO cl^flci.rt} nasihat dena, ^^ r^ khabar kama. 
To a£9ict, l3\£..j eatanJa, 1:j J <— QjKt to/cZf/* (iina. 
To agitate, lilib Ailana, 1:jJ ,^^^1mj>. Jum&i^A cS»a, (in the mind) ^^J^ 

fikr kama. 
To agree, Uyb j;au b ,<«^\; rofi or muttafik hona, li)U manna. 
To agree (to stipulate), U^ ^^^ b jl^l b t^ sAart or i^ar or 

&acAan kama. 
To aim, UihjJb cimuA sAo^t bandhna, \i^ takna : see To guess. 
To alight, \j^\ utama, l}yb dy^farod hona. 


296 Vocabulary. — Verbs, 

To allow, IjU manna, \j^ J^ kabul karna; (to permit), 1:jJ dena; 

(to abate) \j^S:^ ghatana, 1:jJ ^i»i^ ta^ififdena. 
To allure, 1:j J «^T-^y /ar^& £?£na, Ul^J lubhana, Ul^ phuslana. 
To alter, Uj^ badaln&y \jJ tJi*^ tabdll karna, ^^ jJo taghlr karna. 
To amass, U^ a^\^ faraham karna, \j^ f^ Jam^ karna. 
To amaze, U\Cs^ bhachkandf \jji ^];:^»- ^iran karna. 
To amuse, lil^ baklana, 1:jJ <^^ tafnh dena. 
To animate, l3)bf- j'tSna ; (to encourage) 1:j4> (^Jfli^ dharas dena. 
To annex, bul lagana, \jj^jorna, U^ jJ^ paiwand karna. 
To annoy, UUaP khijana, bj J ^«3u^ ^a^cH^ ^na. 
To anoint, \j^ ^^«^ ^ ^ i[^ o^ tadhtn karna, UL« malna. 
To answer, liJOyl b c^l^^'atraft or tester dena, (to suit) liT clX^ 

Mf /: ana. 
To appear^U^^ eujhna, Ul Jia3 nazar ana, UiJ l/^^ dUchWt dena. 
To applaud, l)^ ^yT 5/K» karna, l^b^j sarahna, liJJ ^^V^ 

To apply, (v. n.) lifl Zagiza ; (to suit) UT u-C^ ?AiA ana ; (v. a.) li Iw 
lagana, Uj^ jopia; (to address to) l3^ v::.^m«»^j>^jJ darldmast 
To appoint^ ^IrV^ thahrana, \3^ ^^^ muitarrar karna. • 
To appraise, l:J^ kutna, U^t dnkna, ^)j^ J^ nioZ thahrana. 
To approach, UT <--^^ b C/*^ V <>^^^ nazdik or j9a^ or itarti ana. 
To approve, U^ Ja»j pcuand karna, IxibU- cAaAna, UjJ kabulna. 
To ai^e, U^ o^f^ b^at karna, l3^ 4ii^ 6aA5 Aama, U^ v>b 6arf 

To arise, U^t uthna, bj^)>- charhna. 
To arrange, Uj J i--^y torpid cfena, UjV^ sanwarna. 
To arrive, l:»jacl^ |>aAttncAna, Ut ana, Uyb ^1^ traib Aona. 
To ascend, bjb^ charhna, Uyb jJj buUmd liona, \Mi) bilangna. 
To ascertam, U^ (ja^ss^ tahklk karna, b|^ fAaArana. 
To ascertain (a disease), U^ l/^;^=^ tashldus karna. 
To ask, l^>-^ puchhna, IjbU- cAaAna ; (ask for) U^U mangna. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 297 

To assault, l)^ vj..<Lb b jL^>- hamla or takht karna. 

To assist, l3^ JJl« tnadad karniy \;ii\^fA^ sambhdlnd : see To help. 

To assuage, Uj J t— Liar takhfif denif U/ \JCi^ thanda kama. 

To assume, LJ 2ena, (grant, admit) I)/ ^y /ars kama. 

To assure, ^^ j]/^ iirar kama, (to comfort) liJ J ,J^ tasalli dena. 

To astonish, \j^ c;|/?^ fiairan kama, \j\ii.0^jhabkand. 

To attain, (v. n.) U^^ (k^ baham paAunchna, (v. a.) U^ ^S /a&A 

To attempt, U^ Juu b ^^«-» b ^^^^^ koshifh or «a*i or i^{2 kama. 
To attend, (wait on) life; ^l>. ^oxir rahna, (observe) \jJ ^jjL*i^ 

dhyan kama, (as a physician) b^ |^«> b ^bt« mu^dlaja or 

Jatra kama. 
To attest, bjJ ^|^ b ^OJbl& skdhidi or gawahl dena, (to sign) 

b^ -^is*^ faAi^ Aama. 
To attract, I'.y^i^ khainchna, b^ i^i^jazb kama: see To allure. 
To avail, bT a)^ kam aruL, b^ irjJli fSida kama. 
To avert, b^ ^J b j^J <fiir or do/** kama, Ul5 fa/na. 
To augment, bUj; AarAana, b^ jrjbj ziyada harm. 
To avoid, b^ j|^t ^ Js*;i parhez or ifitiraz karna, \:»a^ bachna. 
To avouch, avow, b^ kahna, b^ j|^1 iifcrar kama, b^^lfe saAir 

To awake, (v. n.) \':'^\^ jagna, ^^^jagni, (v, a,) bl^ Jagana. 
To babble, UG bakna, bij J;J\ ar&ar bakna, b|^J^ barbarana. 
To back, (mount a horse) b^ j^jmi Mztoar Aona, (second) b^ ^.^^ 

pushii kama. 
To backbite, bl^ i^^^^ chughU khana, b^ K::,^fJ- ghtbat karna. 
To bait, (a hook) \u4j ^j^ chara rakhna, (take food) b^ ^Ks^b 

To bake, bUj pakana, (to make bread) by />ona. 

To balk, bj J !tb &a2a cSna, b^ (^}j^ k 'V'^ ^ na-ummed or ma)irt<m 

To bang, bjL« mama, bkio pitTia, bid JybJ cfAauZ lagand. 


298 Vocabulary, — Verbs. 

To bar^ l3lu IjcmJ blnda lagana, (obstruct) liijj rokna, U^ Ju^ sadd 

To banisby l3^ ^^ts^ jila-wafan kama, liiJ )Uj ^J des-nikdla dena. 
To bargain, (promise) U^ yj^^ tro^efa Xrama, (to buy) LJ J^ wo/ 

To bark, (as a dog) b^^ bhaunkna, (v. a. a tree, &c.) bi.jf^ chhilna. 
To bate, blS|f g/iafaraa, \j^ J ^ ^^^^ ktmat ko ham kama* 
To bathe, (v. n.) lily na/tana, (v. a.) l3^ J-^-x ^u^Z kama^ l3l^ 

To bawl, l3j\C» pukarncLy l3)L>- chillana, l3jU uiCiU Aanft marna. 
To be, to become, l3yb ASna, U^^ raAna, 1:j banna, UWyh hojana. 
To bear, (endure) Ly««i sahna, l3^ ci^^j bardasht kama, (carry) 

To beat, U!Lj pttna, l3jU mama, Uj^ Aufn£ : see To conquer. 

To beckon, \jji \aj\ b 2r^Luit »Aara or tma kama. 

To become, (suit) Ijy^ j;J5l b 4>i\j-« tnuwafik or ZaVA: Aona; see To be. 

To beget, bU:^^ Janmana, \ij \*iuj paida kama. 

To beg, Ux)U .i^C^ &AtftA mangnif \j^fj\^suwalkama, l:JbU> cAaAna. 

To begin, (y. a.) U^ Cj|^ sAuru* kama, (v. n.) bij lagna, \uibXj 

To begird, Uj^JJb^^ kamar bandkna, \:dJ lapetnd, U^ Jcj ftan^! ^arna* 
To beguile, l3\C^ bakkana, 1:jJ s^y /urcA cfena, 1:jJ |«J ^am dSna. 
To behave, Ui^ ^jl>- chalan chalna, Ixi^U ni&aAna. 
To behead, U^U ^jfgardan mama, U3l^ -i sir katna. 
To behold, \^C J dekhna, U^^j bitokna^ ^JJ^ nazar kama. 
To behove, Oyb i,^,.%»dL< b J^V^ muwqfii or munasib kond. 
To believe, 1:jU manna, b^j^b bawar kama, Ujl^- janna. 
To bellow, b^l^J dakama, \3)L>- chillana, ^J^jy^ sliZr kama* 
To belong, iJj 2agna, bjJ^ j;1jcl« muta*alli^ hoM. 
To bend (v* a.), ^^ (^ V IaJ-S terhd or M^^^n kama, \j\y^ nihurana. 
To benum (v. a.)> ^^j^ thithurdnd or f Ai7Airana, l)^ ^ xifft ftarita. 
To bequeath, U^ i^J de marnSf U^ 4Jh b Vi:;^«««0j waslyat or At6a /ramtf' 

Vocabulary.'-^ Verbs. 299 

To beseech, ^'^^g»r?*r5na, U^ ^j^^ V. {^^ ^*^'^ ^^ ajizt kama. 

To beset, U^ gA^rna, U^ HjAsi^ mufia^ara kama. 

To besiege, \iJj^gker Una, U^ 2^W^ muliasara kama. 

To besmear, l:.^ /irpna, l^J^ chupama, b^^ /,t2a kama. 

To bestow, 1:j J tr^ bakhsh dena, 0^ Uci£ a/a Ararna, Ui J cfSna. 

To betoken, l3^ c:^!^ J dalalat kama, \ihj batHna. 

To betray, U-ij-* ^^ s^J^^*^ dagka-bdzt se sompna, (a secret) lij^ 

phorna, \jS ^jijOsJj)^ parda-dari kama. 
To betroth, U^ l52>^ ^ c : ^y. J ni^^^ or mangni karria^ U^ Cyi >j » / « ^ 


manWift kama. 
To bid, U^ kahna, UL«» ^nana : see To command, invite. 
To bid for (offer a price), \jJ J^ tnol kama. 
To bilk, \jS i^j\)\ci^ daghabazi karna, U^ S^ /^ fareb kama. 
To bind, Ujhjjli bandhna, \jJILp^ jakarna, Ujj\^ chhandna. 
To bisect, \jJ ^^^^^ ^*^ ji]ji barabar do hi§§e kama. 
To bite, USl^ katna, USl^ ^ cs^^J ^an/ si katna, UU>- chabana. 
To blab, U^ ^^ «J^ parda-dari karna^ U^ cr^^ jb ^^^ ^ f^^^ 

To blame, \:^^>^ dokhna, U^ cs..^>cX.'« malamat karna. 
To be blasted, Ul|s>y« murjhana, \j1^ kumhlana. 
To blaze, UCibJkftJ dhadhakna, (blaze forth) li^/ bharahia. 
To bleach, U^l^ nikharna, \j^ lJU \j )U-1 ti/2a or safkama. 
To bleat, UL«^ mimiyana, (dakh.) U^ ^^^ ^.^^ bhen bhen kama. 
To bleed, (lose blood) Ij J yb^ /S/m dena, (let blood) L)^ Ju^i fasd 

To blemish, U^ ^\j daghl kama, U\fi ^^^ Sib lagana, \jS ^J^oaj 

nuksan kama. 

> • 

To blend, l3)U milana, U^ Ip^lsr^ V Jr*l aniez or makMut kama. 

To bless, Uj J Ic J cftt'a deiia, 1:j J (,/r?*'^ ^^^^ <2ena, U^ ^J^ mubarak 

To blight, Uj J j^/-i^ jhulas dena, l3^ '*V«5J pazhmurda karm. 
To bloom or blossom, 1:1^ khilna, US^ pkulna, \i>0^ bikasna. 


300 Vocabulary, — Verbs. 

To blow, (v. n.) Lyi bahnoLy Ul>- chalna, (v. a.) 1:^0^ phunkna. 

To blunder, l^^ cAuA:na, US^ bhulna, U^Uasw ^a.l[a Aarna. 

To blush, \3l^t fjuJiff^ khijlat uthana, Uy^ J^^ khajil Aiona* 

To boast, brag, l3^ ^J c^S laf-zani kama, \j^ jS^fakhr kama. 

To bode, 1:j J u/^ «/itfgfi;i <2ena, U^ vj>l^ dalalat kama. 

To boggle, l:i^^ thithakna, UCfsdf^ jhqjhakna. 

To boil, (v. n.) Uj^ khaulna, U1j\ u&a/M, (v. a.) UlU u&aZna, (cook 

by boiling) 1:j J {J^f^fish dena. 
To book, l3^^^ <2ar; kama. To boot, U^ irjJlj faUda kama. 
To bore, ^Jup- chhedria^ ^«^ bedhna, l;U^ &an»ana. 
To be bom, \uup^jan7ia, \i>A>:^ janamna, \jy^ fjuj paida hona. 
To borrow, LJ (^itiU maitg Sna, LJ ^y i^arx Sna. 
To bounce (jump up), l3Jj dl^^ c^unJ^papta, U^ ^-^yf^ chaukan 

To bound (jump up), Uj^ kudna, l:if>^t ucihalna. 
To bound (limit), luhJJb Jk»* Aa(j<f &a?i£(Ana, l3^ Jcj ftaiuZ tenia. 
To bow, (v. n. to stoop) Ujy nihurnif \ii^jhuknaf (v.a.) see To bend. 
To box (strike), UjU L»^ ghusa mama, UjU ^Uj tamacha mama. 
To brace, 1:JL4mj sametna, \u^ kasna, (a drum) UU^ charhana. 
To braid. Lb jJ^ gundhna, 1:j bunna. 

To brand, Uj J 4\j rfajpft <2ena, \3lu jT gul lagana, lic^O daghna. 
To brandish, UU^gAumana, l3\Ck>> cAamftana, U1^ phirana. 
To bray, (to pound) US^ ifi^na, (as an ass) \i^j renkfia. 
To break, (v. a.) Ujyi ^orna, l3j^ p^rna, (v. n.) Ujj5 fti.^na. 
To break (become bankrupt), UU-yb^^^Ji^ mti^i^ hojana. 
To break (v. a. break in, tame), U^ aV^ ram karnif liibjU sadhna. 
To break (v. a. dismiss), U^ Jjj^ mcP'zul kamd. 
To breathe, (draw breath) UJ ^J ^m lena, (expel breath) V^^^ff- z**^ 

dam chhoma. 
To breed, (produce) lilisj- janawS, 0^ IjujpaiJa Aarna, (nourish) UU 

To bring, l;i lana (v. n.) or ^i ^ tc-inSL, (v. a.) iJt aitM. 

Vocabulary, ''^Verbs. 301 

To broily IJ^ bhunna, U^ <--^V^ kabab karniy \i/ a^j> garm karna. 

To brood, l3j^ sewna, (over) l}^ ^jJ\ andesha karna. 

To browbeat, UlGj dabkana, U^J ^1 anH dikhluTia. 

To bruise, ULsr kuchalna, LmmJ ptsna, U^J dalna. 

To brush, l3Jlp*JAanta, U^ uJ\^ ,^ ^^^ barash se saf karna, 


To bud (y. n.), UUi kaliyana, 1:j^ cVj^ konpal phuina. 

To budge, l:^ hatnif Uij fa/na, bi)^ sarakna. 

To build, U^ j;«i4^ U^mlr karm, l3^ 1:j &ina karna. 

To burden, U^ b UjS ^y &o;A /a^^na or rakhna, ^^j^.jlj ^^ f^Sr 

To bum, (▼. n.) Ui^^aZna, \Jb ftaZna, UjhJ {2aA»a, (y« a.) U)U^ Ja/ana. 
To burnish, \j\iip^ jhalkana, l3\C«^ chamkanay \j^ JL^ faii:al karna. 
To burst, (v. n.) US^ pAiifna, US^ phatna, (v. a.) UJ^ pKofna. 
To bury, UjU gapia, \jJ ^J da/n iama ; see To hide. 
To buy, UJ Jj^ mol lena, l3 jj^ khartdna, \ii^ kinna. 
To buzz, l3L|^ ftAim^Ainana, (whisper) bL>^;..«^» phusphusana. 
To cajole, \jL^ phuslana, IjJ ^*r^y ^ (^^ ^''^ or fareb dena. 
To calculate, UiTginna, U^ c^L*>> ^i^aft karna : see To guess. 
To calk (a ship, &c.), \j^ j:j i\^ kdla-patii karna, l;jo ga&na. 
To call, \jh bulana, (send for) U^ t^^^ /a2a& karna, 1:^^^ ^ £te2a 

bhgna, (name) \^j f^J nam rakhna, (cry out) U;IG pukama. 
To calve, (v. n.) UIj byana, \uiiP^ ^ *^ji^> bachhre kojanna* 
To calumniate, Ulfi C.-^^^ toAma/ lagana : see To revile. 
Can, Ud ^o^a : see To be able. 

To cancel, UiL« metna, U^ ^s::^ nia^ti? karna, UlSU ini7ana. 
To cannonade, UH^ U UjU ^;:^^ ^opSn mama or chalana* 
To canvass, (examine) l:J\^ cAAanna, UasrU^^'ancAna, Usa^ bahasna. 
To caper, U Jj^ kudna, l:JLf>-f uchhalna. 

To captivate (to charm), LJ 2[^ moA iena, U/ iZM^farlfta karna. 
To card (comb cotton, Sic), \:JcJbJ dhunakna, l:Jbj liAunna. 
To care, ^^J^ fikr karna, (care for) US ^j^Jo\^ Ichatir men Idna. 
To caress, \j^jL} pyar karna, U^ sJ'j^f nawazish karna. 

302 Vocabulary Verbs. 

To carry^ Ulfqi) tejanay \jybjdkdna, \^\^\uthana. 

To carve^ U J^ khodna, \3^ bx^ kanda karna, \:JL\jJ taraskna. 

To case, liJbJ^ tnarhna, Ljbjg.^ mandhna, l3^ uJle ghilaf kama. 

To cashier, U^ ^J^ji ^^^ tarafkama, U^ JjjJ*^ mcTzul kama. 

To cast, L C v j ^ phenkna, Ub ddlna, \uij^^jkdnkna, \j\^ girana. 

To catch, l3j^ pakarna, M J^ paA:ar Cna, ULji^^ phansana. 

To cavil, U^ ^jS"^^ k i^5^^ ^^ nukta^him or harf-giri kama. 

To cause, Ul^ Aarana, U^ Aama, U\^ nikalna^ \ji Una. 

To cauterize, Let J daghna, 1:jJ jf U i^J dayA or gul dena. 

To cease, (v. n.) \:Jbj j\i baz rahrm, \jyb jSjij) c:.^J dast-bardar horn. 

To cease, (v. a.; ^j^i>^ chhoma, U^ *— ^^^ mauJeuf kamd. 

To celebrate, l:Jb|^ «araAna, \j^ <— ^y^ tc^rtf kama. 

To challenge, UxlU ^^ Ijl Zara7 mangfia, IxibW ^l&c mu/taftaZa cAaAna. 

To change (v. a.)^ l>/ Ji'V ^^^^^ karna, USjj badlani. 

To charge, (load) l3^ bharndj (impute) ^^^rV^ MaArana, (attack) 

U^ Aao^ hamla karna, (enjoin) U^ iX^l? ^oAid ftarna. 
To charm, (bewitch) U^ ^•^W' Jadii kama^ (enchant) UJ y^ wioA 

To chastise, chasten, \jS c^^^l^ l> <u^ tambth or ^oeZtfi kama. 
To chat, l:ij baknif U;U i^^ gap mama, \j^ ykiS guftgu kama. 
To chatter, U^^^j barbardna. \:S^ baknd. \j\j>-j>- chirchirand. 
To cheapen, 13^ L::.v»jii b J^ moZ or A:tina^ kamd, U\2^ ls..v»j3 Kma^ 

To cheat, \J^ tkagnd, V:!^ chhalnd, \j^ ^Jj^^^ daghdhdzi karnd. 
To check, \j\^\ atkdnd, U^j roknd, UUj dabdnd, \ilj\^ ddntnd. 
To cherish, Ul> pdlnd, \j^ \^^ b (^4;^ partvarish or «etoa kama. 
To chew, l:^l>- ckabfid, ^U>- chabdnd, (the cud) Ul^ JtcgaZna. 
To chide, l:iJb ddntnd, \i^J^ jhiraknd, \i^^i^ dokhnd. 
To chirp, ^^•^•>> churagnd, U^ ^^ ^^ cAt<n cAii^ ftama. 
To choke, \Jij<^^ gald ghonind, \:^\^ ^ gcdd phdnsnd: see To 

To choose, \jj jj»»j pasand karnd, l:^ chunnd, l:Jbl>- chdhnd. 

Vocabulary.— Verbs. 303 

To chop, USl^ ^ ^^ <*^.^* ^^ ^^^f '^ kaina, Ujfl^j pharna : see To 

To chuniy l:kfL« ma^Ana, Ixy^ maAnif U\0 aC>< maska nikalna. 
Tocirculate, (v. n.) \jj^ phirna, \:>^jp ghumnay (v. a.) \j\jiJ phirana. 
To claim, U^ \^\ju b J5^^ datra or takaza kama* 
To clang, \:^J^ kkarakna^ (dakh.) \3l*^y{^ ckhanchhanana. 
To clap, (to place) l3lu lagana^ (strike hands) iJlacr* ^U tali bcgaria. 
To clarify, \3^ uJltf safkamd, \:>5i\^ J^ mai2 cAAanfna. 
To class, 1:1^ ^^ S*^:^ ^ar^ft mett rakknd. 
To clatter, b|j^^ kharkharana : see To chat, gabble. 
To claw, l^y nochna, \j\^ nakhiydna, \u>^^j^ kharochna. 
To cleave, (to split, v. a.) \jj^ chlmdy Ujl^ phdrnd : see To cling. 
To climb, ^^^^^ charhna, UxL bikmgna. 
To cling, IJL! lipatndf Uli4^>- chimtdnOy \:Jbj l2j Zij;^a raAna. 
To clip, U^ katarnd, \:JL\j) tardshndf Ul^ fta^/na. 
To close, (v.n.) Ujo^ mtt7u2na, (v. a.) Ujj^« mi<7icfna, U^ Jcj dancf 

To clothe, l3lx^ ]^ kaprd pahndnd or U|^ j^aAraTia. 

To cloy, U\^^f>- chhakdndj ^^j^ ser karnd. 

To coagulate, (v. n.) \ij^jamndy (v, a.) l3U>- jamana. 

To coalesce, UL« milndy \jyb iz^^^ paiwasta hond. 

To coax, l3)L^ phuddndy bS^ bhuldndy U^J a J riam ^na. 

To cock, (set up) li^ \^ khard kamdy (a gun) UlibJ^ Ij^ gAorS 

To collect, (y. a.) U^ l^iC^t U wk>> Jam^ or e/:f Aa kamdy UU>-Jamana. 
To colour, (v. a.) liSj rangna, U^ ;^ii^j rawg bharnd : see To blush. 
To combine, (v. n.) ULo milnd, \j^jurndy (v, a.) U)U mildnd. 
To come, Ul ana, (arrive) ^^a^ pahunchndy (out) UKJ nikalnd* 
To comfort, U^J ^^^-J? tasallidendy li^J ^jm^jLU Maj^ir^/amt ^na. 
To command, U^ J^ tiukm kamdy UU^/annana. 
To commence, (v.n.) U^ ^^ shuru kond: see To begin. 
To commit, (entrust) l3^ ^^'^ hawdlt karnd : see To imprison, do. 

304 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To compare^ b^ ^iLo mufcabala kama, ULe milatia. 

To complain, \j^ tAjji faryad karncif (against) U^ ^\j nalishkama. 

To compose, \j\:j banana, (a book) \jj 4-QjV.d7 to^ni/* kama. 

To compound, blU milanaf \j^ S"*^ murakkab hama. 

To comprehend, Ufc**^ samajhnAf U^ c:-^bjO daryaft karna. 

To compute, 1:5 ginna, U^ <^L*>. ^ jUJi ^Aumar or >ii«a& kama* 

To conceal, l3U^ cfihipana, l:MiUj dkdmpna. 

To conceive, liy^ ^l>* hamila hona, (think) lJt>- Janna. 

To conclude, (v. n.) U^ chnknaf Uyb aUj tomom Aona, (v. a.) 

U/ ^UJ tamam kama. 
To concur, Uyb j;^:^ muttafik hona, (agree) liJU manna. 
To condemn, l3|^^jlxy:kS gt^naAgar thahrancif UjJ J^yiyatoacSiio. 
To conduct, U^ <^'U} 2(|^ raA-numal /:arna, UlsaJ le^chaJna. 
To confess, UjU manna, UjJb J|ti itaV^ Aona, ^/ j|/^ tArar kama. 
To confine (v. a.)* ^/ «V k "^ &an^ or kaid karna. 
To confirm, (prove) \jJ c:^\j sabit karna, (establish) ^^ j/-^ inu- 

karrar kama. 
To confiscate, U^ ^ V. W^ ?^^^. ^^ ^^^^ /uima. 
To confound, (mix) l3)te milanSy (perplex) U^ c:;^^ /^are^Aan karna. 
To confuse, U^ ^^ A^b; J darham barham kama : see To confound. 
To congeal, be congealed, U<4>- jamna, Uyb Jc«^l« munjamid hona. 
To congratulate, liiiy^ ob cl^L« mubarak-bad kahna. 
To connect, conjoin, l)?^ ;orna, l3l« milaTiay U\Q lagana. 
To connive at, l3^ ^U^l i gh maz karna, blJU maiiyana. 
To conquer, liiS^Jt^a, U^ J^ faih karna. 
To consent, 1:jU manna, Uyb ^l^rafi Aona, 0^ J^J >^a&u/ kama. 
To consider, l:^^^ «ocAna, b^jf^O Jic ai^/ daurana. 
To consign, l}^ i}^^ hawaU karna, UJjmi ^mpna. 
To console, lijJ ^;«Cj b |<LJ tasalU or tasktn dena. 
To construct, UUj banana, l3^ <lli3 b Uj 5ina or naksha kama. 
To consult, b^ d-Jji^-l^ b u:^sr-^^ maslafiat or mashwarat kama. 
To contain, b^ rakkna, byb J^:x^^< mushtamil hona : see To restrain. 

Vocabulary.-^Verbs. 305 

To be contained, \j\4,0^ samana, UU^ amana,\^\ antna. 
To contemn, \JU^ j;«S>- IiaJ^rjannay U^ cuJU! ihanat karna. 
To continue, Uih; rahna, \iJbj b^ b J W* ba-hal or har-pa rahna. 
To contract, (v.n.) l:kliiMi Hmatna, (bargain) \iJbS)\) ^jik shart bandhna. 
To contribute, (give) 1:jO dSna, (bear a part) Uj J \ Jc^ chanda dena. 
To contrive, U^oUfr\ yo^f karnij UIO nikalna, \j^j^Sj tadbtr karna. 
To cook, l}\^ j^aAana, l:JbjJ|^ randknAf l3l:j ^/'^ ra^7 banana. 
To copy, U^ Ja) nai^Z karnif l3^ L<Hty J^ nalchnawisi karna. 
To correct, l)^ CS^ b <«^^s^ f^^tA or thtk karna : see To punish. 
To corrode, Ul^ katna, LJ l^ /cAa Zena, UW l^ khajana. 
To corrupt, (cause to rot) \j\j^ saram, (spoil) Ujlx) bigapia. 
To cost, US b l}Jj c.i^4JI Aima^/^afTia or 2ag7za, UT ana, U^ baithna. 
To cover, l:iJl^j dhampna, 1)1^ cAAaTta, liXiUj dhankna. 
To covet, U^ ^]! lalach karna, bU^ lalchana. 
To cough, (v. n.) L-Jl^^ AAaTwna, bi^^ AAonAAna. 
To count, \:^ ginna, \j^ j\aJ^ shumar karna, (sum up) \jj^jdrna. 
To counterfeit, U^ jJlaj ta^lid karna, \jji lt^ ^^^^ karna. 
To crack, (v. n.) Ui^ tara^na, \J4»^ phatna, (v.a.) U\S^ tarkana. 
To crackle, U^^b^- chatakna, U1^^ cAarcAarana. 
To cram, U«.)\^ thasna, bis^^^ khonchna, l«^0 ^Aii^na. 
To crave, Ux}U niangna, Ujbl>- chahna, l3^ c::^Cw« minnat karna. 
To creak, Ul?>^*.^ charcharana, blsK^f^ machnuxchana. 
To create, U^ 1 Juj j9ai<2a karna, \:i^j^ sirajna, \jj karna. 
To creep, b*^^ rlngna, (as a snake) l3|^*«»^ sarsardna. 
To crop, lijl^ katTia, U^l^ chhdntna, \:J^\jJ tarashna. 
To cross, (pass over) l5^ jb/?5r karna, (lay across) UJ^ |J1 ara rakhna. 
To crouch, liijJ dabakna, (to fawn) U^ l^^^V chaplust karna. 
To crow, U^to t«/3b Aang mama. To crowd, l3j^ bhirad, \:j^jamnd. 
To crush, ULsf kuchalnd, (squeeze) bjysr' nicAornd. 
To cry, (out) U5U- chilldnd, UjKj pukdrnd, (weep) Ujj rona. 
To cull, la^ cAtinTia, U/ <--^lid[3l intildtflb karna. 
To cultivate, (till) UJyj- Jo^/ia, lii>. J> AaZ chaldnd : see To people. 

2 R 

306 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To curb^ \:^j^ rokna, \:^lff thamna : see To restrain. 

To cure, \j^ JLc- tlaj kama, 1:jO lL& shifa dena : see To heal. 

To curse^ Iim»^ kosna, l:j|^ sarapnUy U^ iju^ loP'nat kama. 

To cut, U\^ katna, \J^\jj tarashnUf U^ ^lai iba^ Aarna : see Tocar?e. 

To dally, (delay) U^ i^J d?ri kama, (trifle) U^^ ^^ j?^^ I5pcj57 

To damage, b^ c^L«sL Jddsarat karna^ bjf\^ iigarna. 
To dance, U^b nocAna, l}^ (^;pi; rai^ ii»^, (jamp) UOj^ fttUfna. 
To dangle, U^ latakna, iJljb At/agna. 
To dare, U^ (^j>^jur^at kama, (defy) UlC«JbO dhamkana. 
To dam, l>/^ ra/u kama, ^«^jfj ft^a^' dZna. 
To dash, \iiij patakna, UjU ^^J dZ mama, (sprinkle) ^^^ c&Airofata. 
To daunt, Ut^J darand, U^CiJbJ dhamkana, Ul^J dabkana. 
To deal, UjO cJ!^b (anf ^iSna, Uj[v>^ ^Ld>- ^i^^a ^^ dena. 
To debate, (think) U^ J^\7 ta*ammul kama, (dispute) \ijij\Jj takrar 

kama : see To argue. 
To decamp, U^ ^^ kuch kama, (move off) bls^ ^\j>- ehalejana. 
To deceive, 1:jO l^^ dhokha dena, Ulf>- cAAaZna, U^ f Ao^no. 
To decide, ^\;^ thahrana, \jji Jlaiit infifoi kama, UIC>> cAuAano. 
To deck, U^l^ ^afiu^ama, l3^ ^ts^iljT Sro^to ftamS, UjULii mgama. 
To declare, \i^ kakna, l;\&>- jatana, ^^j)/^ ikrar kama. 
To decline, (as the sun) Uibj dhalna : see To bow, refuse. 
To decoy, 1:j J v.^y fareb dena, UL^ phansana. 
To decrease, \iS^ ghatna, Uyb ^^ Amiir AonS. 
To dedicate, U^ uJSj ^ jW *i^y£^ o^ trail^ A:ama, Ulr^J (^^ 1/ ^ '^'" 

To deduct, 0^ ^.^ trox* ^rna, Ub JIC niiaZ ^aZna. . 
To deem, \^\>-janna, ^^ jiff tajmz kama, \jJ (j^\J Idyas kama. 
To deface, Uj J li« mtf a detm, l3^ j^s* ma^to kama, \jj^^ bigSrna. 
To defame, U^ ^li Jj bad-nam kama. Old <w-s*f> aii lagana. 
To defeat, 1:jJ vju..«X& shikast dena, \j\jb harana, (frustrate) V:jV^/Eaiff 2. 
To defend, b^ ^jJs^O b vr^,U^ kimayat or dastgtri kama. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs, 307 

To defile, Ij^ C/b b )L« maiS or na^pak kama. 

To deform, Ujfl^ JL& «AaA2 bigarjia, \jJ J^«xj bedaul kama. 

To defy, Ujbl^ 4^ 1^ laral chahna, lil^O l^jXfl angiiMa dikhana. 

To deign, U^ ^^ mutawajjih hona, \jJ^ J^ ^aiu2 kama. 

To delay, (v» n.) l3^ v^J dm kama, (v. a.) U6 ^aZna. 

To deliver, (free) \jji jljj t Ij^ riha or ajzrod AarTta : see To give. 

To demand, (claim) \jS \^ J da*wa kama : see To ask. 

To demolish, \jj^\ ujapia, ^\^ girana: see To destroy. 

To deny, \j^ Jij\ inkar kama, U3Uj na-manna. 

To depart, UU- ^Jl>- chaU-jana^ UjUju^ HdAarna. 

To depend, l:il!S latakna, (upon) \jjij ^b daman pakapta. 

To depopulate, 13JU-^ ujarna, \jji ^\^^ loiran /coma. 

To deposite, \i^^ ^mpna^ U^ cmUI amana^ rakhna. 

To depress, Ujb dabna, U^ (AW jio^ t Xuima, UbJ dcAana. 

To derive, (v. a.) UlC ni^Zna, (▼• n.) Uyb ^jiJL^ mmhtalclc hona. 

To descend, \iji\ utama, UU- ^yacU mclujana, \iyb JjU naa^i/ A5«a. 

To describe, U3l|C ftaftAanna, \iji jiJS ta^rlr kama. 

To desert, U/ Ci^ tark kama, ^jyv^ chhorna. 

To design, (intend) U^ 2rjlj\ iroda iama, (plan) \j/ Xlii M^^^a 

To desire, Ujbl^ cAaA^ta, \i^ [J^^^ khwahUh kama. 
To desist, ^Jb; jb 602; raAna, bb>- ^ rah j ana. 
To despair, despond, by^ jL^\b na-tcmmed Aona, byb ^y niras hona. 
To despise, bjU-^^«A>- fiaJctr janna, b^ C1^U>> ^ii^ara^ /:arna. 
To destroy, bjJ j\0»*t tf/ar deTia, b^ ;.l^ b l::-^ ne«^ or haVak 

To detain, b^ jb &a2r raAAna, b^j rokna, \jj JuS /coid Xcarna. 
To deter, bl^ darana, \j^ s^.^'J^^^ bc-himmat karna. 
To determine, b|^ thahrana, b^ dC^ tJiik kama : see To decide. 

To dethrone, b^b) ^ 4j;>^flg^ tefeft^ se utama. 


To devise (by will), b^ v.::^^:^i^j wafiyat kama: see To invent. 
To devote, b^ ^b^S b Iji b jU nij^a^r oxjida or i^tfrfraii iama. 


308 Vocabulary Verbs. 

To devour, U^ bhakhna, \3U- 1^ khajana, l:J \^ kha Una. 

To die (colour), lixJj rangna, ^^jT" ^^^J ^^^S cAcyAaTia. 

To die (expire), U^ marna, \jy^ cAi^ U c:^y /au^ or halak honu. 

To differ, l^yb lzJj[sij tafawut hona, (quarrel) \j^>^jhagarna. 

To diffuse, Ul^ phailaTiay \jj\s^ bistarna, ^Ifa^ &icAAa9ta« 

To dig, UJj^ khodna, \jjf gorna, (up) l3j\^ uftAafTia. 

To digest, l3^ >^ hazm karna, \j\e^pachana: see To arrange. 

To dignify, ^^ j]/j^ sar-faraz karna, Ulbjj barhand. 

To diminish, (v. n.) \iSip ghatna, (v. a.) \j\S^ ghatdna. 

To dine, U\^ U\^ khana khdnd, \jji s£^\^ ckasht karna. 

To dip, (v. n.) \iJ»J dubnd, (v. a.) Ubj dubana, 1:j(^ ^^"^ duiftt dena. 

To direct, (shew) 1>^J dikhland, (command) ^\^y farmana. 

To disagree, UjJb J^'^lj nS-wttwo/Jifc Aona, (quarrel) Ujx> bigarna. 

To disallow, l5j^ ^:^ b jlCl inftar or man* karna, \jj\i bamd : see 

To deny. 
To disappear, Ivy^^ chhipnd, Uyb cr »iy:i,>> champat hona. 
To disappoint, U^ jL« U na murad karna, UlObj daJikana. 
To disapprove, l3^ JCyi.<j U nd-pasand karnd, l)^ J>^ ra<2cf karna. 
To disband, UjJ L^\^jawdb dend, IjJ ^^f>- chkord dend. 
To disbelieve, IJUj na-manraa, l3^jld tnAar karnd. 
To discern, U^jL::^! imtiydz karnd, U^4> dekhnd. 
To discharge, ^^Jf^ cAAttfanS, 13^ *— ^;^ bar-taraf karna. 
To disclose, U^ kKolnd, l3^ ^1^1 is'Aar karnd. 
To discontinue, U^ Acb ndgha karnd, U^ ^^^ maukuf karnd. 
To discover, U^ buj j^atda karnd, U^^\]^ sSAir Aama : see To show. 
To disembark, (v. n.) \jj)\ utarnd, (v. a.) \jj\j\ utdrhd. 
To disengage, \j^ t j^ jWa Aarna, U^ kholnd. 
To disfigure, Ujlij bigdpid, \jJ ^\/^ Idiardb kdrnd. 
To disgrace, UJy t::.-v<^ ^iz^rma^ ^onia, l3^ J5J** ma^zul karnd. 
To disgust, iJbbJ^ kurhdnd, \i^ J^y^^ bezdr karnd. 
To dishonour, l3jlj| ji^t dbru utdmd, l)^ vjU'w^^^ SeAurma^ kama. 
To dislike, UibW> na^chdhnd, ij^ jo^jU nd-pasand karnd. 

Vocabulary Verbs. 309 

To dismiss, U^ c r ^» n<j rukh^at karm, U^ <— ^^ bar-taraf kama. 

To dismount, (v. n.) ly 1 uttxrna, (v. a.) U^Ul utarna. 

To dispatch, U^ ^l^ rau^ana kama: see To kill, waylay. 

To dispel, \jji j^ J rffir kama, U^ ^J da/* kama. 

To disperse, blilSf^ chhitkana, \j^ jts^u.^ muntashir kama. 

To displease, U^ ^^^U norJdmsh kama, U^ 2r«^jT azurda kama. 

To dispose, \3^ ^i::j^|^t arasta kama: see To arrange, give. 

To dispute, Uiot^ bahasna, (quarrel) \j^^jhagapia. 

To dissipate, \j\j\ urana, \jJ uJ|^1 m'a/ kama, L^J 1^1 ura ciSna. 

To dissolve, (v. n.) LL galna, \:lf ghulna, (v. a.) l3l^ pighUna. 

To dissuade, U^ jb baz rakhna, U^ ^i^ man* kama. 

To distil, (v. n.) \jy>- chuna, \i^ tapakna, (y. a.) \j\^ chd^ana, ^c. 

To distil (as spirits), \ji^JaLc muiattar kama. 

To distinguish, U^ ^ far^ kama, \j^jLx^\ imtiyaz kama. 

To distribute, USUb bantna, \jJ <Ut»- Ai^^a kama. 

To disturb, U,^ u^Ia«d^ muztarib kama, Uli4>- cAAmzaJ 

To dive, U^U aL^ ghota marna, Uj^j dubna. 

To divert, (amuse) Ul^ baklana, (turn away) b]^ pAirana. 

To divide, U^ m.^ 57 taJpsim kama : see To distribute. 

To divulge, \j^ ^U /3^/i ftama, \jhj batlana. 

To do, 13/ kama, \i\uj banana, li) laC baja lana. 

To dodge, Ul^ kaniyana, Um ^^^fs;^^ plchhe lagna. 

To doff, lijljfl utarna, (to doff clothes, Ujlfl ^^gj-^ AoprS utama)» 

To doubt, U/ (JX& shakk kama, liJlasr ^^^ ^ai^tn najanna. 

To doze, U^^l unghna, Uyb ^^^ ^i.^^jhapKi men hona. 

To drag, (v. a.) \i3u^ ghasltna, (v. n.) \iLm^ ghasitnS, : see To draw. 

To drain, li3^>- chhanna, Ulj JlC vjl> pan? nikal dalna. 

To draw, Uylj^^ khtnchna, (a sword) l:J^l^ kdrhna, (out) U Uj nikalna, 

(on, as a garment) UUb^ cAarAana. 
To dread, \jjJ darna, \j\^ c: ^ * ^ » fa > dahshat khana. 
To dream, U^^J m);:^ ^a^ai dckhna, (dakh.) U^Cj ^llj bashara 


310 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To dress, Uy pahanna or pakinna, (food) U\Ci pakana. 
To drink, Ly ptfia, \i5j^ ghuntna, Ul^ lU no^Aa khana* 
To drive, (v. n.) lijj J daurna, (v. a.) iJJU- chalana, \j\jy} daufana. 
To droop, Ul^fy^ mtajhanaf Uyb ^«>;^ paahmurda hona* 
To drop, (distil, v. n.) U^ cASna, (v. a.) UICj iapkana : see To fidl. 
To drown, (v. a.) \jyj dubona, (v. n.) ^uJ dubnu. 
To drum, Ula^ JJ? tahl bajanif U^^ ^>^ tambur thionkna. 
To dry, (v. n.) \:^y^ sukhna, (v. a.) Ul^ sukhana. 
To dwell, U«j &a«na, \iJbj rahna, \jJ ^z^^ sukunat kama. 
To earn, l3U^ kamana, \j^ J^^^- b Ijuj patda or hasil karna. 
To eat, \j\^ khana, U^ JjUj tonatru/ kama: see To corrode. 
To educate, U^ ^"^^^Z tarbiyat kama, U\^ riiAana. 
To efface, USL« nietna, l)ll« mtfana, ULf>* cAAi/na. 
To effect, \i^ kama, \ji ^^ ^}AA atnal men lana. 
To eject, bj J Jl^ nUcal dena, ^^ j^^ dur kama. 
To elapse, \jjd^guzama, \jyb iaJ^Sd gu^ashta kona. 
To elect, \:J ^^ chun Una, \jJ d>:^ pcLsand kama* 
To elevate, blfll utkana, U^ jcJj buland kama, l3Ujj ftarAana. 
To embark, blib^ b l:jh^^ j\^jahaz par chafhna or c^rAoiia. 
To embellish, ^Jiz^ singama, \j^ ^\iJ bana'o kama. 
To embrace, \i^jSjMJ baghaUgir Kona, Ufi ^^gale lagna. 
To embroider, U^ t^fi'^ kar<Kdbi kama. 
^ To emigrate, byb ^j 3b»*^*t7a-traj^an Aona, b^^f^ lHI^ ^^ cAAonsa. 
To employ, \j^ JUjc«*^ ist^mal kama, \ii ^^j^ J^ kam men Una. 
To enable, Uj J c:^^ b cl^^ kuwat or taJpwiyat dina. 
To encamp, U^ |*U« U |^ J b ^U^ Jduiima or <2era or mui^am iama. 
To enchant, I}/ Uy b jjU. b ^yJ^ afmn or jadu or fona kama. 
To encircle, b^ ay^W* b 4^^ girrf or mu/ia§ara kama, \jj^ ghSmu. 
To enclose, \jj^ ghema, \jJ ^U-1 tAato XEaraa, bj^JJb bandhna. 
To encourage, bj J Do b uu^^Jb Aimma^ or di/a«a dena. 
To end, (v. n.) \jyb |*Ujf b ^T oM^'" or tamam hona. 
To endanger, Ul J ^^«^ («^;^ khaire men dalna. 

Vocabulary, — Verbs. 31 1 

To endeavour, U^ "H^J ^ V l^ ^^ or jiddro-jahd kama. 

To endure, (v. n.) l:Jb; rahna, (v. a.) l3^ c:^^ J^ bardasht kama. 

To engage, (in service, 8cc.) UJ «^ rakh Una : see To employ, allure. 

To engrave, l3 J^ khodnij l3^ ^jiii b yjd^ kanda or naA:«A karna. 

To enjoin, U^ Ju^U ^aHef karna, \jJ f^ hukm kama. 

To enjoy, \j\j pana, \j\^\ uthdna, l:c;^ bhvgatna. 

To enlai^e, UU^ barhana, \j^ irolt^ kushada karna. 

To enlighten, l^jj^ ^ ^^ ffjH or muTiautrar karna: see To teach. 

To enrage, U^ cJ\v,»*dr b _«a£ ghu^fe or ghazalhnak karna. 

To enrol, li^ J»^! J ^^^yi J daftar men dakhil karna. 

To ensnare, L.J\^ pJutnsna, blfac; bqjAana, Ul^ balbhand. 

To entangle, bL.^ jpAa^ana, bjj\^ |)/iaiufna, bl^rt uljhana. 

To enter, (v. n.) U^ paithna, Uyb J»-l J dakhil hona. 

To entertain, U^ oi W ^ si W^ mtAmani or ziydfat karna. 

To enthrone, Ulfu; y o>dg^ to^^ /lar ftaifAa/na. 

To entice, blL*^ phuslana, Ul^ /u&Aana: see To allure. 

To entrap, bjJlf»jiAait<fRa, \ji„^^ pkansdna. 

To entreat, b^ Iscll iltijd karna, (dakh.) U^ tarasna. 

To equip, bjJ ^;b«L>j jLi 402? soman dend, bb^ sajdnd. 

To erect, bl^l ufAana, b^ ^IS AaVm A:ama: see To build. 

To err, bi[^ cAuAna, byh 2f]^^ gum-raA Aona, bJ^ bhulnd. 

To escape, Uo^ iacAna, b^l^j JC; ntiaZ AAagna, bj^|>> chhuind. 

To espy, bi^J deAAna, UO toXma, bjj dif^na. 

To establish, b^ JU Aa'.m karna, b]^ thahrdnd. 

To estimate, bKSt atkalnd, bJ/ /cufna, b^ cs..^ ^tma^ ftarna. 

To evacuate, b/ ^bi. MaH Arama, bJ\ili niiaZna, bj^^ cAAorna. 

To evade, bJ\j tdlnd, \j\fi urdnd, bl^ cAAaZna. 

To exaggerate, \jJ ^L« mubdlagha kamd, bbb^ &arAana. 

To exalt, b^ jJii buland karnd, bbb^ barkdnd, bbb^ cAarAana. 

To examine, bUj|T azmana, (as money) U^ parakhnd. 

To excavate, bj^^ hSrjid, b^ l^^ ftASftAa iamo. 

To exceed, b^ «jbj ziydda hona, bjb^ ftarAna ; see To excel. 

312 Vocabulary. — Verbs, 

To excel, UJ i,^^su^ sahkat lena, \j^ u-JU gKalib hona. 

To exchange, Ujj badalna, l3^ ^jj )Ij1 adla-badlt kama. 

To excite, ^^jt^ chhepia, 1:j J <^^gry targhah dena. 

To exclaim, Ul>- chilland, Uf>l jlC> pukar uthna. 

To excuse, l3^ uJU^ mu'dfkarna, (make excuse) U^ jj^c usr Aoma. 

To execute, U^ karna, t»^ ^lacrl anjam kama: see To kill. 

To exhibit, l3)L^0 dikhlana, \j^yb^ ^hir kama. 

To exist, Ijyb hona, Ijjyb f^^yc maujud honif ^>-l ocAAna. 

To expand, (v. n.) Ul^ phailna, (v. a.) UL^ phailana. 

To expect, U^ j\ld:Jl intizdr kama, \:^*^ ii\j rah dekhna. 

To expel, UjJ JIC nikal deria, \j^jdJj^ shahr bordar kama. 

To expend, \jS ^^ kharch kama, \j\^\ uthariiy \j\j\ urand. 

To expire, ^]^^ /^*^ dam chhornd, (to die) U^ marna. 

To explain, Ulfsr^*^ samjkdna, Ulbj batldnd, U^^U? saAir ^ma. 

To explore, l^j^ khojna, U;U ^^f^ cAAan marna : see To seek. 

To express, (utter) ^j\^\ uchcharnd, (squeeze out) \^jf^ nichdrna. 

To expunge, UlL« mitdnd, U^^^ mapw karnd. 

To extend, bjLj pasdrnd, (v. n.) Uuf^ phailna : see To spread. 

To extinguish, Ul^o;:; bujhdnd, l3^Jd gtiJ karnd : see To destroy. 

To extirpate, U^l^l uAAania, \j\^\ ^^js^jar khJod uthdnd. 

To extort, ^JJ•^ 6a-2ror Cna, LJ J^ac^ nickor lend. 

To extract, U^ ^\^6^\ isti fdi rdj kama, UJ 4^^««^ khainch tend. 

To extricate, ^|jf>^ chhurdnu, l3^ (jd3L»- khalds karnd. 

To &ce, Uyb ^^y^^ sdmne hond, (oppose) U^ ^li« mukdhala kama. 

To fail, l^^ chuknd, (become bankrupt) Uyb ^^^^Ji^ muflis Kond. 

To faint, Ut ^JLk ghash dnd, l3l^ ^?;:^ murcAAa khdnd. 

To fall, \j^^ gimd, l3j> parnu, (decrease) liS^ ghatnd. 

To famish, (v. n.) iJ^ l!^^ ^ Uv* ^ fdkon or ftA^AAon mama. 

To fasten, U^ A^Ifl J L»« mnstahkim karnd, (tie) Lj^jJIj bdndhnd. 

To father, Ul^ <^b &ap kahldnd, ^^ ,j le pdlnd: see To apply. 

To fear, \jjJ darnd, Ul^ _^ &Aat khdnd, \i^K^ sahmnd. 

To feed, \j1^ khildnd, 1:j J l1^j«>* khurdk dend : see To graze. 

Vocabulary, — Verbs* 313 

To feel, (touch) Ujfj- chhuna^ \j^ ^j^a^ lams karna : see To know. 
To feign, Ubj banana, \jJ lUl^ bahana karna. 
To fell, U^ J lSj\^ kat ddlna, b J <^l^ kat dena : see To cut. 
To ferment, (v. n.) U^l ^U ^ (j^josh ke sath uthna. 
To ferry over, \ij\3\ jU par utarna, ^j^ j^ p5r kama. 
To fetch, liTjJ le-ana, \A J^ lekar ana: see To reach. 
To fight, \iji larnif \j^ f^S^jang kama: see To quarrel. 
To fill, \jj^ bhama, \^;,^j^ bhar deniy U^ ]jyiP^^^ kama. 
To filter, \jj\pj nithama, ^\i>^ ckhanna. 
To find, \j\j panSf USl^ ^^ kiwj nikalna, UlC nikalna. 
To finger, UyS tatolna, l3j^ cAAiiTia, UUxlf ungliyana. 
To finish, U^ ^»:l£;- U aUJ tomam or Tduitm kama. 
To fire, (a gun, &c.) UJj^ chhopia, licb daghna : see To kindle. 
To fish, \3^ jlCi \^ i^if^ machhU ka shikar karna : see To seek- 
To fit, (▼• n.) UT uiL^ Mift ana, (v. a.) U^ ^(s^|^T aro^to kama. 
To fix, IjboJb bandhnttf l3\S lagana, ^^ j/^ mukarrar karna. 
To flame, U^t <dA<& skt^la uthna^ \iiip^ jhalakna. 
To flap, Id^ JAaZna, (the wings) UlS^JSf» phatphatana. 
To flatter, l3^ ^^j^^ chaplusi kama, b)L^ phusHna. 
To flee, liS\^ bhagndy ^^Ji^gwrez kama, V^ j1/^ ^rar ^na. 
To flinch, USib hatna, lilS la/na, l3^ phirna. 
To fling, U^OMf> phtnkna, l3l>> chalana, USl J ddlna. 
To float, Lyj ftaAna, Ix.*^ bhasnd, \jjJ taimd. 
To flog, VJ;U cJLJ^W chdbuk mdmd, UjU v^^ tore marna. 
To flounder, UjJj tarapnd, UlSLS^ chhatpatdnd. 
To flourish, (v. n.) U^ ^^ jy ^^^ 5 ^a;2fa Aona, (v. a.) \j\^ghumdnd. 
To flow, L^ &aAna, Uyb i^V ^ c;!^J ratran or j art hond. 
To flutter, ^ijj^jj? toiyAarana, ^Jj^J^ phatphardnd. 
To fly, UJ\ f<rna, ^j'jj^ parwdz kama: see To flee. 
To foal, ULj bydndy \x^ janndj UIj |;t«>|a^ bachherd bydnd. 
To fold, blyj tahdndf liJLj lapetnd, U^ iO toi karna, 

2 s 

3 14 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To follow, lil>- b UT ^«f^ piehhe ana or jana, U^ s^ArfJ P<i*''^w*'« 

To forbid, \j^ ^^ man^ kama, \:S^j rokm, \jj\j bama. 
To foretel, \j\»- ^ ^1 age sejatana, U^ ^T agam kahna. 
To forge, \:j^ ^JiS^ pitke garhna, \jji ^^U libas kama. 
To forget, U^ ftAii/na, U^ {J^y^J^ faramosh karna. 
To forgive, U^ ujlit« mu'af kama, ^j^^ chhopia. 
To form, \j^ 1 Jui jiatda kama, UUi banandf U^ kama. 
To forsake, ^J^^ cAkopia, UTl^ tyagna, U^ Ci/ torA Aama. 
To forswear, (swear falsely) Ul^^ ^^ ^Ji^^jhutht IjuMam khana. 
To fortify, (make a fort) b^ 4^«^ <^ koTa-bandi kama. 
To frame, UI:j banuna, \:JbJjU c^..JbJ ^ Jjj dltitf/ o d/udf band/ina. 
To free, U^ ^^ b j|;t ajzro^i or khalas kama, bj^^ cAAopta. 
To freeze, (v. n.) L4»- jamna, (x4u>. ^ ^^ 1j^ thandl sejamna. 
To frighten, U^^J darana, (scare) U\^ ftAarftana. 
To fiisk, U^Ji^ kudakna, Ul^J^ phudakna. 
To front, Uyb JjILo b ,^^U «amiie or muArafttZ Aona. 


To frustrate, U^ (^j^^ ma^rum kama : see To disappoint. 

To fry, U}^ dAunna, l3^ ^^by biryan kama, bJj ^a/na. 

To fulfil, (complete) b^ \jy pura kama, (perform) MJ \c\ ada kama. 

To furl, b&J lapetna, Uyij^^ iAaincAna. 

To furnish, blsay» pahunchana, b^ <tiu«»yr ara«to Aarna. 

To gabble, b^ CSi CJ^, bak bak kama, \jJ ^ ^ghenplen kama. 

To gain, (earn) bU^ kamaTia, (get) bb pana, \jji J^^U- >ian2 karm. 

To gall, (v. a.) bL^ lj^k>> ^^^^^p gkiske chamra chhtlna. 

_ •• 

To gallop, (▼. n.) LSbJ dapatna, (v. a.) \,\(v>f) <-2^^ sarpai pkenkna. 
To gamble, UL^ ^^ju'a khelna, \jJ i^Vj^ ^imar-ftaj^t kama. 
To gape, (yawn) bJ 4^*\fif»- JamAal Sna, (with surprise) bjLj ^ 

To garnish, bjUtXyi» sudhama, b^ <)b««}]^t arasta kama. 
To gasp, bJ _S!1 ^brf j?an« ti//s 2e7ia, bl^Cl^ lakhlakhana. 

Vocabulary, — Verbs. 3 1 6 

To gather, U^ ^^ j^^^ kama, bj^b batorna, L>- chunna* 

To gaze, \jjjp ghuma, bjb^ ui^ to/c raAna, l:Jbj ^J <2e^A raAna. 

To gesticulate, ^\iJ Jl^ &Aa'o batana. 

To get, UU j>ai»a, llj^ tiXJ b J^^U^ ^o/t/ or j>au2a kama. 

To gild, U^ J»- b ^j*«» soTiakIa or )la// kama. 

To gii^le, \j\.'>|^^jAan;Aawana, l3U|S:.f» fkantkanana. 

To gird, LibJjU ,<iliJ lapethe bandhna : see To tie, reproach. 

To give, 1:j J dena, Lla^r bakhshna. \:^y^ sompna* 

To glad, gladden, \3^ c/^^ M^A kama, UUjb Aabana. 

To glitter, l:i^«4>> cAamaftna, l:^!^- jhalakna. 

To glow, Ul^J^ dagdagana, UCjbJ dahakna. 

To gnash (the teeth), l)lc^T kichkichana, U*.*.^ |?ima. 

To gnaw, UjI>> cAoina, USl^ ifca^na, UL»- chabana. 

To go, UU- Jana, U.^* chalnUf Uyb ii^ij rawana kona. 

To govern, U^ cL.v«yl». ttuJmmat kama, (actuate) U)L^ cAaiaita. 

To graft, b^ jJ^ paiwand kama, Ulx! Ji ^aktm lagana. 

To grant, 1:j J (fena, LIa:; bakhshnaf UU manna* 

To grasp, Uj^ pakarna, U^ gahna, U^ ViS^j^ g^n/^ A:ama. 

To gratify, U^ c/i^ Mv** karna, (requite) l5^ \^jaza kama. 

To graze, U^ chama, Ux>- chugna, (touch) UU- jf>- chhujana. 

To grin, UUj c^b ^an^ nikalna, UlC (^^-i^;;^ AAi« nikalna. 

To grind, L«mJ j7wna, l^^ &tiA:na, (afflict) U !::;•«> satana. 

To groan, ljh|^ AaraAna, U^ i^j\j ^ i\ ako zari kama. 

To grope, U^ tatolna, Uy fona, U^ ^ y^^} td^orVyi kama. 

To grow, (vegetate) U^ «gna, (increase) Li^ barhna. 

To grub, Ub Jj4^ AAo^ da/7ia, Ujl^l ukharna. 

To grumble, Ulj^j^ barbarana, ^\p tarrana, Ulj^ kurkurdna. 

To guess, UKSl atkalna, U^ ^^U ittyo^ kama. 

To guide, U/ ,^ UjJb^ raAniema*t Aarna, U]L»- cAafiina. 

To gush, l3^ ii^W" 15-* {J^f^josh sejdri hona. 

To hail, (v. n.) ^ ^J^\ oU papia, (salute) \jJ aLi salam kama. 

To halt, (limp) \j\^ Uingrana, (stop) Ui^ \j^ AAara raAna. 

316 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To hang, (v. n.) UM latakna, (v. a.) Ul^ latkana: see To choke. 

To happen, U^j ^I an papia, \j\p^ I ajanuy Ua-j il^na. 

To harrow, IJ;^ \x«Jb benga pherna, (disturb) Lj J ^ ra?y dZna. 

To hasten^ \j^ ^^d^jaldi kama^ (v. a.) U1>-^L& shitabtar chalani. 

To hale (detest), l3^ c:^ nafrat kama, \:jIs»- 2[j^ makruhjannd. 

To have, U^ rakhna^ l3U jpana, IJ^ pakarna, ^yt hona. 

To heal, (v. n.) U^ /^Lsll iltiyam hona, (v. a.) U^ Uc^ changa 

To heap, iJ^ f*^ jam* karna, Ulxl ^j dAer lagana. 
To hear, hearken, U»« ^nna, Uyto ^l^ Aan dhama. 
To heat, l3^ (^go^w kama, U^ ;^T ag kama: see To enrage. 
To heed, take heed, lii^ ^^b b ^UibJ dhyan or po^ rakhia. 
To help, U^ l:uJIcj»i\ \j JXe madad or istVdnat kama. 
To hem, Ulxl i,^« maghzt lagana, bU^ lurhiyana. 
To hesitate, li^ ^^^ LriP^^ o pesh kama, \jLs^*t hichkichana. 
To hew, Ul^ ^ s>j>^ iieZAan «e &a,fna, L&]J toro^Ana. 
To hide, ^^^ chhipana, l3K] lukana, (v. n.) ^^ c/zAtpna. 
To hie, UUf S^ jaldjana, UU-^la-i shitabtar janA. 
To hinder, lii^j rSA»a, Ul^l aikana, U^ wi« fnon* kama. 
To hire, LJ 4io\^ kiraya Una, (to let) U^ ^^ t^ Atra'0 ftoma. 
To hit, (v. a.) b;U mama, 1:j J c,^ xar& ^Tia, (v. n.) UH lagna. 
To hold, Uf(; rakhna, UjG pakarna, \:h^ gahna : see To think. 
To honour (shew respect), \jji cl^ b uji2\ adab or t;72ra^ ioma. 
To hop, U Jj^ _«rf y U i^Jj} ek panw se kudna, Ul^ll langrana. 
To hunt, U^ jICm» sMkar kama, bjj«x^ khaderna. 
To go a hunting, Ul^ j\CSi shikar kKSlna. 

To hurry, U^ ^^J^jaldi kama, ULlib halbalana: see To hasten. 
To hurt, (pain) bl^J dukhana, (injure) l3^ ^^^-^ nwi^an kama> 
To jabber, USj ftaftna, (dakh.) b\jjS^ watwatana. 
To jeer, U^ ^.j;!" ^^ te*n tashnt kama, bjj^ cAtrana. 
To jest, \j^ b U^U l^ <Aaf /ia marna or kama. 
To illumine, U;^ Xl>"^ b ^^^j rosAan or igala kama. 

Vocabulary, — Verbs. 317 

To illustrate, (explain) U^ fv^ tashrth kama : see To illumine. 

To imagine, \j^jyaj ta§auwur kama, L>-^ ^chiia. 

To imitate, (follow, ape) \jJ j-cJ tatabhu kama : see To copy. 

To immerse, \jyJ dubona, Uj^ borna, U^ jjC ghark kama. 

To impart, (inform) L^ kahria^ \jizj batlana: see To grant. 

To impel, 1}1>- chalana^ U^tJ daurana. 

To imply, U^ c:JSIJ daldlat kama, U^^ ^^y^x^ fiia'n? rakhna. 

To import (as merchandise), \ji JU ^^^^^ saudagart mal lana. 

To importune, U^ li^liJ talpaxa kama, LJ ,<f^ pichhe Una. 

To imprison, l3^ Jcj Ij (j^y^ V ^ ^^^ ^^ mahhus or ftan^f kama. 

To improye, (v. n.) Uyb^^x^ bihtar hona, (v. a.) UjlibJu» sudhama. 

To impute, li\S lagana, ^)j^ thahrana, l:JbjjU daniiATta. 

To incite, 1:jJ t..^^ J tarshib dena, \j\£\ uthana, ^^r^>^ chhema. 

To include, U^ Jc^b dakhil kama, (surround) \jj^ ghema. 

To increase, (v. n.) UaJj barhna, (v. a.) l3ljb«^ barhana. 

To indicate, U^ u:^) J dalalat kama, \jhj batlana. 

To induce, ^J {jc^js^ U v,^>^g.ry} targhlb or /oAri^ £7?a, UH /ana. 

To inflame, Ul^ jaZana, UIm ^^t ag lagani, l^^ phunkna. 

To inflate, b)lf> phulana, U^ v^ no/M kama, l^^ phunkna. 

To inform, Ul:^ Ja^ana, 13\^jb^ samjhana, l3^ 21b ! agaA kama. 

To ingraft, Ulfl dJy^^ paiwand lagana, (fix) Ul^ baitkdlna. 

To inhabit, LmJ io^na, Ixib^ rahna, l3^ u::^jC» «z</:iina^ kama. 

To inherit, Uyb (^|^ tcari/r ASna, UJ C^l tr/? /Sna. 

To inject, Ub Ja/na, (with a syringe) Ujto ^J^^pichkari mama. 

To inquire, ^^^^ puchhna, U^ (j^b^ pursish kama. 

To instigate, U3)U|^ warghaldnnaf \jL^\ uksHna : see To incite. 

To- instruct, Ul^ sikhldnd, U^ aiJuu ^a*ZFm X:arna. 

To intend, U^ Ju^ U 2fj|^\ tra^a or kasd kama^ Ujbl>- chdhnd. 

To interfere, U^ j£>^4> cZa^Z kama, UlQ <^lib Aa^A lagana. 

To interpret, U^ ^'^-^^sjy tarjuma kama : see To explain. 

To interrupt (hinder, stop), \i^jfj rokna, 1:j\^ CL>b 2»aZ fta/na. 

To intimate, U^ ^l&l i^Aara kama, \iJi^j^ Idiabar dena. 

318 Vocabulary — Verbs. 

To introduce, (to a person) U\^ ci^ULe mulakat karana: see To 

To intrudci l3^ J>4> dakhl kama, \jJj {j^ ghus parna. 
To intrust, UJ^ sompna, U^ ^UJ b «^^ sipurd or zimma kama. 
To invade, U^ s^'^/^ charha*i kama, Ul Jb^ cAarA aita. 
To inveigle, l^jl^^ ulhama, U\^ balhhana, \j\j^ lalchana. 
To invent, U^ JlsC^ |/^ kama, Ul^ 7itA:a2na : see To feign. 
To investigate, \j^ ^jJ^ b ,JL^ tafdsh or toAitiA: kama. 
To invite, l:JjJ nyotna, \jJS a^^o dtfioat kama. 
To involve, (wrap) 1:j^jJU t<^^ lapetke bandhna: see To entangle. 
To join, (v. n.) U&>- Ju/na, l3Jp->rii5, (v. a.) Ki^^jopii. 
To jostle, Uj J ICftJ dhakka dena, IJuCjbJ dhakelna. 
To irrigate, Uy.>.^i stnchna, b^y tor ftama. 
To irritate, Ulc^ kkyana, b^H?" cAASpta, U\:;m> satana. 
To issue, (v. n.) \JlO nikalna, (v. a.) Ul^ niia/na. 
To judge, b^ jL) b J«aJ U i^\^\ in§af or faUal or nyatr kama. 
To jumble, \j^ i^^lsr* malMut kama, (dakh.) UK kaldna. 
To jump, Ufc)^ kudna, (over) U Jj\f» phandna. 
To keep, l^^ rakhna, (preserve) UlocriacAana : see To protect. 
To kick, bUsI latiyana, U^Uj^^ b d^S /a^ or thokar mama. 
To kill, UUjU mdr-dalna, \jj ^yi^ U Js3 ^atl or feftiln kama. 
To kindle, (v. a.) UlxLa sulgana, (v. n.) l^Ju sulagna. 
To kiss, L«4»- cA&mna, UJ U Ljv> A«i*i ftosa ^na or Rna. 
To knead, Ujj^ gUTufna, ULi^aiiTia, UjJU mandnd. 
To kneel, l:^^ y Ij ^J c2o-j;anii baithnd. 
To knit, Ui:^ itnna, li;j ^ cuJU^^ baghair tdnt ke binnd. 
To knock, UC«f iAonina, (at a door) UlS^CS^ khatkhatdnd. 
To know, \i3U^ ja»na, (recognise) Ulc^ jpaAcAanna. 
To labour, \i^ c;,..;fr* mi^nat karnd, U^ ^J c^ieM bharrid. 
To lack, l3yb <^l::^5^ mufitdj hond, Uyb j^<^ darkdr hond. 
To lament, U^ ^li na/a Aarna, Oj^^ rona, l3^ ^^y naulia kama. 
To land, (v, n.) U^\ utamd, (v. a.) O^Ul u^arna. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 319 

To lapse, (pass) \jjis guzama, (err) ^y>- chtJcna: see To fall. 

To last, l:*^ tikna, U^ tkaharna, \:Jbj rahna. 

To laugh, lv-,:*ft hansna, (deride) U^ l^ thatka kama. 

To lay, l:^^ rakhna, l}yibJ dhama, (eggs) UjJ 1jJ\ anda dena. 

To lead, Ul^ ^ 2S chalna, Uyb \^1^ peshwa hona. 

To lean, U^ JJU ma'/Z ^ita, (on) UlU i^ takiya lagana. 

To leap, \jO^ kudnij (over) Ujjl^pAaneZna, l:^^ tapna. 

To learn, l:>^Cj-» stkhnUf U^ J«^l>- Ac t/m Ao^iZ kama. 

To leave, ^J^^ chhorna, l3^ C^ ^art kama, (by will) U^ ^ Ai&a 

To lend, UjJ ^j\c. ariyatan dem, \ijt} ^jo^ karz dena. 

To lengthen, l3\jb^ barhana, liL«] lambana : see To delay. 

To lessen, (v. n.) \:£>^ ghatniy (v. a.) blS^gAafana. 

To let, (permit) Uj J dena, (let go) \ij J Jj^ cAAor dena : see To hire. 

To lick, \ij\^ chatna, \:i^ lesna, (to beat) U^U marna. 

To lie, (rest) liSJ S^»a, U^ parna, l:Jb; raAna : see To lean on. 

To lie (speak falsely), Ly^ l^ U^ -f.^f^ j''Sf^ ftoZna or kahnd. 

To lift, \3l^\ «<Aana, \xJ Iff tifAa Sna, l3U^ barhana. 

To light, (kindle) UHsj-jaKna, (make bright) \jJ ^^ roskankama. 

To lighten (v. n. to flash), UC4>- chamakjiay UCy! lahakna. 

To lighten (make light), l)^ KU halka kamd. : see To descend. 

To like, U/ J^ b jo^j pasand or ita&u/ kama^ l:JbU- cAaAna. 

To liken, U^ s^];j ^ ^li« mukabala or barabari kama. 

To listen, Ui«« sunna, U^J \l ^^ (^^ ^an lagana or dhama. 

To live, (exist) U-5j- Jin5, (dwell) lito; raAna, U*j fto^a. 

To load, l3 j1 ladna, l^^^ bojhna, U^ &Aama. 

To lock, U\^ JiS ii:t{/2 lagana, \iJ^ 1\j tala dena : see To fasten. 

To lodge, (v. a. to place) ULj basana, Ul^ baithalna: see To dwell. 

To long, L^y tarasna, UU^ lalchana, U^ j1::l!L« mu^A^aA Aona. 

To look, (v. n. to seem) l^>»^ mjhna, (v. a. to behold) ^/jlai namr 

kama, l^^(3 dekhna, \:Sj takna, (for) LibjJ^j dhundhna, (to 

expect) li^ jUtiJi in/ufar Aama. 

320 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To loose, loosen, Uj^ kholna, W^J>€^ chhSr dena. 

To lop, 1:^13 1^ chhantna, Ul^ katna, \J^\p tarashna. 

To lose, \j^ khonay (at play) \jj\ib harna, (err) ^^ chukna. 

To love, lii^l^ c^aAna, l^^U> /?yar karna, li|^ j;!*^ mAA: raAAna. 

To lounge a horse, \:^^JjL>' ^ sJj^ S^t^ kochakkar dena. 

To lower, \jji Isni mcha kama, (the clouds) b^ ghima: see To 

To lug, (drag) \\\u,^ ghasltnay (by the ears) U J j//^ ^^^ kan pa- 

To lull, ULi suldna, 13) Jc^J nin^Z Zana. 

To lurk, bi|!Li ^^^ CU^l^ gAa^ mevl baithna, \JjJ dabakna. 

To maintain, (defend) Ul l^^k<4M«» sambhalna, (rear) Ub palna : see To 

To make, UUj banana^ U^ Ijui pauS kama: see To do, cause, get, 

To mar, Uj^j bigamif \j/ ^^5/^ ^J JJ^ ^aiiZ or Jdwrab kama. 
To mark, U^ ^l*J nishan karna, (brand) Uj J i|j dagh dena. 
To marry, U^ sL) byah kama, LjbLi byahna, Ul dUj ftyaA 2ana. 
To measure, 1:jU mapnaj 1:jI} napna, \j^ {j^^^^ paima'ish kama. 
To meditate, \3^ v:;^<^ c?Ayan kama^ (think) l^^ ^chna. 
To meet, IJl« milna, U^ c^ldlU muldkat kamdf Uybjl>-j J du-cfiar hona. 
To melt, (y. n.) UL galna, \:^^ pighalna, (v. a.) l3]^x» pighland. 
To menace, OfybJ dhirdna, l3lC«j^J dhamkana, iJUU dantnd. 
To mend, l3^ c:^,««^ maramma^ karna, \jJjbX^ sudharna, UjL> siima. 
To mention, l3^^i Sfiir karna, U^ kahndy \jJ j\i^ ^i^ gosh-gusdr 

To milk, Ijb^j dohTid, Ul^ 2rJjJ cfi^ZA TiiAaZna. 
To mince> (hack) Ly,;4>> ckkenchnd, (mince meat) l3^ <uJ itfina 

To mind, (regard, notice) U i l^le lihdz karndy (remind) U)j jb yad 

To mingle, lilL« mitandy b^ J;^«T b L^jlib^ makhlut or ante^r kama. 

Vocabulary, — Verbs, 321 

To mislead^ OtilS^ bhatkana, l3lC^ bahkana, \j^ i\yilS gumrah karnd. 
To miss, (not to find) l3\J na^anuy (mistake) U^ Ua^ khata kama. 
To mistake, (v'-n.) U(^ cAuftna, U^ &At</na; see To miss. 
To mitigate,' \j>^ tJCi^ b i^i^ b aJ na7*9n or muWim or thanda karna. 
To mix, (v. n.) ULc milnd, (v. a.) U3U mtlana, U^ ^Isr^ makhlut 

To moan, 1:j^ ^rAna, l)^ (jii«^«Jl b ^U na/a or a/i5« Aama : see To 

To mock, (make feces at) l3l«^ ..f^ munh banana^ (gibe) lj]j>* chirana, 

\j\j) birana. 
To molest, \j\s^ satana, ULsr khijdna^ Ij J u,bA(7 ^aAii/* ciSTia* 
To mortgage, ^^j^^ ^ji^^ ^^y^j zamn o ghaira girau rakhna. 
To move, (stir, v.n.) ULb hilna, U^ saraftna, (go) Ul>- chalnuj (v. a.) 

V3)Lb hilanaf \j1^ chalana, U\^ sarkana : see To excite, propose. 
To mount, (v. n.) ^^^'^^^^ charhna, (a horse), Uyb j|^ sawar hdna, 

(v. a.) ^^5^ charhana. 
To mourn, Uib^ AierAna, U^ ^ U *7U b dlU <^i\ aho nala or matom or 

gham karna. 
To mow (cut with a scythe), USl^ ^ ^J das se katna. 
To multiply, (as in arithmetic) \jJ s^^ ^ ^-ry? ?ar& orjdrtt karna : 

see To increase. 
To mumble, mutter, U^ (»J jij zer lab kahniy D^jijj barbarana. 
To murder, U^ ^^^ Mkun karna, \jjjsi^ ^joio baghz se katl 

To murmur, \j\^^ kurkurana, (mutter) l3|^ barbarana. 
To muse, Uj>-^ ^cAna, U^ t/b^ V. ^'^'^^J^fikr, andesha or ^kzt/s 

Must, ^ ^jS Hzim hai, ^j*^^ ckahiyef \^^ f^gif L^Ji/^ zarur hau 
To name, Iv^ ^U nam rakhnd, (mention) U^ Jj^l) namzad karna. 
To nauseate, feel nausea, l})b^ ^^ jt matland, l3\Jub haliyana: see 

To abhor. 
To need, l:JbW cAfiAna, l3yb jl^J b ^^gjs^ muhtdj or darkar hdna. 

2 T 


322 Vocahulary.— Verbs. 

To Delect (act carelesslyX ^/ ciJIa^ ghaflat kama, l)U>- J^ bhul 

To negotiate^ U^ ^U^ mu^amala kamij (a bill) V}1>- hf'^'^ Aundt 

To neigh (as a horse), UUfJ^ AinAtnona. 
To nibble, Ui^ khutakna, Uxy fiingna, U^ kutama. 
To nip, U^ nocAna, LJ ^^5^^ cAtel£i Zena. 
To nod, Ui^ jhukna, \j\C^ j^ sar jhukana, (from sleep) l^Cl^t 

To nominate, UjtO Ij Ulu ^b nam batlana or cSna : see To appoint. 
To note, (obsenre) \j^ jj£ ghaur kamoy (set down) LJ ^ it&A 

To notify, (declare) \jJ A^^ Clam kamif (tell) \j\s^ jcttana : see To 

To nourish, UU palna, Um»^ ;)o«na, U^ (^^^ parwarish kama. 
To nnmber, liJiT gtnna, U^ (^L.^ hj^^ shumar or Ai^oi kama. 
To nurse, (the sick) U^ Ci£;^<i;W i^mordari kama, (a child) Jbjy 

l}]b {fikiA pilaMf U^ ^^p^ ^^'Ij dffhgari kama. 
To obey, iJU manna, U^ i/;^*^^ V (J^^<;^^;^ /ormon-ftardari or 

tabi^dari kama. 
To object (urge against), U^ ^|^1 ^tiraz kama, U^ pakapia. 
To oblige, (bind) iJ^ ^li««j\j \j 0^ iam2 or toabasta kama, (bind by 

gratitade) U^ (i^u-Cb^^y^ marASn-i-minna^ karna: see To 

To observe, (watch) U^ 2F\xi ntgaA X:ama, (look to) ^\^ nijhana. 
To obstruct, \^jj rokna, (3jT arna, U^ (»^\H ''^^^^^^^ Aona. 
To obtain, U^ J^^U- >ia^Z kama, \j\j pana, (be current) Uy^ t^\j rffij 

To obtrude, U^ J>-lo dakhil kama, \j\m^ ghusana. 
To obviate, Ijlesr bacAana, U\S faZna, Uj^ ^J; ro/^ Aama. 
To occur, \jyb Kona, Uy^wSI^ waH* hona, l3yb Jji^ sar-zad hona : see 

To meet. 

Vocabulary Verbs. 323 

To offer, (present) \u^j i<f<U samhne rakhna, (sacrifice) \jS ^\>J 

kurban kamu. 
To ogle, 1:^0 i^^a^ kankhiyam dekhna, \;J ^^ly W jhinwli Una, 
To omit, ^jy^ chhopia, Ul^ J^ bkuljana, U^ \jL^\i^ ^ji faro 

guzasht kama. 
To ooze, U!ij nikalna, U^ ci&iina, L.^ risna, U^ cAAanaa. 
To open, (v. n. be opened) l^ khulna, (▼.. a.) U^ kholna. 
To operate, U^ |%l^ kam kama, (upon) ^^ J^ offar kama. 
To oppose, \ji^ oaIIst^ muldiUafat karna, U^^; roAaa. 
To ordain, ^]/^ thahrana, ^^ j/^ muljparrar kama : see To fix. 
To order, (command) U^ aC>- ^ukm Aania, (regulate) \:j o H^^ 

To organize, 0^ ^^^r^y tarktb kama. 

To ossify, (v. n.) UU-^ t^tX^ Aodii hojana, (v. a.) Utj^ 4^jJb haddi 

kar dalna* 
To overawe, \j\jJ darana, \:jO v::>wN3 dahshat dena. 
To overcome,' U^ ^fatp> kama, U^ cl>^»A skikast kama. 
To overflow, (v. n.) L^ > > chhalakna, U^ ^ &aA parna. 
To overlook, (inspect) l:i^O dtkhna, (excuse) U^ j«^^ darguzar 

To overset, (v. a.) 1:jJ C^\ ulai dZna, (v. n.) 1} W L^Jf utatjana. 
To overtake, UT yf/ Aaraiar avia, ^J J^ pakaf UwL 
To overthrow, (overturn) \:j J clJl tt2af eiZaa : see To overcome. 
To overwhelm, (crush down) \ijj^ b J daba dena, (immerse) U^ Jfyfi 

ghark kamd. 
Ought, ^^^\>' chahiye, ^ ^ji \lj}j^ zarur or lazim kai. 
To oust, UlCi ntAaZna, 1:j(3 If I u^Aa dSna. 
To outroot, U\ J j|\^t uAAar daZna, Ujl^l li/cAanta. 
To outstrip, U^ cs.' J yi. i sabi:at kama, LJ ^JbJ ^XT agS <fAar 2ena, 

Ub ^^^ftf)j jncAAE daha. 
To owe, U^Uj dhama, Uyb j\xa^ Jcarz^dir honu. 
To own, (possess) U^ il^U ma/tft Aona, l:*^ rakhna: see To confess. 

324 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To pacify^ U^ Ujc^ thandha kama, UjJ ^ji^^ iaskin dena^ 

To pack, liJhJjb i^j^ gathri bandhna, l:£j lapeina. 

To paint, U^ ^^i^ix* munalckash kama, U' « g^ cAt^. 

To palpitate, UjI^ kampna, U^pAaraina, l:i^^ dharakna. 

To pant, l'.^>i;B» hamphna, Ul^^b^^ haphhaphana. 

To parch, 1:j^ bhunnd, U^ ^b^ biryan kama. 

To pardon, \j^jdSjt^ b ii^U^ mu*df or darguzar karna. 

To pare, lJu4»- chkllna, l3^ katama, \iJ^\jj tarashna. 

To participate, USJb bantna, \j^j\di^a>- fiif§a-dar hona. 

To pass, (v. n.) bjOid guzarna, L^ bahna, (v. a.) l^^fjtT girxama. 

To pat (strike lightly), \:jlf» thapna, l3jU 1>-UJ tomocAa mama. 

To patch, ^j^jorna, l3lfi ^y*} paiwandlagana, UClS lanAna. 

To pawn, l:^ ^^ ff-'^o rakhjia, U^ tJiJbJCJ bandkak rakhna. 

To pay, Uj^ U) a<2a kama, l2j<^^ iAar ctena; see To beat. 

To peck, iJjy jungna, UIm^ Mongana, UjU ^15:^0 mini^ar marna. 

To peel, (v. a.) l;t;|'»> cAAI/na, Ujl7l 1^3^^ c/ihilka utama. 

To peep, l3y^ <J^ L5^i j'^^^ namtkl Aona, (v. a.) \iij\^jhankna* 

To penetrate, Isi^^ ckonkna, ^<x?f>^ chhedna, (affect) U^ yl asar 

To people, ULj basana, \j^jyu^ b jl/^ aia<2 or ma^mur kama. 
To perambulate, U^ phima, \jJ j^ sair kama. 
To perceive, U^ c:^l;jJ daryaft karnif UU ^J deiA j>ana. 
To perfect, (finish) li^ j^UJ tamam kama, Uj-J nii^nta. 
To perform, \jJ kama, \iJb\^ nibahnd, USlap; bajd lam. 
To perish, \jy mama, Uyh d/lib AaZaA hona, lub^ l}l>- ja^a raAna. 
To permit, Uo J d^na, bj J <-^ V^ ijdzat dena, \u^j Ijj raira rakhna. 
To perplex, U^ u;\^ ^iran kama, U\ J ^^^ ^ peck men dalna. 
To persevere, persist, Ljb; JU Aa'/m ra/iTia. 
To perspire, U^U»j paAjnd, UlC) L^ paslna nikedna. 
To persuade, UU^ 99ianaita, U^ JjU maV/ kama, \:j J ^X« 5a2a^ iCiia. 
To pervade, L^S^ paithna, UL^ p/iailna, \j\jJ dar ana. 
To pervert, UlsSI uliana, UJUj bigarna, U^ ^-^^/^ kharab kama. 

Vocabulary.^^Verbs. 325 

To peruse, U^ AjtSlk« mutala^a kama, l:JbJj parhna* 

To pester, \j\i^ satana, UlsF khijana, \:j J t— QjKt taktif dena. 

To petition, U^ u^|;*« u^ ^''? 'w^^ Aarwa : see To request. 

To petrify, (v. n.) 15]^ pathraria, lilsj-^ ^^ patthar hojana, 

(y. a.) ^^^/f^ patthar kama, \j^ CJU^^ K;f^ pattharsa saJdU 

To pick, \u:^ chunna, LJ ^^ cA«n tena, l:*^ chugna : see To choose. 
To pierce, ^j^ cAonA^ta, UL* «a/7ta : see To bore. 
To pilfer, L^ musna, 1)1^ churana. 

To pinch, l^y nocAna, LJ ,<$^S>- chuiki lend, (press) Wlj dabna^ 
To pine, ^;^^ jhuTna, l3^ 9 J^\ afsurda horn, Ujb^ ^ mar raAiza. 
To place, l:»^ rakhna, Ulfij baithalnd, ^]/^ tkahrana. 
To plan, (scheme) U^ Ji^^^ tajwiz kama, (design) l:JbJJb A^Iai 

naksha bdndhna. 
To plant, (set) U\d lagana, ^^j rdmpna, (settle) Ul^ baithalnd. 
To play, UL^ khelnd, (to toy) 0^ jU- j]^ ra'o cAa'o karnd, (music) 

Ulrsc^ by and. 
To plead, U^ c:,^y»' ^2£[/a^ karnd, US JJ J daZtZ Kna : see To argue. 
To please, \j^ cr^ Miush karnd, ^\^j rifhdnd, (v. n.) \:>j>'jruchnd. 
To pluck, LJ ^^jti^ chhtn lend, (as a fowl) ^j^J, P^^ ukhdrnd. 
To plunge, (in water) li^U ^d?^ gKota mdrnd, \iJ%^ dubnd, (v. a.) 

lib J dubdnd. 
To polish, \j^ L^ b b^U U Ji^ faikal or fo/* or chiknd harnd. 
To pollute, U^ cIAjU itopa/c karnd, l3J\^ bigdrnd. 
To possess, U|^ rakhnd, U^ cJ^ ta^arruf karnd, U^b J dharnd. 
To postpone, UIC la/nS, U^^^^b ^aM<^ karnd. 
To pound, U5^ kuind, UC^ thonknd, l3j^ chumd : see To confine. 
To pour, ULbJ dhdlnd, lJjJj\ undelnd, (flow) L^j bahnd* 
To practise, 13^ /cama, b^ L^ Aiya karnd, \jS ^Jt^ mashJc karnd. 
To praise, Ijb]^ sardhnd, U^ Mdyu ^o^tf ftama : see To applaud. 
To prance, l)^ (^W^ lambiydn karnd, U^U vS/dM» shaking mdrnd. 
To prate, prattle, U^ uisj() U \^^^ gapshap or bakbak karnd. 

326 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To pray, (entreat) IJjU mangna, (to heaven) U^ jUj namaz kama. 

To preach, U^ lacj ti?^ kama, l:Jb^ JlLs^ khutba parkna. 

To precede, \il^ ,^1 agejanif l3yb ^ji^ mukaddam hdna* 

To precipitate, Uj \^ gira dena, 1:j(3 J«^J^ dhakel dena: see To 

To preclude, l:^ jb &az rakhm, U^ katna, \:Sju roknd. 
To predict, bibj U Ix^ ^ ^1 age «e kahna or bcUlana. 
To prefer, 1:jJ '9^&sry tor;7^ dSna, LjU^ ^;«»>'t ahsan janiia: see To 

To premise, l}^ «\ff«^ tamhtd kama, \31:l>. ^ _fl age sejatana. 
To prepare^ ^Jj\^ taiyar kama, UUj banana, U^ JjU >baiiZ kama. 
To prescribe (medically), lilu t^ U ^Jcr*^ nusklia or ciatra ia/Zona. 
To preserve, UW^ bachdna, (as fruits, &c.) \i^ ^^ mvrai&a AarTia. 
To press, (squeeze) ^l>* chdpnd, (out) ^^^^ nicAonta, (down) bbj 

dabana, (to distress) \}^ (2i^ ^ang kama, (urge) U^ Ju^ ^oftid 

To presume, b^ Jl^ Idiiydl kama, (be bold) U^ ^tu-f giuialdu 

To pretend, Ulij cjU ia^ banana, Uj^ ^lyj (aAana Ararna. 
To prevail, (be current) U^ ^J^jori hond: see To extend, conquer. 
To prevent, \i^<^ roknd, \j 1^1 at iana, \jj\ drnd : see To hinder. 
To prick, (v.n.) l*»^^^ cAu&Ana, (v.a.) b^f^^ chubkond, ^^y>' chonknd. 
To prime, Ulb CS^j ranjak pUinJa, (in painting) UIij ^^^^j zanun 

To print, l:j\f>> cAAopna, U^ U\^ b ^jtii na^h or cAA^a Aoma. 
To proceed, (on) l3l»- ^\ dgejdnd, UL». chalna, (from) U^ nikalni. 
To proclaim, U^ jJ^Uj xaAtr karnd, U^ IjiybjcJbi^ dhandhord pKimd. 
To procrastinate, U!\j faZna, U^ ^^J b J^ «^T dj'kal or deri kama. 
To procure, b^ \«XJ paidS ianta, blaci^ ^^ &a/iam pahunchdna. 
To produce, (bring forth) \:»i^jannd, (make grow) bbs^ upfdna. 
To profess, \j^j\^\ iJjprdr karnd, \x^ kahnd, b\&^ jatdna. 
To prohibit, b^ ^:w« man* karnd, b^ jb bdz raAAna,'U^ ro&tta. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 327 

To prolong, \j^ J^^ Uivnl karna, UU^ barha$ia, 1>2L^ phailana. 

To promise^ \j^Jiy^ ikrar karna, U^J ^^^ bachan dena^ 

To promote, bbb^ fiarAana, U^ ,v/ taraklct karna. 

To prompt, 1:jJ '^ kah dena, \jisj batlana, \j\sj>^jatana. 

To pronounce, ^j^^ ucAcAama, l)^ laiiJ talaffuz karna. 

To prop, l:ily teina, l:M<lfi thamna, UjfT arna : see To support. 

To propose, \j^j\^\ izhar karna, 13/ fjof' arz karna: see To intend. 

To prosper, l3^ ^^^s^^'j-^, ^ ^-'W^ ftam-ya& or bahrti-mand hond. 

To protect, U^ rakhna, lilsr iocAana, U/ <j:^U>. himayat karna. 

To prove, (try) UUJT azmana, (evince) 13/ o-olS §abit karna* 

To provide, 13/ L^ muhaiya karna, 1:j J rZS^ l^^, badna. 

To pry into, LJ Ju^; ftAee? ZSna, UCl^ JAanina. 

To publish, \}^ jyj^^ mashhur karna, (a work) l^j^ chbapna. 

To pull, \;yg^^ vJ*^J!^J ^^'* ^^ kliinchna, IijU tanna. 

To punish, 1:j J |^ ^aza c2ena, \3JjU dandna. 

To purchase, 13/ jj^ Muxrid karna, UJ J^ moZ Una. 

To pursue, UJ b U/ l^saj plchhorkarna or -ZSna : see To hunt. 

To push, \AjijbJ dhakelna, UL^ ikelnd, ULj pi/na. 

To put, \:^j rakhna, l3^ dhama, U^ j dSlna. 

To put off, (as dress) Uj\jf tc^orna, (defer) U]\5 faZna. 

To put on (as dress), U:..yj paAanna or pahinna, l:jbj«1 orhiia. 

To put out (extinguish), l3l^ bujhana, 13/ ^ gi*Z karna. 

To put up with, U^ saAna, l3^ u:.^! J^ bardasht karna. 

To putrefy, (v. n.) l3j«» <ama, UlS gaZ»5, (v. a.) \i\y» sarand. 

To quake, 1:^31^ kampna, U^ Zarojzita, U/ kapna. 

To quarrel, ^^^^ jhagarna, l3^ Z<]^*na, U/ <UdS Aroftya Xcama. 

To quaver, UC^ lahakna, ^j^j^ J V'' 5tr5j2r maropia. 

To quell, l3Uj dabana, l}jy ^ofTta, b/ ^j rq/"* Aoma. 

To quench, b^^a^ bujhana, 13/ \jc»^ thanda karna* 

To question, 13/ Jl^ «tctoaZ Aama .* see To debate. To doubt. 

To quit, l3j^f>- chJrnnd, Uasf' tajnn, 13/ C^ tori A:ama. 

To quiver, li/ kapna, ^jj larazna : see To quaver, quake. 

328 Vocabulary, — Verbs. 

To quote, IJ^ ^^LjI ilctibas kama, U^ ^^0 darj kama, US Jc*^ sariad 

Quoth (said)y l^ kaha^ \f^ katha. 
To rain, (v. n.) U-j^j barastiay Ujj ^i\j |)anl pama, (v. a.) ULy ior- 

To raise, \j\^\ uthana, \j/ b^ bar-pa karna, UbbJ^- cAarAana. 

To ram down or in, \:»A^ thasna^ U^ kama, L>-j^> <ASf »a. 

To ramble, U^ phima, UjJ dolna, ^^ jmJi sair kama. 

To range, (place in order) \:^j \,^^jij{ batarttb rakhna: see To 

To ransack, UjU ^jl^ cAAan mama, (pillage) 1:jjS lutna. 
To rattle, Ul^^!^ kharkharandy ^Ji:,,^ jhankarna. 
To raze, l3^ jU-^ mismar kama, lijW ujapid, UUj dhana. 
To reach, U\j ^^^b> Aa/A «e |)ana, US Zagna, U-^^^ pahunchna. 
To read, lubjj parhna, liaj^b JSncAna, U^ <uJ\k« mutukCa kama. 
To reap, USl^ ^^fasl katnd, ^^^j^ dirau kamd. 
To rebuke, l3^ u:.>^.<l^ maldmat kamd, \:^\j ddntnd. 
To recede, Ul>-^ phirjdnd, bU>- c^J dab jdnd, l:^ hatnd. 
To receive, l:J £na, Ub pana, 13^ J^ ii:a&tU X:ama. 
To recite, U^ ^jU ftayan kamd, \ijj\jj takrdr kamd. 
To reckon, l:»:krgmna \j^j\aJ^ shumdr karnd: see To deem. 
To recognise, l^jLsrvi pahchdnnd: see To allow. 
To recollect, U^ jb ya^ kamd, \jj^ ^JL^ Iidsh pakarnd. 
To recommend, \jJ ^ji,j\Li b c-^^ tai:rtb or ^^amA kamd. 
To reconcile, bL« manana, b^ ^^ ^2^ karrid, b)U fittSna. 
To record, b^ J^b ^^^ j^^ daftar men ddkhil kamd^ U^ likhna. 
To recover, bb^ phir pdrut, (from sickness) bb U^ shifdpdnd. 
To rectify, bj J .lUl t^ZaA dSna, bjbbJbtf ^tc^Aarna. 
To recur, bl ^ phir dnd, (to the mind) \j\ jb ya<f aTta. 
To reduce, bl5^ gAafana, b^ fS kam karnd: see To subdue. 
To reflect, bjba^ bichdrnd, (throw back) bjJ ^jJ^ aks dend. 
To reform, b^ .^^\ i§lah kamd, bjb^Jud sudhdrnd. 

Vocabulary.— Verbs. 329 

To refuse, U^ ^^ V J^^ inkar or fTtan* karna : see To abstain. 

To refiitCy U^ J; b JJpU io/iZ or radd karna, Ul!f»> jAt^a/na. 

To regard, U^ CL^UsIl iltifat karna, UU manna : see To behold. 

To register, U^ Jis^b ^^j^jiit} daftar men dakhil karna. 

To r^ret, \j\s>^^ pachhtana, \jji (^^1 af^s karna. 

To reject, U^ phema^ U^ <-^>^ ^ ^ radd or nta^rtii karna. 

To rejoice, IxfSy^ rtjhna, \j^ lt)^ khush hona: see To glad. 

To relapse, Uj^^ phir pachhapia, ^y^J^ji^^pf^i^ bimar parna. 

To relate, (tell) L^ kahna, (relate to) \i>^j ^Ic aldfpa rakhna. 

To release, l^];f>* chhurann^ lijj ^^ l^; WAa't dhiJa, 

To relieve, (ease) L> J f\^ dram dena, (help) li^lff thamnd : see To 

To relinqoish, l^jf^^ chhorniy U^LJ tyagna : see To leave. 
To rely, l:^ ^|^ bharosa rakhna, U^ ^uO takiya kania. 
To remain, lu^ raAna, U^ tiknd, U^ thahama^ \jjA ubama. 
To remember, U^ jb yoJ karna, U^ ^^ Ji^U^ khatir men rakhna. 
To remind, U)tJ jb yad dilana, bb^ cAi^ana. 
To remove, b^jjJ dfir karna, bl^ sarkana, \j^ ^Ju taghlr karna. 
To rend, bj\^ pharna, b^ cAirna, blC^ maskana, bjf^ phorna. 
To render, (give back) UjJ |^ |>Atra dSna: see To give, make, 

To renew, renovate, b^ \J naya karna, \ji ^ phir land. 
To rent, b^ f^|^ kirdya karnd, (take at rent) bJ 2^1^ kirdya Una. 
To repair, b^^ l::...v«^ marammat karnd, b^ l::..^j durust karnd. 
To repeal, b^ ^^y^ V r>"*^ mansukh or ma«ili</ karnd. 
To repeat, b^ '^b^ ^.^t;^ mukarrar or do^bdra karnd: see To tell. 
To repent, b\:^ac^ pachhtdnd, byh ^U^ pashemdn hond. 
To reply, bjJ ^ii>|^ b^l ti^tor or jawdb dend, b^ kahnd. 
To repose, (v. n.) bj.^) sona, b^ i*\;T aram karnd, (v. a.) bjJ ^t^l dram 

To represent, b^ ^jC art karnd, (personate) b^ JiJ naitZ /uzma. 
To reproach, b^ v.^.^.«JL« b ^«t fo^n or maldmat karnd. 

2 u 


230 Vocabulary.'^Verbs. 

To request^ Ujbl>» chahncty U^ lt^^^^^J darMgpast karna* 

To require^ \i^U mangna, U^ L,.Alr> tefaft kama: see To need. 

To reside^ \:Jb; rahna, \i^ bagna, ^^jpghar kama. 

To resign, UJ^ sompna, \j^ ^^^ tasltm karna : see To leave* 

To resound, \i^^ gunjnd, liJ^ ^^ gunj rahna: see To praise. 

To respect, l3^ ^Iw \j cl^ tzjffa^ or ta^jSm kamd : see To relate to. 

To rest, U^ |*y! aram kamd, UJ a J dam lena : see To sleep, lean on. 

To restore, liJI^ phir Idna, \ijOj^^pher dena : see To cure. 

To restrain, \i^jj rokna, \j\Cj\ atkanoLy l^^ jV &52r rakhnd. 

To retail, l-a:u ^J \^^ \^y^ thora thord karke blckna. 

To retain, U^i rakhna, U\Cj ^iiana: see To keep, hire. 

To retreat, \jyb L*.j paspd hond, \iSjb Aafna. 

To return, (v. n.) Ulsj- U ljTjf>pAir ana or Jana, (v. a.) l3lSSjpaZ<aiia. 

To reveal, U^ kholnd, (divulge) U^ ^li fdsh karnd, U^^ kahnd. 

To revenge, UJ Sjj b ^^ b |*Ui3l intikdm or tirox or iacf^a lend. 

To review, revise, l3^ ^^JHu nazar-irsdnt kamd. 

To revile, l3 LIT ga%ana, UjJ ^1^ gdU dend: see To reproach. 

To revoke, Uj J \^) tcf Aa <2e7ia, Uj J dL^^ met dend : see To repeal 

To rid, b]«^ chhurdnd, l3^ i-jU ^5/* iama ; see To fi'ee. 

To ride, \jybj\ya satcdr hand, liAJj>-^ l^j^ gf^t^P^^ charhnd. 

To rinse, \:i^^c^ ghangliolnd, \:i\^^ khangkdlnd (?). 

To rip, lijfl^ phdpid, Uj-Jbjl udhernd, \j^ CJ^ chdk karnd. 

To ripe, ripen, (v. n.) l-ij paknd, (v. a.) l3lG j>aA:a9ta. 

To rise, \u^\ uthnd, Lib^J barhnd, ^J^ charhnd, (the sun or moon) 

l3yb ^^Jt ti^i Aona, Ijyb c^ j^uZii^ Aona, (the moon) UTt tcgna. 
To roast, U^ s-'bi^ /uzftaft kamd, \j^ ^b^ birydn kamd. 
To rob, l3^^ churdnd, li^U irj^ raA marna, USjJ Zii/na. 
To roll, (v. n.) l3^ phimd, li^jl lurhnd, (v. a.) bj^ jpAtrana, bli^ 

lurhdnd, \j\a^ ghumdnd, (roll up) bJLj lapetnd. 
To roof, bJb pdtnd, bl^ chhdnd, \:jJj^^ chhappar dend. 
To rot, (v. n.) bj-a «arna, bJi' galnd, (v. a.) blj-j «afana« 
To rouse, (v, n.) \:J^\>- jdgnd, b^l uthnd, (v. a.) bu^ jaganS. 

Vocabulary, — Verbs. 331 

To row^ ^^s^ khe^ofUij l3^U jJU dand mama. 
To nib, (v. n. chafe) \^m^ ghisna, (v. a.) l3^ ragarna, UL« tnalna. 
To rue, \j\s.^afi pachhtana, \j^j rond^ \j^ c:^^1jj nadamat kama. 
To ruiD, U^ ^jmUL:;*^ b 2flJ to&a/i or satyanas kama, Ujy ^oma. 
To rule, U^ ci.^.<^Cv. pukumat karna, (lines) \j^Jam^ mistar karna. 
To ruminate, l3|^ pagurana^ \jJ ^J^^jugiR karna : see To muse. 


To mn, \j'yi daurnij liUbJ dhdna: see To flee, dissolve. 

To rush, UT^J daurjMj Ub^ reZna, (upon) LSL^ jAopatna. 

To sacrifice, ^^/^ charhandy l3^ ^0 b ^b^ ifcurAan or zabh karna. 

To saddle, liJbjjU ^J zm bdndhnd^ 1:jJ ^l5»-^W- char-jama dend. 

To salivate, US ...yji^ mvnA Zaita, UK^ thukdnd. 

To sally, U^ 'T^./^ Ichuruj kartid, b^ JO ntA:a/ papid. 

To salute, U^ {J^j^ ^ 1*^ «a/am or A^omisA kamd. 

To sap, U^ i^S^j^ surang kamd, \jjVc Jb*ic^ sendh mdrnd : see To ruin. 

To sate, satiate, U^ bhamd, 1}IC|»- chhakdnd, (v. n.) Ul^H aghdnd. 

To satisfy, U^ l<^1; \t wr^ AfettfA or rosl kamd, UL« manana. 

To save, U\a^ bachdndy U^ vju^»< l rf saldmat rakhndf ^j rakhnd. 

To say, L^ kakndy IJ^ ^/na, 0^ d^U bdt kamd, \j\pj batiydnd. 

To scald, \jis^ ^ Hj^i J ci^ ft^ garmpdm o ghaira sejaldnd. 

To scan, (measure) \j^ ^jlaS? takCi^ kamd : see To examine. 

To scare, U|^J ditzrana, bl^ bharkdnd^ Ul^^ bichkdnd. 

To scarify Uj \:i^pac/iAna ^iena, ULs^^ khonchiydrtd (?). 

To scatter, ^|/4>* cAAi^rana, UUmI^ chhitkdnd, ^]jf>» bithrdnd. 

To scoff, Uj^ ^jJb \j \^ thathd or ta n karnd, \j\^ galiydnd. 

To scold, \i^^p^jhiraknd, UlC«JbJ dhamkdnd, IijJ ^^ gdR dend. 


To scorch, (v. n.) LJl^ bhulasnd, (v. a.) ULi^ JAubana. 
To scour, l:ifi^rl« mdnjnd, U^ uJU f a/* kamd, (purge v. n.) Ul>- 
pet chalnd. 

To scowl, \)J yJ^y? c!^ bhaun terhl karnd, l3libj>. d/U TiaA charhdnd. 


To scrape, l^Ju^ chhtlnd, ^^j4 khurachnd, U^^ chholnd. 
To scratch, Vx»-^ AAuracAna, Ul^ khujldnd, ^^y nochnd. 
To scream, I^Ljs^ chichiydnd, UH^ chilldnd, Uf \ )l»* cAtZ/a uMna. 



332 Vocabulary Verbs. 

To sculk^ \:Jbj Ly>4>> ckhip rahna^ \iJbj CSi*^ dabak rahna* 

To seal, \j^j^ muhr kamiy l3^ Jcj ^Sfj^ muhr karke band karruL 

To seclude, \u^j i^^ kindre rakhna, U!IC nUcalna. 

To seduce, \jL^ phusland, \ijisj^ toarghalannaf \j\^3^ Ihatkana. 

To see, (:^J dekkna, U^ ^ mz«ir kama^ U;\y YuAama. 

To seek, IjhjJ^JbJ dkundhna^ \jJ (jiHj talash karna, U^-^ khojna. 

To seem, Up*j«4 sujhna, U Jh /•j^ mc^lMtn hona, Ul ^^ TUtsar ana. 

To seeth, l^lfs^ rijhanif l^JLl tisanniy (v. n.) ^s^ «i/na. 

To seize, UjG pakarna, U^ (^;<&i i^&x ftama : see To confiscate. 

To select, 1:Ji>- cAvnM, \:J {^^i>^ ^^ chun chhan tenia : see To cull. 

To sell, lik^sib liechnaf b^ \jl->^^^ faroldu kama, l;jJ J^ moZ dena. 

To send, ^sr^e; bhejna, \j^ J^;^ >V«^^ karna^ Ul>- chatana. 

To separate, Uy ^onta, ^J^^ fticAAorna, l3^ \j^ jiufa kama. 

To serve, U^ LS^^^^Ae * - b gr^ nauAari or khidmat kama: see To help. 

To set, (place) l^^ raAAna, l3ybJ ^fAama, (plant) U)L^ biihlana, (as 
the sun) byb u:^^^ U M^ gkurub or a«^ Aona, (set up) \j\^ 
uthana, see To raise, (set on) \iji\ib AtUkamiy see To excite, 
(set on fire) l3uJ {^1 ag lagana, ^J <-^^ phunk dena. 

To settle, (v. n.) l:^^ baithna, (v. a.) UlfSLj baithalna, \^\^ thanna, 
(an account) \i\^ cAuAana : see To fix* 

To sever, U^ chtma, ^*^j^^ phar dena, li^ \^jttda kama. 

To sew, U^ «i7ta, bj^ c:.-»*jJ dokhht kama, ULi « tZana. 

To shake, (v. n.) UU hilna, Ul^ ^uZna, (v. a.) \jhb hUana : see To 

To shape, Ulii banana, \:Jb^garkna, Uj^jJU J^ «AaA/ bandhna. 

To sharpen, ^/ J«f ^^^ Aama, l^^^ cAoAAana, l^<3 Jfb iaf ^na. 

To shave, UjJ^ mfiitcfna, b^ ^^..^U:^ hajamat kama. 

To shear, l3^ /ratorna, U^ ^);A^ mil^raz kama, \ij\^ katna. 

To shed, (v. n.) b^5l>- JAarwa, U^ girwa, (v. a.) Ub^aZna, \i\JiffTanJa. 

To shine, UC4.>- chamakna, \:Sl^jhalakna, U^j! laukna. 

To shiver, UJ\^ kampna, (to shatter) ^/^>?v^ cAur-cAfir Aanta. 

To shoot, (let go) l^J^^ chhorna, (bud) UU^ kaliyana : see To hasten. 

Voctdmlary.^^Verbs, 333 

To shorten^ \jJ i\j^ kotah karna, \j\i^gkafana : see To abridge. 

To shove, ULijbJ dhaktlnay ULfi thtlna, Ubj relna, ULj pelna. 

To shout, \jj^ temif (huzza) ^^J^^^^jfrj^^'j^^^^ karna: see To 

To show, U]1^J dikhlanif \j\sj batana, U^^U^ zahir karna. 
To shrink, shrivel, U^ sukarm^ l;iL««» sametna. 
To shrug up the shoulders, UlU UjJl^ kandha hilana. 
To shudder, Ut^^ thartharana, \j\ybyb harharana : see To quake. 
To shuffle, U\S /a/na, U^ J^UJlS talmatol karna : see To mix. 
To shun, UG faZna, Uy^ c^^^>^jt^ rugardan hona, bjb; jb &£;; raAna. 
To shut, U^ Jcj band karna, U\xl lagdna, \^^ mucAna, 
To sift, UU- cAa/na, Ujlf>^ jAama, UjI^ cAAanTia. 
To sign (ratify by writing), U^ .^V*^ k ^'^■■^^ dast-khait or 9a^i^ 

To signify, UlpT &t£;Aana, \j\ipr j<^tana, \i^j ^jjt^ ma^/it rakhna. 

To sing, U\S gaita, 1:jJ1 alapna or alapna, U^ ^ gan karna* 

To sink, U.^«> dubnd, \:Xm,ttn> dhasakna, l:i^ gkatna. 

To sit, Ufij baithna, \j^ jj : >^.i .^} nishast karna : see To fit. 

To skim, (v. a.) ^»^^ kachhna, ULj pasana, (v. n.) UU- ^^^ cAAu 

To skin, Ivyij^^ Jl^ AAai khtnchna, (a wound) U^ Jlf> g^a'o bhama. 

To slake, Ul^esr* bujhanaf U^ Jp» rarcf Aania : see To quench. 

To slap, UUybJ dhatdiyana, U;U tfa^Ut tamancha marna. 

To slash, U!l\^ Aalna, U^^i^- cAima, U,^ d^lS^ kaiakat karna. 

To slaughter, slay, \jJ JsS ^atl karna^ UbjU mar-dalna. 

To sleep, U^ ^na, UJ oxJ ntn^ 2ena, 1^m<» «tt^. 

To slight, U^ fc,! Jif. ghaflat karna j 1:jI>> \^ kalkajanna. 

To slip, UL^ khisalna, \i3jj rapatnH, U^fi^ bichhalna. 

To slit, USl^ _^ IJ ZaiN&a Zam&i katna, U^ ckirna, Ujl^ phajrna. 

To slop, lij^ l5^^'^ iV^ pantdalke bhigona. 

To smart, ^|;{^ charpaf*ana, ^|^J^ pafparana, U^J dukhnd. 

To smell, l^C^ ^tingAita, LJ y Ao /Sna, (v. n.) Uty bo'ana. 


334 Vocabulary — Verbs. 

To smile^ U^^C^ muskurana, \jJ *wJ^ tabassum kama. 

To smite, (strike) UjU mama, (kill) UU jU mar-dalna* 

To smoke, (emit smoke) UU^yybJ dhtinwarana, (tobacco) L^pina. 

To smuggle, U;U cil^ gAaf marTia, UjU yJ^ chauKi marna. 

To snarl (a dog), Lj*-^ gurajnay \:^j^ ghurakna, \j\jp ghurrana. (?) 

To snatch. LJ ,,rf=^ cAAiti iana, l:J di<^,»4'^ i/iapat Itna. 

To sneak, (creep slily) UT U UU- uioJ dabakjana or ana: see To 

To sneeze, U^Jij^ ^ chhlnkna, \j^ <^.„lar a^sa karna. 
To snub^ l:2i\j dantna, LiJL ^an^na, Lj\^ kdtna. 
To snufF, (a candle) l:J ^^ gul lend^ (inhale) Ly^^ A;AIncAna. 
To soak, (v. n.) l3yb (^^j^ serab hona, (v. a.) U^x^j (Atgona. 
To soar, UJ\ upia, \j^ fJj^iji "^ buland parwazi karna : see To mount 

To sob, \\(, > sisakna, l:iji^ tkunukna, l3j^ fii^nta. 

To solicit, l:Jbl>> cAa/ina, U^ UjcUisf b ci^.^^ minnat or uri^fa karna. 
To solve, l}^ J»- AaZZ karna, U^ (.iU mf karna : see To explain* 
To sooth, l)^ «x«U»^ khushamad karna, UL« manana, \jj^iA^ chum- 

To sow, U^ bona, U\j ^.j Ay ^a/na, \jj t^j j^fls? tuldim-rlzi 

To spare, (v. n.) UjJb i^jj^ juz-ras hona : see To save, forgive. 
To sparkle, l)J^ b Uj^f>- vj^^ chingi chhutna or j karna. 
To speak, Uy te/na, L^ A;aAna : see To pronounce, praise. 
To specify, ^]/\(^ thahrana, U^ jl^L^ tafsiUwar kahna. 
To spell, \jj ^^^sf^ U ^^s^ b 5L\ tmE or haje or tahajji karna. 
To spend, U^ ^^ kharch karna, \j\j\ urana, Ulfll uf/iana. 
To spike, UjU a^l^ m«^ mama, U^ Jjj ^ ^ me^ «S battd karna. 
To spill, UbbJ dhalna, l3\il|>- chhalkana, U\^ bahana. 
To spin, li7\^ katna, (out, protract) blib^ iarAana. 
To spit (eject), L^^ thukna, \.v(.;j^> d^ ^At«£ jpASn/ma. 
To spit (meat), U\m ^.•«} ^lAA lagana, \u^^ guthna. 
To split, (v. a.) l3^-^ cKirna, ^j^^pharnia, (v. n.) 1^2^ pkaina. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 336 

To spoil, (v. n.) \jyb c-->}/^ Jdiarab hdnuy (v. a.) \jpj bigdrna, <^]/>' 
U^ kharab karna^ (to plunder) \:S^ lutria. 

To sport, 1:1^ khelna, U^ J^ Jj)\ alol-kaldl kama. 

To spout, ^^^ cAAu^fia, l«if>^f KcAAaZna, (v. a.) I) 7^^ chhdrna» 

To spread, (v. a.) l^l^s^ fttc/iAana, U;Lj j^o^ama, (v.n.) U^ phailna. 

To spring, l:>^\ uthnif li^ ! ugTi^y (a mine) U|J1 tirana : see To leap. 

To sprinkle, ^^^ chhirakndf U2j^ ckkltnd, Uj^> bkigona. 

To spur, U;U tolJ U J^l 5r or ftanfa marna, Ulj- chatana : see To 

To spurn, bjU C^S Za^ marTia, (reject) USIS ^aZna : see To despise. 

To spy, \iij\^jhank7ui, l:il7 takna, l3l|ar nijhand: see To seek. 

To squander, Uljl urand, U^yS ganwdndy \j^ 4-J|^1 mto/* karnd. 

To squeeze, (press down) bbJcZa&ana, (crush) Uj^nicAorna. 

To squint, ^^^3 l^^y tirchhd dekhnd, l3^ a^lJj ^^ ^^f^^ nigaA karnd. 

To squirt, ^J^^ \> ^J^ i^j^Ca^pichkdrt'fndrnd or -cAAorna. 

To stab, l:i^^ bhonknd, Uyb AiiZna, ^>>- chJonkndy ^^^^ kSnchnd. 

To stagger, U\C4^i^ dagmagdnd^ (be staggered) UUr-f hichkichdnd. 

To stain, l3^ ^^<3 dSgAi karnd, Ulb LibJ dhappd ddlnd. 

To stammer, liKjb hakldnd, Ul^^ larbardnd. 

To stamp, (with the foot) iJ-j ^ ^^^ b pa'c^^l se pitnd : see To print. 

To stand, Ijb; U U^ |j^ &Aara Aona or rahnd : see To stay. 

To starch, Ujbb^ aAarna, Ulf] \j l:j<3 ^.Ji^ ftaZop cZ^na or lagdnd. 

To stare, \jjy^ghurndy U^lJ ^aAna, l:Jb; U Ulf) ui^ tak lagdnd or rahnd. 

To start, (up) IJJ^ b U^l *^^^ chaunk utknd or pania ; see To pro- 

To startle, (v. n.) \:jUj>- ckamaknd^ (v. a.) blC*^ ckamkdnd: see To 

To starve, (v. n.) ly« iji^^. bhukkon mamd. 

To state, (settle) ^^jj^ mulcarrar karnd, (tell) \i^j\^\ isfhdr karnd. 

To stay, l:Jb^ rahnd, UC tiknd, \i^ basnd : see To prop, stop. 

To steal, \j]jJ>' churdnd, \3ls^ ^^ churd Ujdnd, \:0^y^ mvsnd. 

To steep, U^ bhigond, l:^ ^ J Jl J ddl-dubo rakknd. 


336 Vocabulary — Verbs. 

To steer^ \Si^ chalana^ ^^^ U-jana: see To direct, guide. 
To step, ^V^ \ ^^J (**^ kadam rakhna or uthaTta, Ul^ chalna. 
To stew,l3^ o<a< /*t^ dam-pukht kama, ^^f^^ sijhana : see To seeth. 
To sticky (v. n.) USL^ chipatnaf \il4J>- chimatna, (in mud) l:»««f» 

phasna or l;»i>^,» phansna, (v. a.) ^^>- cAiptana: see To stab. 
To stimulate, 1}1>- chaldna, Ut%J daurar/a, l3W>- cAAerna. 
To sting, l3^U ^^^^ /ie^A mama, LibJCJ bindhna, \j\SjJ danJdyana. 
To stink, U^ JbJc^ ky^V bad-bo or durgandh kama, Uly Iff ana. 
To stir, (v. n.) U!^ saraknuj \:Jjh AtZna, (v. a.) Ul^ sarkana. 
To stitch, U^ £ina, l;jy turapna^ \:SjZ iankna* 
To stone, UjU^^fj patthar marniy U^jUl^ sangsdr kama. 
To stoop, Uil^ JAu&na, 1/^ nihuma, (submit) iJU manna. 
To stop, (v. n.) \^\ atakna \i^ tikna, (v. a.) \j\i5\ aikana. 
To storm, U^ ci^ri^U ^aM^ kama, UjUJf^J rfaur mama. 
To straddle, li>. ^j^^>Hf- 4*ijl5 fang chhitrake chalna. 
To straggle, U^ ^lyj ^J^jafian takan phima: see To ramble. 
To strain, (filter) \:^\i>- chhannay (sprain) \j^SjS kachkaria. 
To strangle, lr.y.;(^ 2U^ ^a«ma khainchnaj U!3^ )1? gaS gASnIna. 
To stray, U^l!^ bhatakna, \iL^^ bahakna^ U^ bhulna. 
To strengthen, l/^ t^^^M b 4^y ^at£^ or mazbut kama. 
To stretch, 1:J\j» tanna, l3jLj po^arna, UL^ phailana. 
To strew, lv!Ly^ cAAtnfna, UU^ barsana, bl^a^ bichhana. 
To strike, UjU mama, UjJ ^U mar cfena, LC^ f^nina. 
To string, Ulfl i/jjJ dort lagana, (as pearls) bj|^ parona. 
To strip, (off dress) \jj\j\ utama, (make naked) l3^ l& Ttanga kama. 
To strive, l3^ ^H^ J J^jidd ojahd kama, ^j^j*j zor mama. 
To stroke, \jX^ sahlana, l3^ ^U AaM pherna. 
To struggle, ^;^^ -^^b hath pair mama, \jji ij^ kushtt kama : 

see To strive. 
To strut, ^SbjJ ainthna, \j\p\ itrana, \jJ^\ akarna. 
To study, U^ *«!llx< mutala^a kama, \j^ jLiJikr kama. 
To stuff, U-al^ ihasna, U^ bharna, (the belly) \i^\ aphrana. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 337 

To stumble, \j\^ji^ tkokar khariiy l3l^ lt*^ \^^^ khana. 

To stun, 13^ ^^:>^^ i<^ )^3^ ^ ^j^ ?^^^ ^^ atra2; «i achet karna. 

To statter, l3]Ujb haklana, UW^ larbardna. 

To style, U^ J^U naiii:;a<£ karnuy 1:j J c-^lLf^ khitab dena. 

To subdue, U^ ^l7 U 4,,>jU,> < maghlub or ^a&t* karna, U^U ntarTza. 

To submit, (v. n.) Uyb aJlJ tasUm hona, (v. a.) Iv^ rakhna. 

To subscribe, U,^ ^.sf^ b laacLsJ dastkhatt or 5aA7A karna. 

To subsist, U^ ^ona, l:i^ Jtna, U^ \^j^ guzran karna. 

To substitute, U|^ ^jj b ^^ itraf or badR rakhna. 

To substract, subtract, LJ ^^,a»^ ^issa lena, U^ wJj U7a/ ftarna. 

To subvert, U^ jtjjij ^^^ ^^ tah-o-bald or zer-zabar karna. 

To succeed, UU. b Ul j^^^f^ pichhe ana ovjana : see To prosper. 

To suck, V:>*«^ chusna, (as a child) 1:^^ JbJjJ dudh plna. 

To suckle, \jh b UjJ Jbi3^ J (2ti(2/i dena or pilana. 

To sue, Uyj^^ ^«^ (i::^! j^ adalat mm khainchna : see To entreat. 

To suffer, \u^ saAna, ^J^jt^ b Jaot taliammul or 5air karna. 

To suffocate, U^j ^^J b ^L «a^ or (2am rokna: see To strangle. 

To suggest, L^ ^ s£;^^ wAar? si kahna, \j\sj>-' chitana. 

To suit, \j\ uX^ ^AI/c anif \j^ J^V^ mtttrq^i /<dna, U^ phabna. 


To sully, U^ )L« maiZa karna, U1 J ito cfflg'A dalna. 
To sum, lijf^ Jorna, U^ ^^jam karna, U^ J-<»^ mujmal karna. 
To summon, U^ (..^.JJ? laZaA karna, b^^s^ |^ bulwa bhejna. 
To sup, Ul^ Ul^ l^ c:^]^ ra^ ka khana kkana. 
To superintend, U^ |^|^^ U i(^\^ nasara or sarbarahi karna. 
To superscribe, U^ l3>^ b^^l upar or sar-khaU likhna. 
To supersede, Ij^ jf^U^ ^ ^ ^ cA'V ^^/.^^ ^^ radd or kinara karna. 
To supervene, Ujj ^;T b l3 ! ^^T U nagahan am or an-parna. 
To supplicate, U^ ^^UcJ^ b Ujo^^ istida or iltimas karna* 
To supply, b^ bJiarna, \j^ ci^ bhartt karna, bj J eiena. 
To support, U^ (jusMilj^ bardasht karna, b\^t titAana, bJ^L} nibahnd. 
To suppose, (admit) b^ ,^10^ /arf ftarna : see To guess, think, know. 
To suppress, U^ CJ^j rok rakhna, b\^1 atkana, bbj dabdnd. 

2 X 

338 Vocabulary.— Verbs. 

To suppurate, U^ paknif ULmJ pibitfanif UHc^^ pih tana. 

To surfeit, (v. a,) ^)j^} apkrana, U^ ^-^ «er kama, (v. n.) Ulf\ 

To surpass, UL>- Jb^ barh chalna, UU ^^^5^^ pichhe dalna : see To 

To surprise, l:J d^ \iA ek-a-ek lend, IjjjT (^U»1 ac/ianakorparna. 
To suiTeuder, U^ a:J>^ ^a«Z?fn karna : see To consign, resign. 
To surround, \jj^ ghemd, \j^ ^\^\ b Cf^gird or iAaj[a kama. 
To survey, l3^ ^^bJ namr kama, (land) U^ ^^^ •-r-'i/r jartb^sH 

To suspect, U^ uJCmi «AaiA ftama, U^^ ^.y^ «Att&Aa roAAna. 
To suspend, UlCsI latkana, (to stop) U^ ^!^y maulcuf kama. 
To sustain, Ulf«.4«0 samhhalm, ^f3V tkdmhhna: see To support. 
To swagger, U^ i<^^ ^ v-5^^ shaikhl or Idf-zani kama: see To strut. 
To swallow, Um nigalna, UJ H/na, l:Ji3^ gAtiafna, liJ^ «ttndbia. 
To swarm (as flies, kc.\ \i^^ bhinakna. 
To sway, (incline) \j^ ^j^ mutawajjih kama : see To rule. 
To swear, \j\^ ^^ kasam khana, (make) U)J mJ iauLm c^na. 
To sweat, (v. n.) \;r6ii,.i.,j pastjna, (to toil) U^ c:,^.;ir^ mihnat kama. 
To sweep, Ujflp- jAapia, Ujlyj &«Aama, UUJ\f>-JAar Ja/im. 
To sweeten, Ul^ mithand, U^ 1^5^ U ^j*^ shtrin or mtMa Aomo. 
To swell, U!^ jiAiiZna, l:^^ mJTui, (look big) U^ (^ \ji bara*t kama. 
To swim, \3^ paima, U^ /ima, (float) L^i^ bhasna, U^; fiaAno. 
To swing, (v. n.) U!^p-^'Ai«Zna, UjJ dolna, (v. a.) lj]l|s^ JAtt^na. 
To swoon, Ul^ b UT ^^j>yo murchha ana or khand. 
To swoop, U^U b LJ i^i^.'^^^jhapat lend or mdmd. 
To swop or swap, U^ )jj Sj\ o^Za ^acfZa karnd. 
To tack, liClS lanAna, \jjf»^jdmd, \j\j^^ j\^ jahdz phirdnd. 
To taint, (stain) l3^ ^b da gA i Aarna : see To corrupt, spoil. 


To take, LJ lend, U)G pakarnd, (away) Ul^ /S/aaa : see To think. 
To talk, U]y holnd, ULxj batiydnd : see To prate, chatter. 
To tally, \Jl^ miZna, ^y^^];^ ^ u,C{" ^ATA or bardbar hond. 

Vocabulart/.'-^Verbs. 339 

To taD, U^ uu^V<^ dihaghat kamif (in the sun) \j\jl^ jhanwani. 
I To tantalize, ULy tarsanif Ul^J dahkana, \j\jb^ lalchana. 
To tap, UKi|?^^3 ihaklhakana, \ij\^ thapna : see To pierce. 
To tarry, ^j-^ ihahamaf UC tiknciy l^^ fti^mftna. 
To taste, \^^ chakhim, LJ ^^ nta2ra ZSna : see To enjoy, feeL 
To taunt, U^ ^^ ic^n kama, ^^)^ cAirAana : see To revile. 
To tax, Ulu '^y>' khiraj lagana, (accuse) \ijj ^\J\ ilzam dena* 
To teach, l3\^ sikkana or UlL^ sikhlana : see To instruct. ^^ 

To tear, Ujl^ phapta, U^ cAtrna, (v. n.) l:iL^ masakna, &c. 
To tease, Uli.«» satana, 1:j J ^.J^ ^ofcH^ dena : see To vex. 
To tell, \:^ kahnd, \j\u^ sunana : see To count, betray. 
To temper, U^ J jcjc« mt^tadil kama : see To mix. 
To tempt, U3]U||^ warghalanMy UU^ lalchana: see To excite. 
To tend, (incline) liyb JjU tnaUl hona : see To attend, aim. 
To tender, ^^j^ ^ t^V ^^^^^ or nazr kama : see To offer. 
To terminate, (v. n.) \j^ ^T a^ir hona, (v. a.) \j/ aUJ tamam 


To terrify, Uji^j darSna, 1:jO c^^JvJ dahshat dena: see To frighten. 
To testify, IiijJ jA^ gatoafu dena, U^ v^!lj dcdalat kama: see To 

To thank, return thanks, \j^JJU shukr kama, l:JU ^^^ cfAan manna. 
To thaw, (v. n.) Ll^ pighalna, \Afi tighalna, (v. a.) Ui^ pighlana. 
To thieve, l3jf s^*^*^ ^ v^Sj^^?" cAort or dtc^rcfi kama. 
To think, l:^^ ^cAna, ^>-^ bujhna, \j^ ^fikr kama. 
To thirst, Uyb ULj pya«a Aona, wo (^Ij pya« lagna. 
To thrash or thresh, l:jb\> gahna, ULo nudna, l:£j pltna. 
To thread, Uj^ pirojia, UUjS lariyana, \:^^ guthna, liiHjf ^agna. 
To threat, threaten, l}\C<JbJ dhamkana, \:>^J^ jhirakna. 
To thrive, Ujh^ barhna, U^ panopna, U^ ^^^ tarakkt kama» 
To throb, L.»«j fi«na, UjU ^j^ ^» mama, ULiJbJ dhamakna. 
To throng, l3^ ^^^jk^ V Jif^ ^^'f ^' Atj/iiin Aarna, l^T^ 6Aar ana. 
To throw, \\(:,^,^ phtnkna, Ub da/na, (down) l|;V^ pachharna. 

340 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To thrust, (shove) Uj J \^ dhakka dena : see To stab, shove, stuff. 

To thump, U^^ thonkmif US^ pitna, (v. n.) UC«JbJ dliamakna. 

To thunder, l:cf^ garqjna, U^ kardkhaj (in menace) UlCiJ^ dham- 

To thwart, (oppose) U^ u:^li:r* U «x.^ zidd or muJ^lafat karna* 
To ticket, lijJ cli^?^ ftyaft cfena, Ula^j- ^^ ^lU nisAan scjatana. 
To tickle, \}t J^aS gu^fguJana, Uly«rf sahlana, UL«:Jh hansana. 
To tie, UibJjb bandhna, \j^^^jakarna, \x^^ ganthna. 
To tighten, Ix...^ kasna, \j€j>^jakapia, Ly^ kkainchna. 
To till, \:Jy)^jotndf U^ c/*^ ckas phema* 
To tincture, tinge, U^ 2fJj)T aZuria karnif 1:jc> (^j!3j rang dfena. 
To tingle, UUciiJ tantananij UUjb^ cAamcAamaTia. 
To tinkle, U\:i^ssa|>> jhanjhanana, UU^JL^ ihanthanana. 
To tire, (v. n.) U^ thakna, (v. a.) U^ 2rjJl« manda kama, Ul^ 

To titter, l:»«»J^ ^5^^^ "^ 9nti9i/i cZadAe Aa^i^na. 

To toast, Ii^Jm^ senkna, iJj^ bhunnUf U^ ^^by birr/an kama. 

To toil, \3^ cr^oic^ mifinat karruif l3^ ^^o jiuM bhama. 

To torment, liUi^ kalpana, \j\ib^ kurhana, bl^J dukhana. 

To toss, l:ij»^ jE)AenAna, Ul^l uckhalna, \iij^^ jhonkna. 

To totter, IjIC«Sj dagmaganiy U«^ ^o/na, Uj^ larazna. 

To touch, (feel) b^f>- cAAi<na, b^ ^^^.^ iik»5 karna^ (come in contact) 

Ufi lagnay Id^ milridf (handle) ^J;^^ ckherna. 
To tow, Lyj^ ^/uj ^^«y roMi lagake khainchna. 
To toy, UL^ kl£lnay \j^ )^^\) Ta'o-ckffo karna. 
To trace, track, iJ^ <^^/?i ^ ^ *^ naksha-i-pa k% pairawi kama. 
To trade, \jji j\^ <^j U t^^\*^y^ satidagart or bany-iaipar kama. 
To traduce, blS cl-^h^^ tuhmat lagand, l3^' /*Ujj badnam kama. 
To trail, \iSjm^ ghasttna^ blw^ ghisiyana : see To draw. 
To train, U^j|^-4Jb b u:,^jyj tarbiyat or hamwar kama: see To teach. 
To trample, liU ^ ^]b j^a'on «c malnif Uus^ kuchalfia. 
To transact, Ult^ chalana, \jj <iJu«U^ mu'amaZa karna. 

Vocabulary, — Verbs. 341 

To transfer^ (make over) UJ^ ^mpna, U^ |»JlJ taslim kama* 

To transgress, U^ Ikfi- ^ J^W^ ^ Jj"^ uclii/ or tajawuz or khata kama. 

To translate, U^ Ja) nai(;Z Akzrna, (interpret) U^ <Us>y tarjuma kama. 

To transmit, U^ ^V^^ rawana karna, l:^^^^ &Ae;na. 

To transport, UlO ^ ^^J cS« «e nikalna ; see To banish : (put 

into ecstacy) \^^ ^^ *^j toajd men rakhna. 
To travail, be in travail, \j\^ tij*} dard khana. 
To travel, \j^ ji^ safar karna, U^ phirjia, Ul>- chalna. 
To traverse, (lay athwart) U\fi IJt ara lagana, (pass) U^ pAtma. 
To tread, U^^yb b aJ^ kadamor panw rakhna, (thrash) UJIj da^ona. 
To treat, U^ lL^\..i ^ttZfi/c karna, (p() \jJ^S ^ikr karna : see To feed. 
To tremble, liiJl^ kampna, UlijJj daldalana, \jjJ larazna. 
To trick, U!^ thagna, Ul^ chhalna : see To cheat, adorn. 
To trickle, Uf^^^|f»»JAir^*Aira7ia, UbjcJ bundiyana. 

To trifle, l3jU ^<|C« makkhi mama, ^^ h5 y ^^ fapa-(o7 ftarna. 

To trim, USJl^ chhantna, U^ ^t:u»|^l arasta karna: see To shave* 
To trip, (stumble) Ul^ ^^^ tkokar khana, (up) iJ^U ^^^ 2angf 

mama (?). 
To triumph, Ulsr ^\j jL& ehadiyana by ana : see To conquer. 
To trot, U!l^ l> UW ,^J duUcijana or chalna, ^\jdyf khudrana. 
To trouble, l3\£«s satana, Uj J <— pJ^J tofti?/* dena, l3^:*f>- chherna. 
To trundle (v. n.) U^j dagarna, (v. a.) \3\^J dagrana, \j\ji^ lurkana. 
To trust, bj^jjV iStrar karna, \:^jj\ss\ i^tibar rakhna, (sell on 

credit) li:^ j ^^ /carx par bechnd: see To consign. 
To try, \jji fjtjl*j\ azma'ish karna : see To attempt, examine. 
To tug, (pull along) U'\rL^ khainchna, (strive) ^J^j^j zor mama. 
To tumble, (act as a tumbler) \j^ s^j\i K kala-bazt karna: see To fall* 
To tune, iJlc milana, U^ jU^ ham^saz karna, (the voice) bjSl alapna. 
To turn, (v. n.) \jm phirna, \u^^ ghumna, (v. a.) U^^^pAirana. 
To tweak, (pinch) l^^y nocAyia, (twist) ^^ marorna, \v..>.j^ mi^na. 
To twine, bl^%3J^ baundiyana, (to plait) \iJb*^j^ gundhna : see To fold. 
To twinkle, liUlw limlimana, (move the eye) Ul^ matkana. 

342 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To twirl, (v. n.) \i^^ ghumna, (v. a.) l3]^ f^,^jaldi phiratia. 
To twist, (v. n.) \:>^i^\ ainthna, \j\^ Jb bal khana, (v. a.) V:j4> Jj bal 

dena, ^j^j^ tnarorna, \jjyo mopm. 
To twit, UjU ii:jip tc^na marna, \j^ {^^<i.^ malamat kama. 
To twitch, ^^ps^ nyhotna, ^y^ khasotna : see To snatch. 
To tyrannise, ^^j^j V.^?" V (*^ S^^ or jabr or a;5r Aoma. 
To value, ^]^ J^ i«5Z thahrana, UiiT ankna, Viils^ Jije azizjanna. 
To vanish, l:Jbj lj»l>- j'a^a raAna, Uyb c^^oU U u:..^^^^ champat or 

ghaUb hona. 
To vanquish, Ua-*- Ji^na, Vi?^ ^oma, Iji o-^ shikast karna. 
To varnish, UUj^ tl^ ZuA; cAarAana, ^J-f* chuparna: see To cover. 
To vary, U^ i^j^j rangarang kamiy 15^ j^Aw^na : see To change. 
To vault, (leap) l3 J^ kudna, see To leap, (arch) l3l:j Li kubba banana. 
To vaunt, UjU uJ]/LjX laf-guzaf mama, U^ Jj ViJJ Vaf-zam kama. 
To veer, l|^ phima, \i^^ ghumna, Ujj badalna. 
To vegetate, U^^ ^ ^ cl>Lj naio/ AI m ugna, U^^ jamna. 
To veil, Ub ^i^ burlca^ dalna, \j^ ij^^^ ghunghat kartia. 
To ventilate, \j/ Ujc^ ^ lyb Aati^a se thandha kama. 
To venture, \j\^\ M^^jokhim uthatui : see To dare. 
To verify, \ij c^U^ Ij jju^lS /jaW^ or isbat kama. 
To versify, U^ iioj nawi kama^ U^ ^^^ Joj nazm men likhna. 
To vex, \j^ jjj ctii^it ftama, ^}i^ chkerna, \j\i^ satana. 
TovibrtLte, (v.n.) ^]ji»j^ thartharanij ^]fji tirndrana: see To shake. 
To vilify, Uy C.%^iA^ ^ |*^<^ bad-nam or mazammat kama. 
To vindicate (justify), \jj li^U \j «UCj ftSgunaA or saii^ kama. 
To violate, LJ c:....*^ fiurmat Ena, (infringe) U^ j;^-^ fasldi kartia. 
To vitiate, l}J\xj bigarna, U^ S-']/^- kharab kama^ ULj no^ana. 
To vivify, b)lb»»^*i/a9ia, U^ *jjj jzrin^a kama. 
To unbind, U^ kholna, U^ ^y^«^ bandhan kholna. 
To unbolt, Uj J J^ j^ b l^ AurAa or bilR khbl dena. 


To unbosom, U)^ j'j raar khdlna, 0^ ^ili y&A kama. 
To unbuckle, U^ 1j«Jo baksu'a kholna. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 343 

To unbutton, U^ ,^fic^ ghundi kholna. 

To uncase, USIO ^ J^ b uJL^ gh ilaf or i£oZ sS nikalna. 

To undeceive, Ul^ic^*^ samjhanaf \jj j\^^ hJoshyar karna : see To 

To undergo, \j\^\ uthanaf U^ bharniy Uy^^^ /cAatncAna. 
To underline, UiA^^^ l[ )a^ ^J^ niche khatt or lalur khainchna. 
To undermine, blJ^J (^y>«» surang daurana, UjI^ ^^^ /ranni katna. 
To underrate, UlS^'? ittma^ ghatana^ \ij\p^jj^ haktrjdnna. 
To understand, l^^if^^ «ama;Ana, ^i^^ji bujhna, iJU- Janna. 
To undertake, \jJ karna j liul ^U Aa^i lagana : see To accept. 
To undervalue, iJW-^;;^ k J*^ (^ kam^kadr or haktrjanna. 
To underwrite, U^ 7*^^ ^ W^ l5?^ fuche likhna or faAi A karna. 
To undo, (ruin) Ij^ c--'^ Jdiarab kama, (open) USb J^ kholdalna. 
To undress, U;lJ\ |^ kapra utama. To undulate, U|^ lahrana. 
To un&sten, U^ kholna^ l^?^f>* chkopia. To unfix, U^ kholna. 
To unfold, IJ^ kholna^ ljjj^\ udhepia : see To discover, explain. 
To unfurl, U^ kholna, \jjiJ^^ udhernd, (spread) Ij^Lj pasama. 
To ungird, U!j^ <^j^ V "^j^ kamarband or tong kholna. 
To unharness, U^Ut jL ^o^r ntama, \:jJ J^ /:Ao/ ^na. 
To unhinge, l^Jlf^ X^^^ V J>^ ^^<^^ ^^ Aoisa uAAarna. 
To unhorse, liy ^^ t>fjjPg^T^ '^ girdna. 
To unhusk, Ujtf^ ^^^^^ chhilka utarna, Ul^ v^*^^ &Ati«i nikalna. 
To unite, UU miZna, UjJb jU:;^ muttafi^ hona, (v. a.) Ul« miland. 
To unlace, U^ i^j^*^ 4^ kholna, 1:3^ ^«^ bandhan kholna. 
To unlade, unload, l3j\7l ^y io/A utdrna, ^f^\ ubharna. 
To unlatch, U^ Ji^ bilU kholna. To unlock, U3^ Jii Atr/? AAoZna. 
To unloose, Uj J J^ AAo2 ciena, U^ ^1> ^ Jcj bandse khaHs karna. 
To unmask, \jj\j\ wSy ^urAa tt^arna, U^jJbli? zdhir karna. 
To unpack, U^ ^y« \j ^s^ b l^2s gaf<Aa or basta or mo<A AAo/na. 
To unravel, (v.n.) Viff^ sulajhna, (v.a.) Ulftf:r^ suljhdnd : see To open. 
To unriddle, U^ J»- ^aZZ Aama, Uj^ kholna. 
To unrol, U^^\ udkerna. To unroot, ^?^^ J>*7'af uAAania. 

344 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To unscrew, U^ ^ peek kholna. To unseal, U"^ j^c mukr iorni. 

To unsheath, l}^ Jic Slam kama, UilC ^ |*lJ niyam se nikalM. 

To untie, IJ^ kholna. To untwist, U^ ^ pecA kholna. 

To unveil : see To unmask. To unyoke, \:jJj\j\ \y>^ju*a utar deni. 

To vouch, U/ J 15^^^ gawaht dena^ \j^ uuoU ^aii^ karna. 

To vouchsafe, U^ ^V^irV^ mihrbant karna f UU^ farmana. 

To upbraid, U^ o-^x)!^ b (^Jj«<^ sarzanish or malamat karna. 

To uphold, (support) UfJlff ^Aam&Ana : see To support, raise. 

To urge, U^ X^\j U UUJ takaza or ^aAi<2 karna, \j\j\ urana. 

To use, l:J^ dar^na, U^ ^j^ f^^ kam men lana : see To treat. 

To usurp, UJ ^^fii>- chhin lena, l:J J>^l3 norhakk Una. 

To utter, Ix^ kahna, ^J^\ uchchama, ^^^^ Sikr karna. 

To waddle, Ul>- JU- ,J^^ b u^^ batak- or dagmagi-chal chalna. 

To wage, L^^ 1?^ «Aarf rakhna, (war) U^ cS^jang karna. 

To wail, ULL bilbilandf \j^ ^^j^jj ^^ '^^^^ ^ ^^''^ ftarna. 

To wait, U^ t^UkJl intimrl karna : see To expect, attend. 

To wake, (v.n.) \:,^jagna, ^^ jagna, (v. a.) \j^^jagana. 

To walk, IJL>- chalna, (go about) U^ phirna, \j^ j^ sair karna. 

To wallow, lijjl ^^^.^chahle men lotna, U^ <J1;^ (3^ lot-pot karna. 

To wander, l:^^^ ramiia, \jj^ phirna, (stray) UilS^ bhatakna. 

To wane, l:^ ghatna, l3yb a^ Aam Aona, byb ^j^ J\jj zawal men 

To want, (be wanting) l3yb ^U- khftti Aona, (need) l:Jbl>- chahna : 

see To wish. 1 \ 

To war, Ujl lama. To warble, l3\^ ft/iiana, \j^gana. 
To ward ofF, UjJ cJL;\^ X:af eCna, UlcMftacAana : see To protect. 
To warn, ^\sj>' chitana, 1:jJ 15^^^! ^oA? dena, \j\i>- jatand. 
To warp, (v. n.) \jyb i^ ^ kaj Idiam hona, (v. a.) LjJ Jf.^ maror 

To warrant, \:^jy\p^ja*iz rakhna, 1:jJ^L:x>«1 ik/Uiyar dena. 
Was, l^ ^Aa, fyh Aii'a, U; raha, \^ gaya. 
To wash, U^ftJ dhond, U^ ^ ^ c: ■i.>..A «At<^^ o ^/m /carna : see To bathe. 

Vocabulary, — Verbs. 346 

To waste, (v. n.) \iipghatna, U? galna, (v. a.) \j\j\ urana. 

To watch, 1:j4> t<^^ chauki dena^ (not sleep) \:Jbjj\xj bedar rahna. 

To water, IjLij jianiyana, UjJ ^jb pant c/ena, l:^^i*«> sickna. 

To waver, iJ^ JJ^ hj]j^. belcarar or mutaraddid hona. 

To wax, (v. a.) l3^ L<*y* momt kama, (become) \jyb hona : see To 

To waylay, U^U »\j rah mama, \j^ (J^Ap ghat karna. 
To weao, ^^j^ J^J^ dSidh chhurana, \^)j^ ^ kK5 chhurana. 
To wear, (rub, v. n.) L-^ ghigna, (v. a.) ULf) ghisdna, (dress) Ui^ 

pahanna, (hold out) 1:J5j raAna, UC ^iA;na. 
To weary, U\^ thakanay U^ 5JJU man/fa karna. 
To weave, l:^:^ Atnna or bunna, Ujbjl^ ij^j^^ karhna. 
To wed, UjbU byahna. To ween, IJU* janna : see To think. 
To weep, \ijjj rona. To weigh, Uy /oZna: see To consider. 
To welter, liSjl Sfna. To wend, \jy>'jana9 0^^ phima. 
Went, \^ gayif (out) )K} ntA:2a. Were, ^ the, ^^ hue. 
To wet, (v. n.) IJL^ bhtgnd, (v. a.) U^ dAtgona, U^ J nam karna. 
To wheedle, UlL^r j?At£«Zana. To wheeze, l3L«:«.id «an«anana. 
To whet, UjU sanna, \j^ ^4^ ^ jtH ^^'^ ^'^ cKokh karna. 
To whine, ^$^«^ jhtkhna. To whinny, Ixsljb hinchna (?). 
To whip, U\f] IJj^ b (Ji^U- chabuk or iora lagana. 
To whirl, (v.n.) l3;^;>Atma, ^j^ ghumna, (v. a.) UU^gAumana. 
To whisk, l:.f;,yj.j sehathna. To whisper, UL.^^m«i^ phusphttsana. 
To whistle, IjlfifT 15^ ^^f^ bajanu. To whiten, U^^ Ju&^i «tt/eeZ karna. 
To whitewash, U^ ^^ /:a/i phema, l3ly^ cAAuAana. 
To whiz, \j\ii^ jfnnpifiana. To whoop, UjU^l^ kilkar mama. 
To will, UjbW cAaAna, U^ irjljf tro^ia /^ama; see To command. 
To win, \ii^jitna, l:J fj>^jtt lena, l^l^ ^<^b ftazi lejana. 
To wince (from pain), Ul2Jl^ ^^ J^J dardse chhatpatana. 
To wind, (v. n.) \:^j^gAunina, U^ phimd : see To twist, fold. 
To wink, U^ matakna, (v. a.) l3\^ ma^Aana : see To connive. 
To winnow, \j\0A usana, l:^^^ phatakna, ^j^pr jhapia. 

2 Y 

346 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To wipe, Wl^y ponchkndf \jji uJU §af kama. 

To wis, Wr^ biyhna. To wish, \iJb\>- chahna : see To desire. 

To wit (adv.)> i^^^jo yc^ne, yU-^ano. 

To withdraw, (v. n.) U2jb hatna, Uj^ jU ftaar raAwa; see To take away. 

To wither, Ullfi.^ kumklana^ ^^j^ mufjhana, li^fj- jhurna. 

To withhold, 1:%^ -jf> U jU 6az or |?Acr rakhna, IrX^j^^ cAArnXma. 

To withstand, \3jT apidf U^j roftna, liif^^lf^ thambkna, U!\j fabta. 

To witness, UjJ ^\^ gawaht dena, \j^ JJbl& shakid Kona. 

To wonder, l3^ S^^^ ta*ajjub kama. To be wont, U^ ioma. 

To woo, U^ Jh^ mAA kamUf U^ j^^^ mangnt kama. 

To work, l3^ >^\^ ftam ftarna, (ferment) Uls? gajana: see To embroider. 

To worry, l3^^f^ iAamft/iopia, ^^j^^A^r khana. 

To worship, ^^^ PHJ^f ^^^' bJuyna, \j^ lA^^ parastish kama. 

To worst, (foil) liUb hatana, \j\jib harana, \j^ bkagana. 

To wound, l3USj>. chutiyand, \j^ \,j^^j ^akhmi kama. 

To wrangle, l^j^^ jhagarnd, lila^ bakagna, \i^ J^^ takrar kama. 

To wrap, IJLJ lapetna. To wreak (revenge), LJ |%\2iJ\ intikam tcna. 

To wrench, wrest, LJ ,^A^ i^Jlr^ marorke khamch Una. 

To wrestle, U^ jV^ kushd kama. To wriggle, U^ tarapna. 

To wring, \jjf^ nichdma, ^Jy© marorna, l^J <^ ^jccA e2Sna. 

To write, U^ likhna, U^ tXx^ \jjijair ta^rir or kalamband kama. 

To writhe, l3j^ akapia, \:>^} ainikna, Ui j7 tarapna: see To twist 

To yawn, Ulf^^ff- jomAana, UJ ^^ lf4»- JamAa? 2ena. 

To yearn, U^ v::.'^fliA shafalcat rakkna, ^j^j^ marorna. 

To yell, l3)L>- chiUana. To yelp, l:ij|^ bhaunkna. 

To yield, U\C m/:a/na, U^ f «Xj jpau2a kama : see To give, resign. 

To yoke, UJ^ Jo^na, \:JbjU nadhna^ \j\ss^ jutana. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives^ Adverbs, ^c. 347 


Aback, i^j9 ^J^pkkhli taraf, ^^^fs^j pichhe. 

Abashed, %:u^ lajjit, ^^U^ pasheman, 2(JCw«^ sharmanda. 

Abject, JJii saRl, cu^ patityj^^ khxpar^ ^\f^ Icharab. 

Able, JjIS kabil, ^^^ samarthij J^ labile : see Capable. 

Aboaid (a ship), ^^;s^j^if>-jahaz vien,y^j\^jahaz par. 

Abominable, »jjC« tnakruh, \j^ ghinauna^ <U^ karih. 

Abortive, l^ birtha, ^U zffi^, J^^U-S la-pofil. 

Above, ^^1 upar,j}par,j)j zabar. 

About, <^U(^T as'pas, ^jLj J^ gird-pesk, (j^^^pis. 

Above-cited, above-mentioned, j^Jw« fnajfcur, jjk-^ mastur. 

Abreast,^!^ barabar,j\ii mib hamMnar, ^ ^ la^lagl. 

Abridged, jovh^ muMitafar, j^.^iy^rf sanchKep. 

Abroad, ^b bahar, {j^*^j>^ par^s, ^^ CjLojmc ghair mulk men. 

Abrupt, J.^ b€har,j\js t-,, %yl} nisheb-faraz, (sudden) j^W^ achanah 

Absent, \i^ juda, j>i\»^jf£' ghair^hazir, (in mind) Jili ghafil. 

Absolved, uJW« mu'df, vj:..X« mukt. 

Absolute, (supreme) jlaA** mulditar, (sole, complete) (jUa*« mutlak. 

Abstemious, Abstinent, jbj^Jb^j^arAezgar, ^^^4J neml. 

Abstruse, j;J J dakik, ^jLU mughlak. ^^U ghamiz. Jbj^ gurh. 

Absurd, JtU ia<i2, .fJyl anar^A, J^AJb«l3 na-mc^kul, ^jjb harza. 

Abundant, \;t^ bahutera, jS\ ak^ar, ^V/ firawan, 2r jIjJ ziyada. 

Acceptable, J^f2^ makbtU, P^^^ nuUbu*, ^"^JL^ ftar-troi^^. 

Accidental, ^Ujfl ittifalS, <Jl^ U nagahanu 

According (to), J^i)^ mutrq^it, J^\k« mvtabik. 

Accurate, uX^ ihtkj ,f^ sahthy (person) {j^^ chauka^s. 

Acid, IS^ khatta, J^\ ami, ^jty tursh. 

Acquainted, uJ3l^ toakif, ^rlTT agaA, (intimate) .^^si:^ mahram. 

Across, \j\ ara: (adv.)jl> par, j\jj\j war-par. 

348 Vocabulary. — Adjectives j Adverbs^ ^c. 

Active^ vl/)U- chaUk, Isd^ man-chala, \;^^ ckarphara, c: ^>> > - chvst 

Actual^ lfi-» sachchiy i^t^ hakiki. Actually, ^^:^4uSi^\Sfi'l'hai%iat 

Admirable, ^^:^ *ajtb,jj\j nadir, (interj.) ^-^^ \^ kya khub. 

Affable, ^LJu« milaTisar, mS»^ kalttnf HJ^j^Xi ba^muruwat. 

Affectionate, j;^ shafik, Jt»^\i<^ daya-sil, ^j^ chkohh 

Aforesaid, jj^(X« nuizkurjjjbm^ mastur. 

Afraid, \yb 1^ dara hu*a, ar J^i,UbJ dahshat-zada. 

After, ^j^f^^ pichhe, djo bc^d. 

Afterwards, oju 6d*i, ^X-it jju fta*d is-ke, JJ *orf. 

Again,^ 2?Atr, ^;-^ pAer, 2fj)U aldwa, ^^V^O do-bara. 

Against, uJl<- Iddlafj (over against) ^ >4j»rf ^anmuAA. 

Aged, Ujj buddha, 01^ purana, ^Jj Icadim : see Old. 

Ago, ^ I age, ^a^ peshtar, Jf^L xaAiXr. 

Agreeable, «XXmJ J j dilpasand. Agreeably (to), J^i^^ mttw5/?A:. 

Alert, jtj^-^L khabardar, j\J^yb hoshyar. Alien, i<-i«^jj pardesi. 

Alike, ^1^ barabar, ^L»clJo1 eA-«an, ^U»3 soman, ^uJb skablh. 

Alive, tusf-Ji^S, ifjjj ^rtnda, j^JJlflj-jan-cKr. 

All, (..^^^ «a&, aUj tamam, \;La sara, JLa sakal,j^, bhar. 

Almost, k^^Ja^ ankarib, «.-^y karib, jaijJiJ) nazdiktar. 

Alone, L^t a/:e/a, IfJ tanha, i^\ ikld, l^j^ sirf. 

Although, ^^ agarchi, ^ja>-yh har-ckand-ki. 

Altogether, J;1L« mutlak, ^^asi^ ma^z, \jJ nira. 

Always, \xa sada, SJL^ Jianiesha, o^jy^ kar wakt. 

Ambiguous, C-<^Cl>< mashkuk, J\i^:f^^ pechdar, *.y^ mubham. 

Ancient, ^ j5 Jkadim, ^^;-f*|;J parachtn, J\jJ^ puratam. 

Anew, Afresh, ^ phir, y-> «ar-i-»ai£, ^j>^^ naye sir se. 

Angry, ^^ak gh^§^ (in anger), iJi^ khafa, ^^^^f ^^^^' 

Angular, j\ju}j^ konedar,j\*)^^ goshedar. 

Animated,^ J rfiCr, |*^Jt3 diUgarm; (as language) j^XiJ nomAtit. 

Annual, lOULi saliyana, f^^^jf baras-wan, ^Uyb har-sala. 

Another, l^-^j cf5«r5, jf^\ CJ^\ Ik aur, Cj^}j^ aur Ik. 

Anterior, % \ ^JLj pesh-rau, J-J kabl. Antique : see Ancient, 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 349 

Anxious, *y:^Ji fkr^majidy i^j:^ mutaraddid. 

Any, 1^ ^ kSl, ifs? kuchh,y^ Wu, 

Apiece, ^ CSj^^J^ har ek ko. 

Apt, (J^ la*ik,j\J taiyar, JjIj Jcabil, Ci^l>* chalak, 

Aqaatic, I^jj panlAa, ^^T abt, j^^ jdkhar, i^\jd daryal. 

Around, (^U^^l as-pas, df gird, ^]ji> pairaman. . 

Arrogant, jjg^ maghrur, ^li^ gusta kh. jSz^ mutakabbir. 

Artful, jLfr aiyar, i^y ^^ fann-farebl, ^j^ chhali, cli^l>- chalak. 

•• •• 

Artificial, fs^Li sajdUa, \j!b bbj banaya hu*a. 

Artless, i^j\j\ anarl, Sj^ bhola, dsJXm^^ be-sakhta. a^jU soda. 

As, L«^ Jat^a ; (conj.) ^^ kyunki: as much, as many, \:c^jitna. 

Ashamed, sAu.<j^ sharmanda, ls,>^ lojjit, iS¥^ khajil. 

Aside, (apart), (^J!i\ alag, \^juda, vjjj^ kinare, 

Aslanty ^ s/*W?"y tirchhal se, t^Jb CSA ek faraf. 

Asleep, \yb \jy^ sola Au'a, ^^^ f^J\ aram men. 

Astonished, \ji\^ghabraj(jlyb*x^madhush, Ll^^chakit, ^j^fiairan. 

Astray, l^ bhatka, h\j^ gumrah, Sj^ bhula, »]j^ btrah. 

Asunder, \^juda, i^SiS alag: see Separate. 

At all, j;Ux« mutlak, Uik« mutla^a. 

At all times, iji^^yb har wakt: see Always. 

At length. At last, ^ I ajMr, ^ pas. 

Atrocious,^^ of^ nihayat sharir, c» ^ m.< (j:^ bahut ma^yub. 

Attentive,.^^^ chaukas, j\J^yb koshyar, ^yi^ mutawajjih. 

Averse, t^l^ muldyalif, ^\j^ norraz. 

Austere, iz^'^k^ saJdU, iji^J^^J durtisht, JcJ tund, \^ kara. 

Auxiliary, joJJ^ madadgar, ,J^ kumakt. 

Awake, ^^ jagta, j\iiu) bedar,j\J^yb Koshyar* 

Aware, l-aS*^ wakif,j\f^j^ khabarddr. »U I agah. 

Away (absent), ^U-^^ ghair ^azir,jj^ c^jliJ tafawut par, \*x>-jtida. 

Awhile, CL^J^ Jj^ chand muddat, i*ojD> \j^ thdra ar§a. 

Azure, ^UJT asmanl, j^j' azraJc, ^ JJ ntUgun. 

Back, (adv.)^^ pher,j\i baz, \j^}^ wapas. 


350 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Backward (loath), u^*ir^J ^^g^^ddn, yJul^ kashtda, <>s m..ui susL 

Bady \j) bur a, JJ bad, ^jij zabun, (^]/^ hharab^ j>jL sharir. 

Bold, )IJCi^ chandU, Ucb ganja^ (unadorned) UjU na-ziba. 

Baneful, j^JJb) zahr-dar, j^d^ muzirr. 

Bankrupt, UtjjJ dewaliya, ^^^Asuo muflis,j\*i^ na-dar. 

Barbarian, (adj.) ^jSc^jangti, ^^^i-^ wahsht, ^jsi be-rahm. 

Bare, (naked) ^ nanga, (plain) iroL «a(2a, (void) ^U- Moit. 

Barren, (land)^^f usar,J^ kallar, (animal) .^b bargh. 

Base (adj.), ,^5^lj po/I, Jc^ kamtna, ^} mch, ^^ dun. 

Base-bom, yjtj ^1^ fiaram^zada, J^i^ ^ji bam-sankar. 

Bashful, i^j^ sharmtla, i^ lajlla, ^>^^.i^ sankocht. 

Bay-coloured (a horse), cs.'yi^ kumait, *X:j^^ samand. 

Beastly, L ^^^^p- haitoan^sa, l1A> U norpak, SJc^ ganda. 

Beautiful, (JL:fjya)y>^ ]d§Absurat,jS:>m^ sundoTy ^^j^ surup. 

Because, ^ \jij zlra ki, \s^ lihaza, ^yS kyunki. 

Becoming, ^Jj) tSik, ^(&»jL1 shayasta, Uj ^y^ Khush'-numa, 

Before, ^jfT age, yj^^ samne, ^J^^ptsh. 

Behind, ,<f^ pichhe, ^^^ f^J^T. akab mht, Juu bif'd. 

Beloved, ]Jijpyara (m.), ^Ji^pyart (f.), (^^^ ma^ub,ji^aziz. 

Beneath, ^«^ mche, (unworthy) j;j3I U norla'ik. 

Beneficent, Jbj dayal, f^\jfaiyaz, UIj cfata. 

Beneficial, JuL« mufld, Jc^Jy^ sudmand, l^i bhala. 

Beside, Besides, t^ ^ira, 2r^lU alawa, ^^J^ kinare, ulX[^ nazdik. 

Best, Jff v^tom, 1L|J ^ c^..^ «a5 se bhala, Jj1j^\ auHtar. 

Between, Betwixt, ^j bich, yj^j^ darmiyan. 

Beyond, xjy^pare,Jjpar, ^ age. 

Biennial, ^L»^J do-sala, ^ ^^^j d^ Jl*' j«> dp sal tak rahni ka. 

Big, \y^ bara, C^ mota, ^ kalan, (pr^nant) ^U. ^amila. 

Bigot, bigotted, u^^na.< muta^assib, ^j^ hathu 


Bilious, 4^ \j^ safrdi, ^^/^ §afrawl, i^^*i>} J^^ardoii . 
Bitter, 1<^ karwd, \s^ titd, ^ taWi : see Cruel, Sharp. 
Black, )\^ kala, ^U^ siyak, (complexion) CjK kaluia, U\^ kaliya. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives j Adverbs y Sfc. 351 

Blamable, AjL« mulzim^ J^t^yd^ kusurwar. Blameless: see Innocent. 

Blank, (white) Jua^i sufcd, (unwritten) sJu soda, l^^ be-likha. 

Bleak, (cold) 43^ sard, Ujj>^!! thandhcLj (pale) J;J zard, L; pila. 

Blear-eyed, \^^ chipra (m.), \^J dhalka (m.). 

Blessed, d^Uc mtcftaraA, JU* C/^^ Miush-hal, ^At^, bihishtu 

Blind, libjJl andhayjf kor, Lj U norbtna, (of one eye) l3\^ kdna. 

Blinkard, iLibJa^ chundkla, SjbJcJbJ dhundhH. 

Bloody, (^^ y^^ Bhu^luhan, St}^\ ^j>- khuri'aluda. L^y>' kfiu nl. 

Blue, 1J mUf )L! ZtZa, ^^^L} mi-gun^ i^*^y^ kabudi : see Azure. 

Blunt, (dull) iXS iund, \3^ bhota, (unpolite) j\&^^ ^ be imtiyaz. 

Boisterous SljJ^ j^ j^j zor-skdr-'karnewala, Jj JbS> shadid, Jk«J tund. 

Bold, J J ditiryj^ti ditawar^jSl^ bahadur, Iso^ manchala. 

Bom, \i^jana, \xj paida, (in compos.) yj|j ^o^a, \j za. 

Both, y^ dono or ^^y^*^ dJomn, ^Oyb har do. 

Bounteous, bountiful, bl J data, ^i^ kartm, ^Jo\J faiyaz. 

Brackish, \j\^ khara,jyL shor, l3jS land, ^J;^ namktn. 

Brave, jjlyj bahadur, Lir^^U sawant,^ ij\i:ij^ mardana : see Bold. 

Brawny, liL^eyb hturmushta, yl^ kungra, .^jL^ chahkaith. 

Brazen, ]lbuj pitlu, i^ji birinji: see Impudent. 

Brief, if\j^ kotah, /^^^ mukktasar^ J"*^ nngmaL 

Briefly, ^jLsc^\ ikhtisar se, (in short) ^jOji gharaz, ^jOjii\ alghanvs. 

Bright, ^^jj roshan, \pA ujld, t^\^ sdf: see Illustrious. 

Brilliant, jb ^^^j raunak-dar, C/U;l7 tdbnak, IX^ ^ ^ chamklH. 

Brimful, c^U lab-^lab, j%i j^^ bhar-pur. 

Brisk, cH^jald, ^^ shdjdh, cl^SU^ chalak^ c: ■^■■». ^ chust,jJ tez. 

Brittle, C^j^ ndzuk, CJ^J^, barik, hj patla, CSiJ tunak. 

Broad, \j^ chaurd, ^^j^ am, (vulgar) iu^ kamina. 

Brown, i^fjj /^dc^ gandum-rang, ^^ ^J:^;^ ganduinrguns 

Brutal, ' JS«^ paiwanz, (savage) ^^^'1>>-^ toahskt : see Cruel. 

Bulky, IS^ moid, m^jm^jastnL, \y^ bard, i^J^^ bhdri. 

^usy^ Jy^^ ^^^gkulf (^Xr* ^^^'g^^^f ^^j^^ masruf. 
But, (except) lj«9 siwdyjs^juz, {cony) jLc magar, ^^CJ Ze/rzTt. 

352 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

By, _Mi se, (^*^,y ^J ke sabab, 3j ba : see Near. 

Calamitous, jrjj (juJi afat-zada, \J<^^jl pareshan : see Wretched. 

Callous, cuJ:^* sakhtf L^S^ gathtla,jy^ kathor, J^J _j be-dard. 

Calm, UjbJ dhima, Jjcjt« tnt^tadil, Jjj tone?, ll^ ruia. 

Cancelled, L^ bll« mitaya gay a, \^\S ys^ mahv kiyd gaya. 

Candid, uJU saf, jb u:— i^ rast-baz, ^^^Jt be4agffd. 

Capable, Jjl5 *aftiZ, jjj la'ik, j\^ pair, ^yrjoga. 

Capacious, jr jll^ kushada, J^^ farakh^ \^^ chaura. 

Capital, (as a crime) jU-s>*j7iwar, (principal) \y) bara, aJoc azJm. 

Capricious, ^fl^^^ tatauwun^tal^^ ^^^^ ockha. ^ 

Cardinal, Ja^l a^zam,jS\ akbar, ^)^\ awwal. 

Careful (cautious), ;^*>;-fi^ khabar-dar^ j^y^ hoshyar. 

Careless, JiU gh afiLj^ be-fikr, ^j>-y^^ asScht. 

Carnal, J^Ju nafsam, uu<*>j;^ ^^y^ shahwat-parast, ^^ kamh 

Carnivorous, Jf^^:>^^go5A^^Sr, ^^\jbJ^ ^j^U mo^-arfAflri. 

Casual, ,^Uj1 ittifakty ^J^ arizt, tj ^0 nagaAani . 

Cautious, jL^yb. hoshyaryjit}^ ^habardar, {j^^ chaukas. 

Celestial, ^^^^^^^ bihishtt, ^a^ jannati, ciU*i») asmant. 

Censorious, ^v.^*^^ aib-jd,jSi^j>^ Aar/-gir, CJjcJ nindak. 

Central, Centric, kS^j*^ darmiyanl, ^ i^yfH blchbn blck. 

Certain, ^^^ yalcin, l^^:.* be-skakk, jj^ mukarrar. 

Certain, (some) t<^ bche,i^ ^kd% (person) ^fulan, iiiifulana. 

Certainly, isJ\ albatta, LJ^ yaklnan, jjS^ mukarrar. 
Charitable, j-i:?* muldudyvr, iJb datay ^^^ saldu, ^^Li faiyaz. 
Charming, l:jb^ mohna, Ujl^ xuAau^ana, v,^«i».^ J(3 diUchasp. 
Chary, jLlyb hoskyar, j\jj^ JdutbardJar, (frugal) ^}i^ kifayatu 
Chaste, cS\j pak, jx^j pabitr, sx^ sudh, ^Jukfi afifa (f.). 
Cheap, \s^m^ sasta, \j>u^ manda, ^\ju\ arzan, l^J S kamrbaha. 
Cheerful, jj2rjc^ khandorru, .^4m^\ib hans-mukh, fj.^ J^ish. 
Cheerless, (^\t}\ udas, \j^ suTia, (dreary) J*^^ c?' ^^H^ dakk. 
Chief (principal), J^t awwal > j^ mulpaddam, ]^ bar a. 

Chiefly, Uli ghaliban.fii\ akmr, \^ya:>^ khusumn. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 563 

Childless, ^Vl5^ &c-att/&fy jJ^ Unoalad, Ijfjj niputa. 

Chilly Chilly, \xs^ thanda, t}j^ sard, Ltj^ thanda-sa. 

Choice, (select)\>. lAa^fa, (careful) J^a^u nuflpAl, ^\ii kifayatl. 

Christian, i^y^ fsateH, vJ\^ n/i^ani. 

Chronic, Chronical, ^j* muzmin, ^<4j\j da'imiy U^J der-pa. 

Chubby, S^^ galphula. Churlish, J^^ be-tamlz, (^jtuJ dabang. 

Circular, ji^j^ mudauwar, ^}f gol,J^i^iA>' halka-ddr. 

Circumjacent, J«tf;^ muttasU, c^y £ar7&, (jJuJ\ aspas, LS-it^i 

Circumspect, {j*^y>^ chaukas, J<^^ hbshyar, ^^ chaukanm. 
Civil, (sociable) ^LJl« milansar, (political) _C^ mulkl, (not military) 

Clammy, jIjuJ las-dor, LU laslasa, V?^ cAtpcAtpa. 
Clandestine, ^J^y poshtda, L^ ckhipuj v^-^ l^^/'^* 
Clean, cJU ^a/, irj^ palAza, lU-1 ti;2a, cUh ^irmal, cS\j pak. 
Clear, (bright) uJU^ shaffaf, uJU « a/*, (not cloudy) l{>^ pharchha, 
(evident) |;\CaT &AAara, Jb\b jaAir, (free) JU. ^ff. 

Clearly, uJU fof, W[/0 §arthan: see Evidently. 
Clever, ^^;:>- chatur, cSi\st^ chalak, j\J^yb koshyar, J^l^ Hmi/. 
Close, Jcj Aancf, I JCi^ munrfa, \^ ghana, ]^ bkira. 
Cloudless, ^y»)L^ AAuZa Ati'a,^t ^ fte a&r. Cloudy, j^^!upghanghdr. 
Clumsy, i^lil anan, ^1^ ^ ftS sdRka, J^t> J^ bad-dauL 
Coarse, \i^ mof a, 2r jjT gunda, (rude) ^jl^j^ duruskt. 
CoevBl,jA,£>Mib ham-umr, ^^(^ ham^nn, ^^^ ham-jdli. 
Cold, 1 JC4I tkanda, J^ 5arcf, u,^v<> Miunuk, J:um» ^/toZ. 
Comical, Comic, j^**^ thathebaz, Jf««.jJb hansor. 
Commercial, A>1^ tj^ saudagarana, ^Jj^ser tijaratl. 
Common, cJ^iJL^ mushtarak, (inferior) i:,^ kamtna. 
Commonly, ji^ aksar,jiJL^^ beshtar. 
Compact^ L^y^ f^^^yj^ji P^^-kar, ^jJlL ghqfs. 
Compassionate, (J^ shaftk, Jbo dayal, J J aJ narm-dil. 
Competent, ^ -I laUk, d^ kafi, JjU ilaJi/, (j-j fta^. 

2 z 

364 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Complete, 1;^ pura, aW tomam, (ready) j\j taiyar. 

Compoundy compounded, ^r^j^ murakkabj uu^^^u sanjuku 

Conceited, ^;ri*^J^ lAudJnn, ^Uj dimaghh j\:i^\ akarbaz. 

Concise, j»acJe^ muM^a^ar, Ci,^.«;f5d^ sanchhep, 2(ljf^ liStah. 

Confessed,(declared)ji^yl^ masVhur. Confessedly, ^*>J\^\ f'Hrafsc. 

Confident, ijs^ man-chala, -^^ dhtth, J&jc« mu^talcid. 

Conscious, \^JS\^ toal^f, »^ ig^fjr^'^y^ JAud-^uabar. 

Consequently, \^ likawS^, ^JaJ^y^ us^afte, ^j^j^ zaruratan. 

Consistent, c»^^l:^ munadb^ ^ ^V$- 

Conspicuous, ^li^ zahir, fJl& alaniya,jy^L^ mashhur, \^ khula. 

Constant, (ju^Ij sabit, JjI atalj fSss X ^,^ mustaf^kim, uJj]/ fparart. 

Constantly, «.^t (^:>J nit^uth, ^t^ har an, Ajjf ,J^ ala^-dawam. 

Contagious, v^^ sari. 

Contemptible, j;^ pa^tr, JJJ ^aUl,^^^ Mspor, Cji^ subuk. 

Content, contented, ^\j razt, (jt^>- lAmh, ^c^js^^ santokhh 

Contiguous, ^)^a:i^ muttapl, \jtb )U miH hvCa, ^ti^^ paiwasta. 

Continual, J\ti daUm, (continually) Alg^ib haniesha. 

Contrary, uJU^ mttMa/t/, \A\ uUa, J^ fu2d, ^JU. lAilaf. 

Convenient, j;]) /aVi^, v.p..^\:m« munasib, CJ^ thlk. 

(Convex, j\ J j^ gumbaZ'dar,j\ J Li ^ubba-dar. 

Cool, iJJiff thanda, Js^ «ito/, J^ Mircf, 

Copious, Oi^^ bahut, sJjj ziyada,j^ kas}r,Js^ bistar. 

Cordial, ,^yU mukauwi, (sincere) Isr* sachcha, JJU ^ocfi^, li^ bc-riya^ 

Corporeal, vJU«»>. jismant, \^/^ sarxri^ 

Corpulent/ ^fmj>-jamii, C^ mo<a, ^U J daldar,j^ tanawar. 

Correct, .^^js^ fo^iA, dC^ </«*, ts^^J durust, j;-ter tahlkt^. 

Corrupt, Jurf^ /ori^y ]}^ sara, Lj^ «&«a, \^ bigfa, <^\js>^ lAarab. 

Costly, ^^^J^ lamatl, ^^^a^^Jlj besh-ktmaU 

- • 
Covetous, ^-jcJI lakht, {j^^ ^aris, ^^ lobhu 

Counterfeit, ^U libasi, \^^^jhutha, ^^ khota^ 

Country (adj,), ciUfcJ dih^am, ^^y^ ganm, j\^ ganwar. 

Courageous,^ J dtier^j^fl^^ baltddur: see Brave. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 365 

Courteous^ M«>j^ mu'addab, J^^^j^^ Khuishrakhlakf Jl^ulilj nek- 

Coward, Cowardly, ^y^j^ dar-pokna, J«3^ buz-diL 
Coy, ]L«;J^ sharmtla, ^^lsP*^ pur^fiijab : see Bashful. 
Crafty, jUft Siyar, ^Jai fitratt, 13Lm> ^yana, uJ^AJ failsuf. 
Creditable, ^^-OA^ mu tabar,jyc\j namwar, j\t}^j ru-dar. 
Crimson, i^}^^ kirmizl, ^^y^j^ arghawant, U^ suha. 
Cripple, \yci iangra, 21^ lula, ycJ pangu. 
Crooked, U^ terha, ms^ kham, ^^y tirchha, ^ kaj. 
Cross, \jT ara, l|^y tirchha, (peevish) 'j>;^ chirchira. 
Crude, \je kachcha, aU^ IMam, AiorU na-puJdUa. 
Cruel, (t^j^ b€-rapm,j^ kathor, J'^c?_f' * sang-diL 
Cumbersome, i^lf^ bhari, j^^j ranjawar. 
Cumung, bLii syana, j\s> aiyar, Uj pakka^jj^- ckatur. 
Curious, j>-j|^ ra»jo, (rare) l|Jy\ anutha, (nice) ^^,CSij\( barlkiJn. 
Current, (customary) ^J; ra'i;, (flowing) ^J^jSrt, ^jj rawan. 
Customary, ^j^^ m«ra«trq;, i^**^ ro^mt, i^jfi*^ dasturt, ^j ra*ij. 
Daily, Jj^jjlj roji? ba-roz, j^jjb har toz, jxjj^j roz roz. 
Dainty, (squeamish) <-l^>^cr^ l^ffsh^khiirak: see Delicious. 
Damp, IS gila, y iar, ^-'^^ martub, J nam. 
Dangerous, C/U^la»- khatar-nak. <>^^j{ pur-o/b^, a^^ pur-blm. 
Dark, l^JJl andkera, CJjj^ tarik : see Blind, Abstruse^ 
Darling, )jS 2ar/a, |;Ij pyara,ji^ aziz, ^-^^«^ ma/ibub. 
Dauntless, jJJ nidar, c1/Lj blbak,jLj bedar. 
Dead, 1^ m&'a, 2^ J^ murda, \j^ mora, (insensible) ^ sun* 
Deadly, JJlS Icutil, CJl^ muhlik,^ halaku, JjblU halahaL 
Deaf, ]^ bahra^ m^ fumm,^ kar. 
Dear, (costly) uL^ mahanga, ^|^ giran: see Beloved. 
Deceitful, jbli J dagKa^haz. ^J^ chhdR,Ji^ makkar. 
Decent, ^(s-m^LI shayasta, ^jSi Wik, \jl^\ uchit, iSi^\j\ arasta. 
Decisive, ^l3 *5tf*, uJU ^a/, 5;^ pura^ ^^ yai^in. 
Declinable (in gram.), uJ^-^i/e mutofarrif, i^joi^ mun§aHf. 

356 Vocabfdary, — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Deep, \j^ gahrayj;^ gambhir, (coloured) {^jjjf ghor^ang. 

Defective, 6^ khota, (^U nakts, m\aj l3 na^tamam. 

Deficient, fS kam,jJi kasir, fj^\j Tia/bis. 

Definite, «3^dfi^ ma/uiud. Definitive, ^Jifs^ muta^aiyin. 

Deformed, JL&43J had-shdkl: see Ugly, Humpbacked. 

Dejected, ^j1 udas, issj] azurda, ^j^aa gham-gln. 

Delicate, (exquisite) fj^ nafis, (fine) cJp nazuk : see Dainty. 

Delicious, dJ^ laztz,j\i^»yQ mazordar, ^^ khtish. 

Delightful, ^,.^>.^yJ dil-chasp, xJ\^j>^ fdi ushrayand. 

Delirious, (J^^^. be-hosh, «3^2^ be-Mmd, ^t^^ diwana. 

Dense, Ul^ kanf, ^^^A- sangtUy ^^\^ bhari, Ujlf garAa. 

Desirous, ^^cJL^ mushtak, c^]; raghib, ^^Jj^ «Aa«i^tn. 

Desolate, ^^]^j trlrSn, JUj-1 ujar, ^U^ be-chiragh, jJU- Jfe^flC. 

Desperate, (hopeless) Jw«t l3 nSrummed: see Hopeless, Mad, Rash. 

Despicable, JJj zaRl,jJ^ l^a^r, ,^U |>a/f , <ii-^ ftamina. 

Destitute, jU^S la-char, ifJjLyJ darmanda, ^U- M^i?. 

Detestable, ^^jC« makruh, ij^ karih, UU^gAinana. 

Devilish, ^jUa-A shaitan-t, t^T oftfr-i, j^yj «ra&un. 

Devious, 2(]^ be-rah, ii\^ jj bad^ah, h\y^ gumrah, ^ye kcg^au. 

Devoted, jlii i^^jan-ni^r, ^^Jij^trt, ^^j*it« mu'diyan. 

Devout, Ju«s^ muta'Sbbid, i^j\^ namaz-t, c^le art/l 

Dexterous, c:...m»J <Ji^U- chalak-dast, Ji l:u««««) dast-kar, lz.'»^^ chust 

Different, l^qK^ mukhtalif, \J^ nyara,j^ our, i^S^\ alag. 

Difficult, Jiw^ mushkil, j|^ J dmhwar, ^^^ kat/iin. 

Diffident, _C& skakki, ^5^ toaAmi, ls.^-w*^ be'himmat. 

Diffuse, y;.:;:^^ muntashir, Jj^ tou??/, lyb \^l2|^ chhiika hffa. 

Diligent, /•j^j*«) sar^garm, J^tl^ mashghul, trf^>- cAauAtu. 

Dim, )LjbJjt andhla, lUjJ^ chondhla, jy^Jjy>J dhundhra. 

Diminutive, CJ^jf kuchak, Ifj nannAa, Cj^ chhota. 

Dire, UjUj darawnd, c/U ir...>Jb haibat-nak, u..Mwir« wwAii. 

Direct, U«>^ «2c^Aa, ^f^,.^ vaustavx, (open) uJU ^of. 

Directly, tiy turt, JUH ^ >Z-*aZ, ^\ ablCt : see Direct. 

•• •• 

Vocabulary. ^^AdjectiveSy Adverbs^ ^e. 357 

Dirty, (filthy) 1L« maila, ^.^ef najiSf loJi g haUz : see Base. 
Disaffected, ^U^ Jj bad-guman, »\^ Jj bad-Mmah. 
Disagreeable, JCM.«i U na-pasandy (j!^^ ^ na-khush. 
Discontented, Jd\j U na-ra?, (^^ U norkkush, ^l!^ ^Aaif • 
Discordant, (Ji^yo U no-ntutoa^i^, (in music) J\s^ be-tal. 
Discreet, J^ b ia^tomt2r, jL^yb Imhyar, ^J^, bibek-h 
Dishonest, tj:.^j U na-rast, ^>Uj1 ^ be-iman, ^^jifarebu 
Disloyal, a|^ c1X«J namakrharamj li^ be^wafa. 
Dismal, d/Uyb Aaul-nak, d^^ bhayanak, (jm\ty\uda8. 
Disobedient, ^^^i ^ na-/arma», \j!^j^ sar^cash. 
Displeased, (^^ U na-ldiwhy JjfJ bezar, 9djj\ azurda. 
Disputatious, i^^Jf^ fiujjai''t, (^\sirbahha9y j^^^^ jhagralu* 
Disrespectful, (^j\ ^ be-adab, j,^ sho^, l^U^ be4i^dx. 
Dissatisfied, (jd^U na-raZy (j^y^l^ norkkush^ J^j^ bezar. 
Dissimilar, (^\^ ^ nopmictro/Ji^, uJ!c^ mu^talif. 
Dissolute, (^Vjl aubashy Juj ^ be-Jcaidy »j^^\ awara, tiJj rind* 
Distant, j^ dur, Xju ba^d : see Bashful, Shy. 
Distinct, \i^juda, Jf/o^ mutafarrilcy (clear) uJU faf. 
Distracted, i^jio^a^ maztarib, t^l^ ghabra, JdiS^ ashufta. 

Ditto, 1^1 atsuin^ J^^ maxkwr. 

Divers, JCi^- chand, .^.^ kal ka% c:-^ c:^v bahut bahut. 

Divine, ^b; rahbant, ^)\ ildht, ^^U>y ragman?. 

Diuretic, j^ I j5;*>^ idrar-aumr^jS^ mudirr. 

Dizzy, [J^'^f j^ tar-gardan, ^^tbXc madhush. 

Docile, jj[i3J vju^t^^ tarbiyat-p<zitr, ^3 JJ tez-zihn. 

Domestic, ^fj^ khangi^ hjp ghar-ela. 

Done, \J kiya, \yb L^ kiya hffa, \^ chuka : see .Good, Well. 

Double, l3^ J cfiina, tybjJ {25Ara, Jc^j J do^hand. 

Doubtful, l1.<^C1i<» mashkuk, V..lo mu^Ato^A. 

Doubtless, tl^ ^ b&^hakk, \iJb yakinan : see Certainly. 
Down (prepos. or adv.), ^^^ nicA5, ^Jj tale, .^2jb Aef A, 
Downcast, ^jfij^ sar-nigun: see Bashful. 

358 Vocabulary, — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Dreadful^ d/Uyb hauUnak, cl.^1^ bhayinak, d/Ui^ khaufnak. 

Drowsy, L»\jcj nindasa, ii^f\ ^^j^ kfapalhaluda. 

Drunk, 'i\ji^ matwaH, ij:,*'^m^< mast, ^JlS kaif-t. 

Dry, (arid) u,^,*»f^ khushk^ \^^ sukAa : see Thirsty. 

Dull, (blunt) i^cS kund, l7^ bKota, (stupid) Jh*^^ ahmak. 

Duly, ^<!^^ W^ jaisa chahiye, CS*^ thtk. 

Dumb, ^^ gunga, Ji lal, €:S gunga, Jj bukm. 

Dunce, JU^p*^ ahmak, \^^ bhakwa, jJj baUd, ^\ ullu. 

Durable, j1JjUjpa'e-<far, a*U kffim, b^J der^pa, ^^U ft5if*. 

During (postpos.)^ ^^ hoie, ^^^ nien, ^^^j rahte, ^VvJ darmiyan. 

Duteous, Dutiful, w jVi < mvfi*, (child) Ju^^^ rashid: see Obedient. 

Dwarf, Dwarfish, l3jb ia'onS, \5U na/a, ICi^l thumka. 

Each, CS^\jb1iar ek, CjiA uij\ e A; ei, l<^ ^;«-«^^ t^^ ^'t (25 mm s£. 

Eager, /^^ sar-garm, ^^^ shaukin, *i^jj\ drzumand^ 

Early, (in the morning) t^jiy^ sawere, (as firuit, 8u;.) l:^ agnuma. 

Earnest, J^cf; ba-jidd, ^l^ «^'t| «xX« mui^ya^f. 

Earthen, ^ gi/-f, ^<^ tiitf ^^ /:a, (as ware) ^U^ «i/att. 

Earthly, _J^1 arx-?, (worldly) ^^^3 J dunya-m. 

Eastern, t<Jji^ purbi, ,V/^ sharJct, ^J^ mashriJfcu 

Easy, ^L»T a«an, J^^mb ^aA/, (at ease) JU- yJy«t om&t-^aZ. 

Economical, ,^U^ kifayatt, (^j^juz-ras. 

Effectual, Efficacious, j^j^ A:ar-gar, yj^ m«'a«sir. 

Effeminate, jjlJli^ ^^J zan-^ i/b^, 43^ U na^mard, LjjJj randlsa. 

Egregious, |^ bara, v^^.^^ «aM^ S^^ ^J<^b,jyj^ masVhur. 

Eightfold, UT^IT ath'guiia. 

Either, {L^ ^ t^^y^ donon ka ek, i^ ^ hd*i, (conj.) ii\y^ khmah. 

Elastic. Ui«>> chimtha, \'U>- chimra, j^J aJ dam-dar. 

Elder, \ji bara, \^L>^jeiha, ^Jii kalan, i^ji buzurg. 

Elegant, u-oial laitf, cJ)\j nazuk, \jf^ suthra, f^^ ^§iib. 

Eloquent, t^sfoi fafih, ^ Lrf^ kkush-go^ ^^Uj ^jtjiA shtrln-zaban. 

Else, (other) jjl aur, l^^J dusra, (conj.) Jl ilia. 

Eminent, jJj buland, A^^] ala,jyc\j nam-war, \^jj{ buzurg. 

Vocabularif* — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 369 

Empty, ^Jlfi^ Ufilt, ^^j^ chhuchha, l}j-» suna, ^ tiht. 
Endless, v:^\y ^ be^ihayat, J^ ^ be-^add, /A*^ mudam. 
English, i^jij^^ angrezi, ^^cJL^\ inglishtanu 
Enormous, ^2^ a^m^ d-Agr* sakht* JjOb& shadid. 
Enough, (^ &c», ^\^ kafly (j:^ (aAu^ : see Sufficiency. 
Entire, aUJ ^omant, Jl«\^ kamily ^j^^pura, ^^ «a^i>i. 
Entirely, yNp]^ sar-a-sar, jXb bilkull, ^ ulX^t ek-Jjcalam. 


Envious, JL«>1>. ^a«u2y 15^^^ ciaAIy /^'^^^ bad'chishm^ 

Equal, ^1^ barabar, ^^iL^} ek-sailyj^ffib hanv^ar. 

Equitable, {^^j TOst, iJi»a\ ^ mun§if, j;^ ^^k, Cj^ tktk. 

Equivocal, A^y^ muVham^J^t^^jj^^f^ do-mani-dar* 

Erect, ifjU istada, jiJr.^^^ mtutaAiim, \^ khara. 

Ere long, ^^ (JUf c/jf^ thore zamane mSH. 

Ere now, ^j1 JJi ^a6Z az-in, ^JLI ^^fl ageis-ke^ 

Erroneous, laU ghalat. Erroneously, tDx ghalatan^ \y^ sahwan. 

Esculent, %i^j^ lAurdanJ, Jj\3 ^ ^J\^ AAane ke kdbiL 

Especial, ^JA^ JduLss. Especially, {^y^a^ kku^us, \^ya:^ Miususan. 

Et csetera, 2[^ toa ghaira, cl^l Jj^ ghflir ialik^ 

Eternal, ^^Jjt abadi, J|jJ£!i la-yazal, J^J daVm. 

Even, (level) j^^'«Jb kamwar, (j^j^ chauras : see Equal, Straight. 

Even (adv. or couj.), ^ sack, t<«5'j traifci'f, ^ 6W. 

Ever, (at some time) ^^ kabhtf ^^J^ kadht : see Always. 

Every, ^ har, d^l^ har ek, ^^ c^^^ «a& ko^. 

Every where, ^ja-^ j^ hat kahtn, -^^/^ karjagah. 

Evident, ^U^ ayan^jHiio ?^^i^f h^ khula, \JCJ^ askkara. 

Evidently, loC/^ §arlhan, lybU? zahiran, &^U 5a/. 

Evil, \jf bura, Jj ftarf, ^yj j?ait2n, jl^ M^ar. 

Exact, {Im^nj* thtk, c::.^^ durust,ji}j> barabar: see Nice. 

Exactly, ^^i«aj ba-iinirhi, ^^ Aii^&a-Au, dX^ ^At A:. 

Exalted, j]^»^ sar-faraz, jJj^ sar-buland. 

Exceeding, c^^^J nipat, iso\jj ziyada, us-^ bahut. 

Excellent, jiLyj Mhtar, (Ji^ fa'ik, mJ\ uttam, 4,^llc ghalib. 

360 Vocabulary, — Adjectives^ Adverbs, Sfc. 

Except, \ya stwiyjafl ba^juZyjJo ha-^ghair^ i^ \y^ siwa*t. 
Excessive, ^jbj ziyada, ujjhjl adkik, us^ly) nihayat. 
Expeditious, jb d^jald-baz, ^jjJ tez^au, CSV^ chalak. 
'Experienced, j\^ *j^ff^ tyrib€hkar, j\S{^\j toakif'kar. 
Expert; yJbU mahir, iJ^ phurHila, 10 pakka* 

Express, uJU saf, J^ mhir. Expressly, \6^ ka^dan. 

Exquisite, ^j^ nafts, ji^ bihtar,jt}\j nadir. 

Extempore, i^^S^\^ fi'l-badiha, i^^^, be-ta'ammuL 

Extensive, ^i»^j vxun^, ^Jll^ kushada, 1^ bara. 

Exterior, External, s^jy^ furi, s^^ .^^^^> \^^jii ^^<* 

Extra, 1^ to ma suva, ypb Slawa, nJ^j) ziyada. 

Extraordinary, \^y\ anutha, l^^^ cijab, jd^ nadir. 

Extravagant, ^j^ Jyai faml-IAarchy jf>.0»J^ be-dastir. 

Face to face, ^^^Lt^ji^\ amne samne, ^Jt^j riirbcHru. 

Facetious, ^^ crf^ khush-fal^, j^^^^Jb Aansor, J^fS^ thathoL 

Facing, j^^j^ rvrba^ru, J^U« mulpabily ^J^^ samne. 

Fair, (in complexion) \j^ gora, (honest) ij:^j rast : see Beantifiil. 

Faithful, ^1 J ^;1«j1 iman-ciar, jbU^ tcafordar, le^ sachcha. 

Faithless, U^ be-wafa, aU>- (lJi*J namak-^ram. 

False, ^^jhutha, JLb batil^ (forged) c/«^A£^ taklidi. 

Famous, ^U nam, jljt«U namdar, jyj^^t*^ masVhur. 

Far, j^J dur, «xju iatd, (much) (ju^ ftaAte^, ifjb j ziyada. 

Farther, J»jy^ durtar, (besides, moreover) s^ alawa. 

Fast, (firm) l^j^Md^ maxbutj U^ paurluL or ^TorAa : see Swift. 

Fat, \jyc mota, iJji farbih, ft^j^^jasim. 

Fatal, cIOl^ muA/ii, Jjti /ba^i/, (fated) U &a^. 

Faultless, j;M^ _j be-takfir, (^j>'^ lajurm, ^^^^^ 6e-ai6, 

Faulty, ^j*i dost, }^ji*^ tai:fir^ar : see Bad, Defective. 

Favourable, ^J^j^ mihrban, (suitable) ^ji^y muwafik. 

Fearful, (afraid) d^U Lr>^.^»i> dahshat-nak, (awful) c.-'^r^v^ muhib. 

Fearless, cL>u ^ bhbakyj^j nirdar: see Bold. 

Feeble, ^j^yf U nortawan, ujLm f^^fyJ3J(^ kam-zor. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, S^c, 361 

Fell, Jj^ sangdil,j\yasry>^ khunkhapar,^ katar. 
Female, Feminine^ 2f jU mada : see EiTeminate, Soft. 
Ferocious, ^A^j toahshl, fi^j^Ji be-rahm: see CrueL 
Fertile, J^jj zar'kKsz,^Li>^ sansgar, Ju^ jaiyid. 
Fetidy ifX>S ganda, ^jsxi^ muta'affin, \xjt>\^ bisahinda. 
Feverish, Aii^u^ tap-girifta, ^^ garm, JjU t-^ tap-mcCil. 
Few, \^y^ thora, ^j^ there, Jki^ chand, ^ kuchh. 
Fickle, lf>-^^ ochha, 'r-lr^U!^ talauwunrtnizaj, J>^^:v^ chanchal. 
Fictitious, is^\^ sakhta, \^^ jhuiha, ,^3^^ ta gh allubl. 
Fierce, JcJ tund, jj Ju2» shadid, u:.^^ durusht, ^y kawl. 
Fiery, ^^^T atashl, ^Ji narl, (passionate) J-J icar, ojj tund. 
Figurative, i^jW* majazl, ^^^tr^ tamsili. 
Filthy, ]L« main, \j^ najis, C/b l3 norpak, llli gh aHz. 
Final, tj^T akhirl, ^\ ajdiir, Jl^c*; pichhla, Juol^ Aarnz'/. 
Fme, (not coarse) uJv^V 6arZA, (showy) jb5U-j"£/adar: see Elegant 
Finite, i^ySs^ mahdM, j\dj\!^^^ ij\si\ andaza payan-ddr. 
Firm, ^«*i« mazbut, cs.^^gy' ^a^^ |^ X;ara, C^ xtf&ii^* 
First, 1^ pahla,. ^ agla, Jj\ auowal : see Chief. 
Fit, (15^^ l/JA, j;j)l Za7^> \j:,^j^ durust, w.^1:^ muno^i. 
Fixed, J[l3 ka'ftn, J^ss x ,^ mustafikim, ^L «aAtn. 
Flabby, Flaccid, Lb pilpila, ^ narm, LjbJ £^AI/a. 
Flagrant, (burning) ^^])y>^ sozan, (enormous) jj Jul shadid. 
Flat,^t^ baraboTyj^yJb hamwar, (insipid) UL^ phlka. 
Flexible, )j^ chimra, Ljs lachlla, mj narm : see Soft. 
Flimsy, hj patla, J-s^ P^^^hj^jf^ kam-zor, ^VT^ i'^?'* 
Fond, (jj\^ shaU^j Jh^Ic dshik, Jj U maV/ •* see Fool. 
Fool, Foolish, Jk«^1 afimak, uJji^ be-wukuf, •^jy^ murakh. 
Forasmuch, ^^ chunki, iL^jabki^ ^UJ ziraki. 
By Force, Forcibly, J^;-*^ jabran, ^ jj^j zor se, jyj) borzor. 
Fore, )ls\ ag/a, ^^^t-j pesh, ^^-^ peshin, 5L^ pahla. 
Foreign, Foreigner, ,^_5-i'!>;J pardesl^ \j!^^ ajnabi, ^<-i*^ bidesi. 
Former, )b t agjUa, 1^ pahla, ^j«l^ peshin, j;jL <a^<j;. 


362 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs^ ^c. 

Fonnerly, ^T age,jxL^ peshtar^ ^^ ^L» sabik mSn. 
Formidable. c^%«m^ muhlb. d/U La.^^» haibat-nak. 
Forth, (forwards) ^^ age, (abroad) ^b bahar. 
Fortunate, uu^sTcICJ hek-balAt, ui^^l^ bhagwanU 
Forward, (early) Ix^TT agmana, (bold) ^ sltokh: see Before. 
Foul, 1L« mai/a, &^U b no^f q/^ u*-^ nqjis, Zt^fi aluda. 
Fragrant, jby ^y. Mmsh-burdar, Jax^ mu' attar. 
Frail, (weak) uJ^ fa'Jf, (not durable) b^^^ ham pa, ^\ifam. 
Free, j\jT a2ra^, jUsr* muMUar, ds*aj\^ warasta. 
French, fjt^^ farasiSj ^^^*^\ji farasisl, ^ ^jJ\^Jran8 ka* 
Frequent, j2;^ aksar, ft^^paiham, v::-^ bahut. 
Frequently, ^J^ <^ksariya,j\)Jj bar-barfjsJL^J beshtar. 
Fresh, (new) U naya, ifj\j taza, (not salt) \jj\ aJJona : see Cool. 
Fretful, ^}^y>' chirchiray U»- ^afa, ^jl^b ncMmsh. 
Frightful, C^^ kaulnak, Ij^ljj darawna, k^'^j^f^ muhtb. 
Frivolous, Ulib Aatta,J^l3 na-chlz, CS^ suhuk. 
Frosty, jl J uJ^ barfdJaXj L» l^ ,jb |)aC AS «a. 
Fruitful, jf J y^ metoa-<2ar,jf|^b iartrar; see Fertile. 
Fruitless, ^^\ aphal,j^ be-bar, (profitless) lL^ aban. 
Full, (complete) |^ ^fira, (replete) ^ 6Aara, ^ pur,j^ ser. 
Fulsome, \jy>^ ghinauna,j\^\j norgawar^ i\i«»>l3 no'pasand. 
Furious, 43JJ tone/, Jj Ju2i shadid, i^Lm^ gheusab^nak. 
Further,^jc> Jtirtor, (furthermore)^ ^jJ tispar. 
Fusty, i^:>^^phaphund, ^b ba&i^ tjcJbLj frtsaAin^. 

Future, >o mustalcbil, 2rJcj! aUnda, ^^^4^1 agamt. 

Gramesome, Ll>- chulbuH, ^J^ khilarl, \^j r^isiya. 
Graudy, L^ bharktla, L^^ ckatkila, iJjj rangtla. 
Gky, (J^^ Jdiushy i^U jUi ^AatZman : see Gaudy. 
Greneral, aU am, ^j^ murauwaj,jS\ ak^ar. 

Generally, <U^ aksartya,^ aksar, U^ ttmfiman. 
Generous, ^^«=r» «aMt, Ijb data, ^^^ karim. 
Gentle, (tame) JU Atte, (well-bred) J-*-?l a«/. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 363 

Gently, i^*^^ ahiste, t^^t^ dhlme, |*y f^ji narm norm. 

Genuine^ jLM#t a§il, (pure) ^^U- ^iU§, ^^ chdkha. 

Giddy, j\ J ^jp ghurnirdar, (volatile) J-^i>* chanchaL 

Glad, (ji^ khushf 43II shad,jjj»m^ masrur, a^ J^urram. 

Gladly, ^ ^^ kkusht se, ^ JcJT anand se. 

Globular, Globous, J^ gol, \Ji^ golorsa, ^^^ kurawl. 

Glorious, ^}^^ jaUl, j^\i^^^ joRlurl'l^r, Xje* majid. 

Glutinous, V^^^ chipchipa, LU laslasa, j\xJi las-^r. 

Glatton, Gluttonous, yij petu, ^Jl^^ petarthu, J\^l okkaL 

Golden, 5Ly5^ sonahla, ^^y^ zarrln, *^ ik tiUl. 

Good, \f>^1 achchha, 1^ bhala, ^Jy^ ^ub, iJJLj riek. 

Graceful, Ljkt' sajila, {)iy^jatnil,j\*y>-Jb tara(i-dar^ 

Gradually, /^^ ba^tadrij, isij 4ii; rafta rafta. 

Grammatical, 2rj^lS U borkS^da, ^jij< marbuU 

Grand, \y^ bara, ^^ aum,jji kabir, ^J^fj}} buzurg. 

Grateful, jti^^Ci shukr^gitsar, (^l:J* j;>. pak^-shinas. 

Gratis, Gratuitously, c:..^ f^^ftt *^j^jjii bhzar khartd. 

Grave, |^J dhtra, ifiX^jsXa sanjida, \jf^^ gamblAra. 

Greasy, j1<XJ^ charbt-dar, \:Sj>- chikna, (■S.X ^ chikkat. 

Great, |^ bara, ^Jti^ azlm, (2J^ buzurg,jJi kalnr. 

Grecian, ^l3^ yunan'l. 

Greedy, ^/^j>^ kartf, ^^yjiil lalchJ, (ravenous) V^j^ mar-bhukkha. 

Green, \yb hara,j0^ sabz, (fresh) 5)U taza, (raw) \j^ kachcha. 

Grey, ^j:,.S^ khakistart^ \j^ kabra, Li^-v^l ask'Aab. 

Grievous, Jjj^ shadid, c.'ss*^ sakht,jJj\t^j*> dard-angez. 

Gritty, \ji^ kirkira, (as bread) V^LJi hzskasa. 

Gross, \S^ mo^a, fj ■■■(». jagim, i^^ &Aar? : see Stupid. 

Guiltless, 2rlJL; ftS-gtinaA, ^^(3^ nirdokh, ^^ji ban. 

Guilty, Jxi^ gunahgar,j\^jii»a5j talc^irwar. 

Hairy, (full of hair) j^jJj^ mffedar, (made of hair) ^5^^ pashmt. 

Half, Ujl adha, tmji»a» niff, ^J mm. 

Half and half, in halves, ^J^ U>^ ni§fa nifft. 

364 Vocabulary. — Adjectivesy Adverbs , ^c. 

Handsome, ^^;««»»- hcuiin, \jf^ suthra : see Good, BeautifuL 
Happy, (lucky) ^^j<^ kamran, (at ease) JU*^^^^ khishrKal- 
Hard, cs.^-* saldity \^ kara : see Finn, Difficult. 
Hardly, (with difficulty) ^_^cuJj dikkat se: see Scarcely. 
Hark ! ^^^ ^ suno suno, ^ji ^ji dekhS dekho. 
Harsh, v£-^jJ dumsht, c:^*^ sakht, (sour) ^jLj) tursh. 
Hasty, (quick) j\j>-jald, ^LJ^ phurtiluy (rash) sl> fund. 
Haughty, j^yU mqghrur, ^Si^ ghamanti : see Proud. 
He, (pron.) yj vmhj ^^ yik, (male) y nar. 
Healthy, Healthful, uu^JcJ tanrdurust, \x^ 1^ bhala clianga. 
Hearty, (sincere) b^ be-riya, i-JU ^5/*: see Healthy, Strong. 
Heavenly, ^\>^ asmanl, t/jU«i samatci, ^^^ falakl. 
Heavy, 4^1^ 6A5r?, ^J giran: see Grievous, Stupid, Sad. 
Hebrew, jv];-^ ibrantj uf*^^ yahudi. 
Heedless, \jjf*i be-parwd, JiU ghafilj k^^s^\ achet. 
Helpless, j\»^ lorcKdr, *j^^sxi be-^hara^ tr^ be-bas. 
Hence, (adv.) ^ ^lyj yahan se, (conj.) ^^^^\ is-Iiye. 
Hence ! (interj.), ^j^*^ dur ho ! jJb jJ J daj^ ho ! 
Henceforth, Henceforward, ^ l^\ ab se, ^^1 age, a^ \ a*inda. 
Her, ^ ^ ^ u^^ \t (j^ ttS" or is-ka, -ke, -kl,^^ ns-ko. 
Hereafter, ^^J^\ Juo ba^d iske, ^T 5gf , ax-S \ fflnda. 
Hereditary, ^^jy^ maurusl, i^'UT 5Ja7, di^ paitrik. 
Hideous, l,.'^;*^^ muKtb, cl/Uyb haulnak, iJ^ karlh. 
High, jJlj buland, W^^ uncha, (proud) ^^ic^ mutakabbir. 
High-bom, ifjlj^^l amtr-zada, ^^ JJle^ ^Jlc dlt-khandan. 
Highly, iJL^\^ nihayat, l!Uw nipat, ^jbj ziyada. 
High-mettled (as a horse), jLiW.j5n-65j2r,jjJ tez. 
High-seasoned, ]5j^ ckirpira, j\t^ ^\^ayc masalih-dar. 
Hind, Hinder, Hindermost, )Lfa^^tcA£/a,^) dkhir. 
Hitherto, tjjcj\ ab-tak, Cjz ^^lyjj yahan tak, j^ hanoz. 
Hollow, ^>"j^ chhuchha, (-Jyf^ mujauwaf, if^ khokhld. 
^^^yf u^'^^ mtikaddas, jit^ tahir, cl/b pdk. 

Vocabulary, — Adjectives^ Adverbs^ '^c. 366 

Honest, \j^ AAara, jb<Jl-^|; rast-baz, jk>U sadh. 
Honourable, J^ mu*azzaz,jy<\j namwar: see Honest. 
Hopeless, d^ l3 na-ummed, fjJy niras, (j**^}^ mayus. 
Horrid, Horrible, i-^^^^ muhlby cS^^ haulnak: see Dreadful 
Hot, M^ ganniy \ij tatia,jJ tez: see Eager, Furious. 
How long ? ilJ^ L^ kab tak ? How ofilj^^ kai ber ? 
How many? ^j^ kitrie (m.) ? How much ? lii^ kitna (m.) ? 
However, (conj.), ^jCJi Rkitifji* magar,j}^ par. 
Human, 15^^^ insanl, ^yu bashart. 
Humane, J^(«>/ nami'dil, *Jl>- haUm, aJu«9 saUm. 
Humble, ^^j farotaUj i-^^ gh artb^ ^U djiz. 
Humid, C/L4J namnak, ^^j* martub, y tar. 
Humpbacked, \^ kubra, ci^J^ kuz-pusht. 
Hungry, l^^ bhukka, i:^^ gursina. 
Hurtful, jliobj ziyankar,jM mvzirr, jLfc* mujjdiilL 
Hypocritical, Hypocrite, ,i^ kapafi,j^\ij riyakar. 
Ideal, (J^ MdyaXtj lS^ toahrni, ^Ji farzi. 
Idle, (unemployed) jICj be-kar, (lazy) ur ■^■■■■» «w*^. 
Jealous, ^4Xi bad-zann, (emulous) ^jt^ulJ^^airat-kash, 
Ignorant, ^^UU na-<fan,^^;Jcu bt-khabar : see Fool. 
Ill, (bad) U burOj jj 6ad, (sick)jU-j blmar: see Evil. 
Ill-behaved, Jlf^ kuchaliyj^^\ jj bad-atwar : see Rude. 
Illiterate, ^Jj|^l3 na-M^'^ncfa, AJi x u t bt'ta^Hm, .^Cj^ ansikh. 
Ill-natured, ^^,^ bad-batin, «>^.^jJj bad-nihad. 
Illustrious, ^b namt,^^.^.!^ mashhur^ j\iA^ mumtaz. 


Immediately, *^ys!^» ba-mujarrady c:-^ turty ^fJ ^aiAi. 
Immense, «X££!^ be-haddy (^UiLj be-kiyas : see Infinite. 
Immoderate, ^^^^s^^^ be-anddzay if<:\ij ziyadoy J^^cu bl-hadd. 
Immodest, /»^rr^ be-sharmy Lss\^ be-fiaya. 
Immoral, ^U««jj bad-ma^ask, L^y^Jf^ ma'yub: see Bad. 
Immortal,^^ amar, v2^)^ be-marg, JJjjS K yazal. 
Immovable, J*-^ ac^/, j5l nialy cJj^^^ j^s. ghair mutaharrik. 

366 Vocabulary.'-^Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Impartial^ {joyuf hl-gharax, u^g^i;>< munfifj JjU adxL 
Impatient, ^;;m^ bhsabr, s^^XJ^\j na^hikeb, ^fgarm. 
Imperfecta ^^UjU na-'tamoM, (^U nakiSyjJ^ kofir. 
Impious, ^^XJ be-din, (J^^fasik, t^j^*^^ adharmu 
Important, fib\ ahamm, %^Ji} bharl, \^ bara. 
Impossible, ^^f^^^jf^- ghair mumkin, l3^\ an&ona. 
Impotent, (unable to propagate) J^U na-mard: see Weak. 
Improbable, l)as>^^j^ ghair muktamil, ^^LSuJif^ khilaf'i Iciyas. 
Improper, l^s^j be-ja, J[^£c«U nd-ma^lculf j\y4Jb\i norhamwar. 
Improvident, Imprudent, ^^,yj\ij^ kotah-^ndesh,j^su» be-tadbtr. 
Impudent, (^J^, besharm, (bold) «^2LftJ dhith. 
Impure, cJli^U ndr^af^ w^ nqjis, c/liU na-pak. 
In, ^^ men, ^ btch, ju^^ bhitar, (dakh. also) ^^^ mane. 
Inaccurate, ,^^ j»£^ ghair §ahth, v:u^Jl} nordurust. 
Inactive, c:,-..mi $ust, t^ dhtla, ^JjT axamu 
Inadvertently, ^ ^^J^ ghafiat se, ^^ bhulkar. 
Inanimate, Inani mated, ^;\^nu be-jan, {*_^^*-\ be-namak. 
Inattentive, i,Jilc ghafilj, C-^UJl^^ be-iltifat, ^j^fsi be-panoa. 
Incapable, ^IS kasir, Jjli^^ gh air kabil, Lo^U ttorrasa. 
Incentive, ir J s,.^^J targtnb-dih, C^^ muharrik. 
Incessant, J|^ mutatoatir, j\j^ lagatar, ffd^f^j paiham. 
Inclined, JjU ma\il, (desirous) w^|; ragkib^ j;jI& shaUk. 
Including, Inclusive, J««&w« mushtamil, J^lSi ehamiL 
Incomparable, .jb;*) dS-noisir, (jUi /a-5am. 
Incomplete, ^^UjI} na-tamam, ^jtci\j naki§. 
Inconstant, l^\^, be-^bat, j\jSuj hhlcarar. 
Incorrect, ^^'^U nor^afii^, Jb^ asudh, lali ghalat. 
Indebted, jliXi^ Jcarz-dar, (obliged) |jiy»<4^ mamnun. 
Indecent, Indecorous, ^^^^^ be-adab, ^Z^^ be-^harm. 
Indeclinable (in gram.), C^^e^j^ ghair mutaharrik» 
Indeed, ,*«*1^ waki% ^ sack, ^sJ\ albatta. 
Indefinite, ^yUj^ ghair mukarrar, (noun) 2|^ nakira. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 867 

Independent, J&u.^ mustakill, Jy>y^ sar^khud. 

Indiscreet, )c\^t! be-lihaZj j\^\ ^^ bt-imiiyaz. 

Indisposed, (disinclined) jL\3 norsaz, (sick) d:^m S kasalmand. 

Industrious, ^Ai>s^ miknat't, _s^lC«\^ kamkajl, ^U «a'f . 

M at m 

Inestimable, ly*«J be^baka, u:^v«Mi^ be-^lmaL 

Infamous, aU «3j bad-nam, \y^j ruswa, ^«-nc^ apctjasi. 

Inferior, l^ nicAa, C^^ cAAo/a, yj^y farotar, U jl orfna. 

Infinite, «X^ be-Jiadd, ^\^^, bt-payariy \^\^ be^ntiha. 

Infirm, cJ^ f^'lfi ^^ dubla, ^^y ^ nortawan, ^yj rogi. 

Ingenious, ^J zakt, ^jJ^J saAtity \j:^ chatura. 

Initial, 1^ pahla, aAa^ mukaddam, J^ awwah 

Inlaid, c^'>aX« mtcfta&ia^, j|^»^'ara'ti. 

Innocent, cl/b poA, «U1j be-gunah, (harmless) ««^ «i gharib. 

Innumerable, jUli^ &S-«Aumar, vjudxil anginat. 

Insane, ^|)Jt^ diwana, H^li fta'oZ0, ^^2^ mq;9mn. 

Insatiable, \^ (Jyb^U norserMne ka, \f^^j^ marbhukha : see Greedy. 

Insensible, (^-^^ be-fiiss, i^y^, bt-ItZsh : see Gradually. 

Inside, ^L^ bhttar, ^^«x}\ a}u2artin,jjJl andar. 

Insipid, i[^4bj i£-ma2ra, IL^ pktka, lI^^.*',*? AS-namaA;. 

Insolent, \^ magra, ^^j^ sar-kash, ^\imS gustakh. 

Instantly, ^\ abhi, |»J ^f isi dam, j^\^ fi-Ufaur. 

Instead, ^^ uoox, Jjj badal, 4^ l^ ba-ja^l. 

Intelligent, JiU aiti/, *;^ fahim,j\J^^ hoshyar. 

Intemperate, J^^OJ bad^rhez, ^J[f^ sharabu 

Intentionally, Ij^aS ]ca§dan, \*ij^ amdan, ^^J^^r^. i^^j^^ bujhKe. 

Interior, Internal, i^j^, bhttrt, ^d^ darunt. 

Intimate, /^Jitib ham^dam, mjS^ mahram, \j^y^ munis. 

Intransitive verb, ^^ ^}jti jf'l-irlazim, ilJ^J\ akarmak. 

Intrepid, lIS^^, li€^ak,j^ nidar, j\J\p^ jan-baz. 

Intricate, j^*^^^ piechrddr, ^ jJ wu peck dar peck. 

Intuitive knowledge, fd^^ tlmri'ladunva. 

Invalid, (null) Jl^b batil, (sick) ij>/i^fi}*i dffimu-l^naraz. 


368 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Invaluable, l^ be-baha, J^l amol,jij£' aziz. 

Inverse, Inverted, lSS\ ulta, UjJ^I aundha, j^^a^ maklub. 

Invincible, vj:.^«rr^ y^^f J^' ^{<^lf c,j> j 1jU^^ ghair maghlub* 

Invisible, \f^„^^ andekka, l,,^^Ic gha't'b^ JjjjU na-padid. 

Involuntary, i^J^)i^\ i?ii^^^^fJ^P^^^ be4k/Uiyar. 

Jocular, Jocose, J^^ ihathol, ^^m^xib /lansor, l^^Jo mrlf. 

Jolly, Jovial, {J^^ KhusK JjirjJj zinda-dil, ^y^, bhogi. 

Joyful, ^y>- khus/if ^^ khurram^ ^UjI& skadman. 

Irregular, 5J^U^ be']!ca!ida, (j».lJuJ)U> khUaf-i-kiyas, 

Irremediable, \ycSi la-dawa, 'r^i^ bhilaj. 

It, gj wuh, ^ yik or yah. Its, \LJ\ us-ka, \^\ is-ka. 

Judicious, jL&y5 hoshyar, jc^ap alclmand, ^j{ parbln. 

Jugular, \^ ^ gale ka ; vein, jjjjj\ J*>. hablurlrwarld. 

Juicy, l^j rastla, j\x^j rasddr, ^^l jL^ shadab. 

Junior, \S^^ chAota, CJ^^ kuchak,jM sa gh ir. 

Just, J jIc ddil, ij:^^j rast, Lsr* sachcka, uJnj(> M7A. 

Just now, ,^1 a&-Ai, JWt aZAaZ, i-jl ab. 

Keen, (eager) jfJ^ sha'ik, (sharp) JJ tez, (severe) JcJ tund. 

Kind, ^\jY^ mihrban, u^^bj dayawant, (J^^ii sJiafik. 

Knotty, Knotted, \^ gathila, (abstruse) j;Ll« mughlak. 

Knowing, <^|^ tcalkif, \j\j dana, ^l^ gy^nt,^U ma/ar. 

Laborious, ^^y:^:^^^ mihnatt : see Industrious, Difficult. 

Lame, ]^ langra, («jt:J Zang, ^ Zun;, (of the hands) Stjl lula. 

Languid, ^ Ln^ ?^t^f 2rjjU manda, Jjbl^ AaAtV, vj:, i ^i»^. 

Large, 1^ &ara, C^ mo/a, ^^farajdi, ^^J^, bhari. 

Lascivious, c::^..*^ mo^^, ^^^ shahwatt, )J^^^ chulhard. 

Last, 3l^2?icAAfi,^T 5Mi''»^n?fi^^ a^r. 

At last, ^T ^Mtr, ^\^j nidan, (juJU alcibat. 

Late, (after time)^J cSr, (deceased) (^^^/o marhum, (past) ]bl agZa. 

Lately, ^ ^yti i^J^ thore dinon se, S^ ^^^t^ darm toila. 

Laudable, ^^o^^ mamduh, Jjl5 ^ «— a^ ^a^ri/' /» i!;a&iZ. 

Lawi'ul, ^j^ shar'i, (allowable) jJU-Ja'/ar, J)U- AaZaZ. 

Voeahulary.'^AdjecHvei, Adverbs^ ^c. 369 

Lazy, ULu^ ^ susi, Jihl^ kahil, ^ nikhattu. 

Lean, XjJ dubla,j^ Ughar. jJi^ halar: see Poor. 

Learned, JU a/im, J«^\i foMilf J^\^ AamiZ, c::^Jcj pandit. 

Least, C^f>^ ^ v.;^^ «ai 9e chhoia, ^Ji^ kamtarin. 

Left, (opposite to right) ^bU &ayan, (remaining) ^b do^t. 

Lenient, Lenitive, ^^^Jl* nifilatyin, ^^;d»^ mtttaA:/nn. 

Leper, Leprous, »^j^ korht, ^^^ p^f ^^i^jasamt. 

Less, iS kam, ^^^ chKota,jiAi kamtar,jx^ kihtar. 

Lest, (that not) UL« mabada, (for fear that)^ LjI a»a naAo. 

Level, y]^ barabar, j\jAJb hamwar, ^" ' " ^ mifsolto^. 

Liar, ^y^ jhuthay c-9jl^ A:ast&, y^j^ daro gh -go. 

Liberal, (munificent) ^J:r* «a^, \7b data : see Generous, Free. 

Libertine, jJLj be-kaid, Is luchcha, 6jj rind, ifj\^ awara. 

Licentious, JuLi bc'kaid, fjil^j^ sarkash, j^jj badkSr. 

Lifeless, (jl^ be-jan, (inactive) o * sust, J>v^ mafhuL 

Light, (bright) \p^\ ujla, ^x> ^^^'"^i ipoi heavy) Ulib halka* 
Like, (equal) (js^yo muwafilCf (similar) U «a, ^^tJjf eAvan. 

Likely, (probable) ^ly3jib AonAar, (probably) v^^yb Aoti;E, UUgAafiftan. 

Likewise, (adv.) ^ 6Ai, JJ ni ;?, ^^^1 jtji upar4tke. 

Liquid (fluid), hj patla, JL.« saiyal, (^\xc muzab. 

Little, \j^ thora, (small) 6jf^ chhota, Jjy^ Mmrd. 

Live, Living, \s.^jita, *JJJ ^rtn^, (burning) M^garm. 

Lively, Jjarjjj zinda-dil, l^ shSIA, ^J?^^ fAffsh-tai^ : see 

Lo ! j^4> dekko, j) ZS, ^J dSAA. 
Loath, (jo|;l3 norraZf zdJL^ kashtda, \J^^f^j rugardan. 
Lofty, (high) x\j buland, (proud) j^^ maghrur : see Conceited. 
Lone, Lonely, ^\ ikla, tfJ tanha, L^ akela : see Solitary. 
Long, LiJ 2ain£a, J^J daraz, (time, dilatory) i«^^ dirang. 
Loose, 1^ khuHy ^y^ chhuta^ )L>i> cfAf /a, JuLj bt-kaid. 
Lost, Sgum, c->]/>- Jduvraby \^ gaya, i^^^ ghaUb. 
Loud, i^j^ ^Aori, j^y JcL buland awaz, \af^\ uncha. 

3 R 

370 Vocabulary, -^Ac^ectivesp Adverbs, S/'c. 

Loudly, with a loud voicei iJj^^ pukarkiy ^jy^ ^^or se. 
Lovely, \j\j pyara, ^jt^j^ nazninyjli^ dilbar. 
Lovesick, ^sJo^ farefta, ^yxi^ maftun, ^^^jf* mqjnun. 
Lousy, \jb\Jij>' chilraha, l^fj i^;!,}^ jVen-bhara : see Base. 
Low, Isa) ntcka, j^'^j pastf (weak) <— fl.;ir.(K? za^f: see Base. 
Low, (adv. not loud) ^Ji«Jbl ahiste, ^<^i> dhtme: see Down. 

^^^Yf e/2/ Z^''^^^^' C^^' haRmy c^^^^ ghartb : see Humble. 

Loyal, J)U-uXu namak-ZiaUily ^Jr»»i < mustaktm : see Faithful. 

Lucid, (»JU §af, j|^ Aarrait, ^jj roshauy cJlL& shaffaf. 

Lucky, Uy^jirtt fjly>- khushrnastbf J^^^^ bakhtawar : see Fortunate. 

Ludicrous, ^^yss'^ raaslduxrty j^ tannaZyji^S^^:^ ]duxnda<ingtz. 

Lukewarm, (ifjsi^ shir-garmy (dakh.) UC«^ kumkuma^ 

Lunar, ^^^yo mahtabty i^yii kamarty (day) ^J tith, (f.) 

Luscious, \^u^ mtthay L*^ rasilay Jjji 2aaft« ; see Delicious. 

Lusty, (stout) jj^liJ tatMioary j^y ^«»»>j«|j|^J 2for5«e?ar: see Corpoleni 

Luxuriant, j^ kasjry y |^ tro/Sr, 2rjUj ziyada. 

Luxurious, (^Uc aiyashy fjL\fuofjty>- tdiush-ma'ash, yjj petUy ^iLiJ 

Mad, ^I^J diwanay ^jb bSoliy (enraged) cl/\:M«ac gh azdbnak. 
Made, \^ bl:j ftanaya Au'a, dixs^U sakhtaf \A^^ karwaya. 
Magnificent, ^lllt aJic aAmurshrshan : see Grrand. 
Main, (chief, principal) J^^ awwaly |*«x&« mukaddam : see Important 
Major, \jf baray cSjy, buzurgy J^t atowaly j^Jj^ sardar* 
Male,^ nar, ^^y narukh, icjy narinay ij\t}j^ mardana. 
Malicious, Malevolent, JSSdi^ Inna-kash, A^Sj bad-ldepah. 
Manifest, ^)j wajAhyjb^ zahir, i^ khuHy \j\iS\ askkara. 
Manlike, Manly, A3\i)^ mardanay iij^\j>' jawanmard. 
Many, u:^ bahut, k^j^, bahutere (m. plur.), jL..j bisyar. 
Marine, Maritime, <^f;a^ ba^rl, ^^ b^J daryal. 
Marvellous, c^^wsf ajlb, lfMi>-\ achambha, ^^^ ajuba. 
Masculine, (in gender) Jd^ muzakkary cSJtJj puling : see Manly. 
Material, (of matter) ^JUmus*- jismant : see Important. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 371 

Maternal, Motherly, 4^^U madari : see under Grandfather, 8cc. 
Maybe, JjI& shayad, g^ji^ hJouie, 1^ hoga, ^ ho. 
Mean, ^b^ kamina, l*^^ py^y (middle) ^L« miyana. 
Meek, Sjfj ftAoiS, ^1>- hoErn, aJl» «aZtm, ««^^ gharib. 
Meet, (.^^wlx^ munoni, (^:^^J durust: see Fit.' 
Mellow, 10 pakka, /^y narm, XiX^j rasnda, (Ji*^ khush. 
Mercantile, ^J^ tyarati, 4^/i«>^ sauddgarl, ^^y^ly^ mahajani. 
Merciful, m^j rafSm, J J /^yc wSmrdil, cr^jb J dayaiwant. 
Merciless, ^»»^ hc^atm, *^j^ be-dard, J'^(±f* -» sang-dU. 
Mere, (pure) |y nira, S]^ nirala, (merely) uJ^ firf, ^./^^^ wioA*. 
Merry, ^;l«jl& skadman, jy..:Jb hansor, ^^Co nuzgan, (As^ khusk. 

Metaphorical, ^U&iM^ tnu8ta*dr, v^l^ majazi, (adv.) ^jLr^ majazan. 
Methinks, ^ V>^^ v^ff^ mu/AS siyhta hai, _ib \sd ^ .fr^ mu/A A:o 

2ag^a hai. 
Mid, Midst, ^ irJ^ adh-Kch, ^j v^>^ iicASn &icA. 
Middle, Middling, a3L« miyana, ,Ja»*j wasai}^ '^^¥^ majhola. 
Midway, s\ji,/\:j\ ama*e rah, ^^ i\j ^JbJ\ adhi rah meti. 
Mighty, vs^^ balwant, i^j^ kawt, ^j^L» samarthi, (dakh.) Jc>fC^ 

Milch (giving m\\k),JjbJ^ti dudhar, JjbJJ dudhaiL 
Mild, J^ mulffim, a^ narm, ^»J^ fiattm, Jx^^ komal. 
Military, vjF;^ IcLshkarl, ^J^jangl, g^^C*^ askari. 
Million, ^ (jM. J <2a« lakh, cl^^ ny u^ : ten millions, j^^ karor. 
Mine, ^^^;:^« \, ^j^ Ir^ mira, m^e or mlrt, ^\ ^\ \:J\ apna, aptie, 

Minor, JiLtCfjy^ Jdmrd-sal, {^jos^) ^l^U na-baligh (shakh^). 
Minute (very small), \5^^ *^^^ nihayat chhota, ^;:^y^ mihtn. 
Miraculous, ^^^f^ ajtb, ^ys^ ujOba, i^]/ karamti, <z^^S\ 

Miser, J^^os baldul, jL^^a.^ mumsik, f^yt shim, {j^f^ kanjus. 
Miserable, JJj ^til, JU-^(:ui.^ Mflsta-lial, ^jSsu muflis. 
Modem,^\:^ muta'a khkh irf Jjj^jadid, ^U> halt : see New. 

372 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Modesty (bashful) JLJ lajita, sj^ ^aUm, (chaste) ^-yB^ ma^ub. 

Moist, y tar, J jiam, cf\uAJ namnak, tSgild, \tij\ oda. 

MoDgrel, Acy^ dogMa, iL^yi do-nasla. 

Moral, (of manners) \^ j)U^f alMalc ka, (virtuous) j;Jl>- j^udlR^. 

More, jjl aur, irjUj ziyada, {^JjbCf\ adhik, ^JLj Vesh. 

Moreover, j^ tis-par, ^S^A^ ^par isKe, if^ alaiwa. 

Morose, c:^J^ J durusht, ^ JLJi iursh-ru, JjS kara. 

Mortal, (JU fam, ^yc mauS, (deadly) u^u^ muhUk, JJlS katiL 

Most,y^ akfiar, cs^ bahut, ifC\ij ziyada, j:J^ Kshtar. 

Mostly, for the most part, J^ aksar, j^JL^^ beshtar, UU ghaliban^ 

lljS\ akgqrtya. 
Motherly, t^^l« madari, UU morsa, ^l^U madarana. 
Much, uu%^ bahut, jLmJ bisySr, (adv.) c>£^ nihayat. 
Muddy, (foul) 1L« maila, "iii^ gadla, (stupid) i^*^^^ gawdi. 
Murky, C^U tarik, j^^Jjf andkera, jy^!:,^ ghanghbr. 
Musty, \^ sara, ^Jum>^ bosida, U^ guinea. 

Mute, (dumb) ^i:fgunga, JS HI, (letter) ^^jiflK«wi;>- ^f-i-nuMfi. 
Mutual, Mutually, ^J^j^ do4arfi, ^^\p^ janibain. 
Myself, *^y>- ^^ fftatii Idttfd, c^T ap, lJ\ ^^ main ap. 
Mysterious, yJJs^ maMifi, if^^^ poshlda. 
Naked, l^ nanga, icJbji barahna, fj^j^ uryan : see Bare. 

Namely, ^jjo ya^, laya>^ Idtupisan, ]b^ masalan. 
Narrow, ««A^ tang, cs ^m*j>. chust, \^ sakra, w:L<.gd saket. 
Nasty, )L« maila, 43ub palid, ^jtsfT najis, ift}jf\ aluda. 
Native, irj^b J^^l l^ CJLc ^^^ kisi mulk ka a§l hashanda. 
Natural, ^^^aJI? tabt% ^M ^tt, ^J^ [dkilki, (unaffected) <fafv U. > 
hc'Sakhta^ (illegitimate) 2rj]^]^ ^aram^zada. 

Naval, t^ja^. bahri, v^ V?" J^*^^*- 

Naught, Naughty, oj 6ad, |^ Jwra, <-->5/*- kharab^jjJ^ sharir. 
Nauseous, Uy^gAtnavna, x^J^ makruh, ^^ karih. 
Near, Nearly, (postpos.) i/^\ipas, CS>j^j> nazdik, (adj.) i^^ji karih, 
f^ao,^ muttafil, \x) laga. 

Vocabulary,^ Adjectives^ Adverbs^ Sf*c. 373 

Neat, uJU fafy c!/b pak, t^fu^A guthra, sjS\j paktza. 

Necessarily, l^^ xaruratan, jj Ha &tt<2(2, |*yS»* S Hjaram. 

Necessary, Needful, jj^ sarur, a)) Sztm, c^^^^ ti^a;ti. 

Needy, Necessitous, >^c^!^ muhtaj, JImi^ kangal, ^j^Jl^ mujlis. 

Negative, ^^^a^ manfi, (sentence) <iJL «aZiia. 

N^lectful^ Negl^ent, JiU ghafiL jJs^j be-Mhahar, c:,m...,.i «u5^. 

Nether, Nethermost, S^ torZS, ^^Jij zertn, JslA arfal. 

Never, yj^^J^ hargiz nahtn, ^^^ ^f^ kabhu nahm,j[^j zinhar ! 

Nevertheless, ^^ ^j^ tis par bht, _^ y tou &Af, *Jb l7 ^a ham* 

«• ••I 

Neuter, (in gram.) ^lN...V;f nop^n^ft, (a verb) ^Ji lazimu 
Neuter, Neutral, jibj\ <G^jf ^ na idhar na uclhar, {SJ^\ alag. 
New, U3 naycLf y na«, (fresh) irjlf tazay (modem) ^j^ jadid. 
Next, (postpos.) (jJj pas, u-^y itari J, (second) \j^y^ dusra, fj\j sanu 
Nice, l1C(° MtA, i«i^v«f^ ^aA?^, ^]/«|^ mirza-mizaj: see Dainty. 
Nigh, (postpos.) ^^U |)55, ui^4^ nazdiky (adj .) c-^y Arartft, 
Nightly, Aii^ shabinay l^ cj|; ra^ A5, (every night) CL?}^^ Aor rat. 
Nimble, cSf^ clialaky j1>* JaU, vj,.w>>> chust^jJ tez. 
Noble, cJi^ sharify l^ ..yf^ na/t&, »tX4x umda: see Brave. 
Nocturnal, ^^x^^ «Aa&tna, ,JlJ 2at£, ^<^ ^Aail. 
Noisy, j^^ pur^shory (j:^wJ ^j^ shor-pushty v/ ^^ ghaugha't. 
Nolens volens, 2rt^^ irt^ khmah maMmahy J^\j J^f- char norchar. 
None, (no one) ^j*^ i^ ^ kol nahtn, (nothing) ^^^ .f^ kuchh nahtn. 
Northerly, Northern, ^\AJ^shimaliy^jfj\AJ^ shimdl-ru, \ib\ji\ uttraha. 
Notorious, (well known )jjy1^ mash'hur, ^^y^ mehruf: see Iniamous. 
Notwithstanding, ^ i^^^^ V ba^wujude ki, i^ '^^j^ A^>^ chand ki. 
Novel, \J naya, d^sprjadid, \^^aj>-^ achambka, ^Jj baA^. 
Now, 4-^^ a&, jAfl)b birl-j^l, JWf a/AaZ, ^^i^ a/mt«it. 
Nowadays, J^ ^T a/ kal, ^y J ^\ in cZinon. 
Nowhere, ^^^ ^^^^ AaAin naAtn. 
Nowise, ^^^ ^ rj^ ^^^^ kisi tarah se nahin. 
Noxious, xJu« mufsid,j0A€ muzirr, xJi fasid: see Hurtful. 
Nugatory, J^^U^^I lorpa^l, UC> nikamma, ^ hech. 


374 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Null, Jl^b batil, 4^ raddiy ^y^'i^ mans ukh^ J^WS la^ofil. 
Numberless, j\aJL^^ be^shumar, cu^t anginat, LmA^^s^ heJnsaK 
Numerous, us^ bahut,j^ ka^r,ji\y wafir^ 
Nuptial, ^^l^ nikafX, dJb jIm^ shadiyana, 15*^ ur&i. 
Obdurate, cs^Js*^ sakhtf (j^^ na-tars, \J^ magra, ^^Ltb^ dJuth. 
Obedient, ^Ja< mttft^, jlj^U^/armaniarcSr, i*1^ ram» 
Objective (case), Jy^ maful, ^Jy^ mafuR. 
Obliging, ^Lii>>!nA;««i& amtmU'l'-ihsan, JI^J^ khaUk^ 
Oblique^ ^ ^', li^ tefAa, ^^J^ tirchha, (J^^ konakom. 
Oblong, ^^ kitabtj j^Jna^^^j^ murabba^-i-mtLstaitL 
Obscene, (J:t^\i fafiish, ^^y*^ puch, ys^^ phuhar, cJ\Aj napak. 
Obscure, CSlj^ tank, \jiM>j\ andkera, (abstruse) JiSjU mughlak. 
Obsequious, ^^i^\ adhtn, j\t^Mi\j tahi^dar, j\Oj)^\:^ khdyorbardar. 
Obsolete, cl^j^ matruk, ^j.«:w« mansukhf •^jjti bhrawaj. 
Obstinate, \^ magra, lsr« mackla, ^J!jb hathu 
Occasional, ^UjI ittifaki, t<^J^ arizt, ^\^y^^ dffo-ghati. 
Occult, ^Ju^^ poshida, Lf>- chhipa, ^JJ^ malchftf \j:,^gupt. 
Octagon, Octangular, ^^j*^^ musamman, ^L^ uu.^lJb hasht-pahlu. 
Odd, (unpaired) lS^ pAu/, jlt ta^, (in number) iijfard: see Strange. 
Odious, iftji^ makruh, ^^ ghinauna, ^j^ karih. 
Odoriferous, jU^^ ^ush-bdnidr, Jofuo mu* attar, (^\^ stibas. 
Off, (distant) jj J dur (f.), ^ se; (be off!) ^jjJ dur Ad ! 4i>J dull 
Offensive, (unpleasant) Jcm^^U norpasand, sj^ karih: see Hurtful. 

Oft, Often,^\ aksar, b^b barha,Joj\i bar bar, tuiJ dafatan. 
Oily, j^J^j raughan-dar, ^^yj raugham, l:X>- chikm. 
Old, I3U |7«rana, ^Ji l^adim, (as a man) Ujy itirAa. 
Omnipotent, j;lk«jJlS kadir-i^nutk^, Jii\ LjU zabitu-IrkulL 
Omnipresent, jl^U j^U- ^azir nojsir, l:wj j Ulj dana o bJna. 
Omniscient, i,,^yU alimu-l-ghaib, ^b^^iJb hamordRn. 
Once, ^b u^\ cA Jar, ^ J cl^^ tk dafa, (formerly) ^^ age. 
At once, all at once, ^b CS>\ ek bargi, ^j:^ C^\ ek lak^. 
Oneeyed, b\^ kana, fJL^- iJSA ek chashm. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 376 

Only, (adv.) tJ^ sirf, ^jos^ maliz, (adj.) \j^^ iklauta: see Single. 
Onward, ^/T age, ^^)) barkKe,ybJi udhar, -j^*>w bortadrtj. 
Opaque, ^p.i*X kagif, uJ\iJ^ j^ ffhair skaffdf. 
Open, i^ khula, 9C\L^ kushada, jlj waz, (evident) ^JbU^ zahir. 

Openly, \j^ Mhiran, hoj) barmaH, 1^ 1^ khula khula. 

Opiniative, i^*\j O^ Mttfd-rffe, J^^^jJ^ Idmd-pasand, \^ magra. 

Opportune, Opportunely, ^-s^^^ bar-wakt^ tVv^ bar-mauka . 

Opposite, J^U^ muf:abtl, im^^s^ muMialif, ^M^^ samhne. 

Ordinary, ^^^ rasml, ^^^^ chalam, (middling) Jb<x« maddham. 

Organic (constitutional), ^JS^ MiilB, ^\6 zatH, ^y^\ a§Ii. 

Oriental, >^j^ shar^i, y^J^ mashra^l, ^j^^ purK. 

Original, ^^J^\ asU, lyj pahla, (as writing) i<up JjAi^o mankul anhu. 

Other, j^l aur, )j^y^ dugra,J^j^ dtgar, j^ ghair,jj^par. 

Otherwise, r)^jj\ CLur tara^, ijj^ war ria, j^ «fsr kuchh aur. 

Oval, JCm» XJlj baiza-shakl, i^y^, baizawt. 

OveT,j)^j\ upar,j} par, Sb bala, (across) ^j\ are, Jj par. 

Overboard, ^b ^j\j^jahaz se bahar. 

Overcast (c\o\idedL),j^^up ghanghor, };-J^J^^ andhera. 

Overhead,^ ^ sir poT,j^^ upar, % bala. 

Out,^b bahar or bahir, ^j^j berun, .^U- khariff ^ se. 

Outcast, JjJ^ mardud, ij\^ awara, ^rj^ kharij. 

Outlandish, i^-i^-l qjnaln, L<-i«^ bidesl, (queer) ^|)|^ be-rawqj. 

Outright, uJU saf, \jy^ pur a, ^ hi, uJSy h bila tawal^lcuf. 

Outward, ^y^b ^o,har ko, i^jJ^\i bahart, tPjj/rf berunl. 

Outwardly, lytU^ sAhiran, L^\^\jib^ zahir asbab. 

Own, \:j\ apna, U ^ nij ka, l^ J^ Jdiud ka, ^le>* Mlfi^s. 

Pale, Pallid, Jjj zard, \j pila, \^^ slthd, IC^ phlka. 

Parallel, ^]^ barabar, c^jL-^ musaun, 4^«.>ls:^ muAasi. 

Partial, ^\:>- kha§§f (biassed) <>,, .>dir>,^ mata^a§f%b. 

Particular, ^U- kkass^ ^yak^ makhfu^ : see Intimate. 

Particularly, \^ya^ Idiu^an, {^\ {SJ^\ alag alag, "Lak^ mufa§salan. 
Passionate, j^^^ gh tifsa-war. ^>-JcJ tund-kho. 

376 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Pasty JEs.&i>» guzashta, \^ gaya, \jifgusra, (in gram.) ^\^ maxl, 

Pat (fit, exact, fitly), lLC^I thtk, ^ Wilcyjji taiyar. 

Paternal, SrL^*^ pidari, ij]j^ pidarana, c^yt abun. 

Patient, jf\»a sabir, UX& shikeba, (one sick) (^y« mariM. 

Peace ! c^ cAtfp / ^^U- JdAmosh ! 

Peculiar, ^U^ M^?» uf^^^ makhsus. ^ ^ ni; ia« 

Peevish, |}f^}f^ chirchira, t<j*^^ zud-ranj. 

Penitent, jAb«i»« mustaghfir, aJ\3 no^tm, ^UmIj po^ASman. 

Penultimate,^! J«S U ma ^a&/ aAAir. 

Peremptory, (decisive) ^IS A;a^.i*, (absolute) i^j ) la-radd. 

Perfect, J^l^ kamil, ^^ ^ura, (faultless) <-,,^j r ,^ he-aib. 


Perfectly, Jill; bi-UkuU, JU^ j /•UJ ^amam 5 kamaL 
Perfidious, A^^dX^^ namak-Jiaram, M^ be-wafa. 

Perhaps, JjI& shayad, \^ ^g^, ISUJ^ ittifakan. 

Pernicious, ^ao^ muzirry xJu« mufsidf ^^j zabun. 

Perpetual, ^j^\*^ da'imi, ^U ftiiti, uJj\jAZ^\ istimrarif ajIS Aa'/iw. 

Perpetually, <<lj4Jb hamesha, 1 Jua ^o/ia, /^^jJ^St ^ii& dla-^dawam. 

Persian, ,^^1* ySm. 

Pert, ^^ sho kh^ J^^^ chanchal, ^Ijbj JAf<A, Is^ machla. 

Pertinent, j;jS 2aViS:, ^(:^lw* shayasta, c^^^U^ muna^ift. 

Perverse, (^fcXJ ziddi, IL^SJb hathtla, hs* machla. 

Petty, \3j^ cAAo<a, 0;^ khurd^ ^U ^^ kam-^naya, ^ ntch. 

Piebald, J^\ ablak, \j^ kcAra, \;i^cj>- chitkabra. 

Pious, ^Jc^ muttalAj J\^ salih, <j:.A(i bhagat, ^^^«> dharm. 

Pish ! 1^1 tt/, ^ pAwA, ^^ cAAi. 

Piteous, Pitiable, Pitiful, jJj\j^ dardrangez, 

Plain,^!^ barahar, j^y^ hamwar, (simple) ^jU soda : see Clear. 

Plain, Plainly (adv.), ]^\b jfSAiran, uJU saf, ^ l<^]j ^^^* *^" 
Playful, Sj!l aZ52a, J^^cn^ chanchal, J^^ achpal, ^^ gAoAfe. 
Pleasant, (^y^ JAush, \^\ achchha, 3j j3 2am : see Cheerfiil. 
Plenteous, Plentiful, i.^.-^ AaAu ^, jJi^ ka^r, JUU mo/ama/. 
Plump, ^yo mota, 30^ mof 2a, ijjl; ^y tor o fa^ro. 

Vocabulary.'^ Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 377 

Pointed, j1«>^ noh-dar, \Sy nolAla, J0^\ yJ^ hajo-amez. 

Poisonous, j\^j^j zahr-dar, ^^Jbj zahri, ^^^ sammt. 

Polite, J-U- Mii^Uk, JL^^^^ Idj^fsh-aJMal^. 

Politic, Political, ^^CLo mullA, i^jsi^i tadVirt : see Cunning. 

Poor, (weak) 4.J^ xaff, (lean) Jl^ kangal, (needy) ^jAiuc muflis. 

Popular, Jj^ i}*^j^ ^f dil aztz, (usual) ^j^ murauwaj. 

Populous, 4>bT abad^jy4JL^ ma mur^jyij^^ ^ {^^ tog s£ bhar-pur. 

Positive (certain), ^J^fii yaXiiini, J;)l ISrradd, u,C*.jJ be-shakk. 

Positively, l:^ yaktnan, LSJjjjA\i bi-x-zarurat : see Certainly. 
Possible, ^J^^^ mumkin,j\^^ Konhar, ^JuSi shudarS. 
Potbellied, \^p tojidaila, SJ^y^^ saburshikatn. 
Potent, j^V^jj; zorawar, J^^cillg takatmand, ^^ kavfi. 
Powerful, o)jb balwant, j^y^ shahrzor, i^A»aOj)j zabardast. 
Precious, ^A*-5 ktmatt, l^^tArf besh-baha, jijS' aztz. 
Precise, (exact) ilS^ thtk, j;Jj daklk, (formal) ^iylS ianunt. 
Pre-eminent, j;jU fa*ik, Juoil afzal, jU.«^ mumtaz. 
Pregnant, ^LoU^ liamila, ^ (JUj pet se, \j^ bhara. 
Present, j-p\>- baz%r,j^^yj rubaru, *^^yo maujud, iA«\-» samne. 
Presently, ^\ ab-ht, i^\ ab^ jyi\^ Ji4'faur. 
Presumptuous, f^ shjoKh, ^^a^^ gustaJdi : see Bold, Arrogant. 
Pretty, \jf>^ suthra, see Beautiful, (in some degree) ^ kuchh. 
Prevailing, Prevalent, (common) ^^ murauwaj : see Victorious. 
Previous, Previously, JJ kabl, ^^T age, ^Juyj pahte, ^ja^^ peshtn. 
Primitive, Primeval, ^Ju^l a§li, 1^ pahia, joT adau : see Ancient. 
Principal, J^^ awwal, \^ bara, l^j paAla, (essential) ^X^\ a§li. 

Principally, ^^^^pahU, U^«^ Mnqu^an, UU ghaliban. 
Private, Lf>- chkipa, isjL^ nihufta, (own) ^U. £^^, ^ ny. 
Probable, j^^ kJonhar, Ju«&^:r« muhtamil, l.,JIc ghalib. 

Probably, JjL& shayad, ^^ hffe, UU ghaliban, ^<?*V ^^^^^y^* 
Profitable, Ja^irjjU fffida-mand, Jui^ mufid, JCi^J^ sudmand. 
Profligate, (J^\i fasik,^\i fajir, JJj rind,j^Sjj badkar. 
Prolix, JjjV lott^i/, a)1^ JjL tuhkaUm, t^^s^ fti^^ari. 

3 c 

378 Vocabulati/. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Prompt, j\3 taiyar,j^\o^ l^azir, Cfi\^ ckalak, ^^ chaukas. 

Proper, ^ nij, Jo\:>^ kfiasSf (fit) w^L« munasib, lIC^ thtk. 

Properly, ,<tH^^ L^jaisa chdhiye, ^J^ U^ katna yambaghu 

Proud, jj^ mqghrur, jJa^ mutakabbir, ylc magra. 

Pnident, jlJ*yb kosAyar, Ci^J zirak, {j^^ chaukas* 

Pshaw ! ^jt^^ phish, uJ\ uf^ ^^j^ chhu 

_ ** 
Public, (common) aU amm, J^ly» shamil, (manifest, q. v.)^U9 zahir. 

Pugnacious, \^W laraka, ^S^^ jangi, ^)^^ jAagralu. 

Punctual, (ilCfl ^Af A, Icr' sachcha, Uj »J^^ u^a da-wafa. 

Pungent, j\>- hadd,j^ tez, JcJ ^n<2, Ijjjj parpara. 

Pure, (^l^ khaliff i^U so/", J^ nirtnal: see Genuine. 

Purple, vi)^^ arj^t(7ant, J;!^cL} J) lal-nllamez. 

Putrid, 1^ sara, It^ gala, iX^ ganda, ^Ju^s^ bostda. 

Quadrangular, ^^ murabba, iJa^^ cliau-goska. 

Quadrilateral, }^y>' chau-pahlu. 

Quadriliteral, ijfj>'^ chau-karfl. 

Quadruple, \i^^ chaugund, x^^-jW chdr-chand. 

Quarrelsome, ^^y^ jhagralu, ^ i^^ ioxiya^o. 

Queer, c^^^y^ ^joi, ^^*f^ ajib,j\i^^\AJ tamdsKcdar. 

Qy3i<^,j\iCl^jaldrbdz, d^U- chalak,jJ tez: see Alive. 

Quickly, ^^ jisr j^^f ci^y turant, vi-v%>- jhatpaL 

Quiet, Quiescent, ^U «a/»n, (silent) u-^ chup : see Still. 

Quietly, i<^^ dhime, ,JL»JbT dhiste, is>^ ahista. 

Quintuple, IJ^^ panchgund, ^^^^ pancAtoAa. 

Quite, J^b bi-Jrkull, c-jy^ M^^y 1;^^ j^iira, axju birSinih. 

Radical, ^\>A a§lt, ^\o zdtt, i^*^\^ bunyddi. 

Random, Ju^aS^j be-kasd. At Random, yag^ j£j\ atkal pachchu. 

Rapid, JJ tez,^jjJ tez-rau, S^ jald, joj* tund. 

Rare, jJU nddir, ^\^ kam-ydb, Sm^^jS^ ajtb, ^ birld. 

Rash, JjUl utd'old, ]e\e^ be-Uhdz, A9^jald,jJ tez. 

Rather, J^l awwal, ^^J^^ pahte,jiL^^ peshtar, J-i fcabL 

Rational, JyU^ malcul, ^Jm akU, ^l3 nai^iit. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives^ Advei^bs, ^c. 379 

Raw, \£f kachcha, ^b^U na-^JAta, (as skin) ji^ he-jild. 

Ready, jIJ taiyar, ^rjUl atnada, J>cu*^ mtf^to'tcIcZ. 

Real, ^<2*5>- hakilkt, j^^^i-Sj yaktm^ \s!^ sachcha, ^}^\ a^U. 

Really, ^ «a<:A, tiuS^ ^Ki^tan, ^\j\^ fi-Uwalp^. 
Reasonable, ^JlSc aA:/t, c::^^4> durtisty clCf fAti: see Rational. 
Rebel, Rebellious, ^b Sa gh h \J^j^ sarka^hj ^tf ^g g-A i. 
Recent, L) nayij ^ nau, «xi«3c»- jadid, ifj^ taza, l^ to/ia. 
Reciprocal, ^J>Jo^*^ do'-tarfi, ^^^[p^ janibain. 
Reciprocally, ^^ j^l apa« men, ^ ^^^U- Ja»iftai« sc. 
Recumbent, ^J^ muttakt, ^rJjtuC takiyorzada. 
Red, JS Za/, ^^ surkh. ^\j raiafjA>\ a^mar. 
Redundant, if jbj ziyada, c:^ bahut, uiJbJl adhik. 
Regular, 2r J^lS b ia-Aa'uia, ^US Ijciyasi, clC^ <At A. 
Relative to, ^jLc^ mutd'aUi^y c: ^j^-rj fta-ittsfta^. 

Relaxed, Ijto dhtla, ijr .^ i «t»^, Jjb\^ AaAtV. 

Remediless, ^SL^^t larila^,j\^i la-char, j\>'\j norchar. 
Remiss, IjbJ dKHy cs ■^.^..mi «ti«^, J^yf^ nug'hul, Jilc ghafiL 
Remote, jj J ^&r, d^:^^ Jjf^ J dur-dast, Ju«i &a^^. 
Renowned, jj^U nanMrar, i<»l) (J,Xj nSA-nam,j^.^^ mash'hur. 

Repeatedly, jb^b iar-&ar, bjuJ dafatan, ^j^^j^^ phir-phirke. 
Reprobate, \f^\^ gaya-guxra, <-^|^ kharab. JJ; ri»cf. 
Resolute, Jfe^^^o mtutakill, )o^**d< jnazbutj, J^^\ ustuwar. 
Resti£P, Restive, Resty, lLsr« machla, ]^jJl>- chaUndhra. 
Restless, /•];Tj<j be^ram,j\ji^ be-^arar, JLj be-kal. 
Reverend, \^S^, buzurg, a^ mukarram, CL^j^a^^ hazrat. 
Rich, Jc><4cJj4> daulatmandy J^Ojj zar-dar : see Fruitful, Sweet. 
Right, l:u%^4> durust, CJ^ thik, lz^j rast, (hand) LibJ <2aAna. 
Righteous, clCi »eA, )1^ &AaZa, jU^j; ros^&oz, jjU f arZiAr. 
Riotous, Rioter, jUXj dangebSuSy jJ!i\ Aisi JltfUHingez, 
Ripe, Uli paftAa, dcjk;pu/Ata, if^^^j rasida, \j^^pura. 
Rotten, \y^ sariy ^ gala, s*X^y bosida, s^ ganda. 
Rough, \^j4 kharkhard, (rugged) JjJ^ arbar: see Harsh. 

380 Vocabulary. — AdjectiveSf Adverbs, ^c. 

Round, i}jfgol, \J^ chakreIa,jyX^ mudauwar. 
Royal, L^^ «AaAf, ^l&jb padshaAt, ^Ul2» shahane^ 
Rude, (^o\^ be-adab, A:JS gustajdi: see Ignorant, Clumsy. 
Rural, Rustic, ^^J diJuy ^^€ gofkun: see Peasant. 
Russet, i^f^j AtX^ gandumrrang, ^iX»i Jindu^l. 
Rusty, dJjSTi^^j zang-aluda, UWy« murcAuha. 
Ruthless, itoyj be rafim, J JiX:^.! mng-dil, J^ Jw bhdard. 
Sacred, ^j^^^jLc muJcaddas, C/li pah, s^ majid,jifj pdbitr. 
Sad, ^bt udoij ^jSaa gham-^n, JjU nuUul, ^j^Js^ mahzun. 
Safe, (*^U mamurif )cyLs^ mahfuz, (j:.^>< ) L» salamat. 
Sallow, !ll^L sanwla, \L^ phtka, Lj pila, ^^^Juo maUn. 
Same, ^j wuh-i, ^^^ y»A-i, ^^^3 ^^-^'^ ^)^ Aama«,^|^ barabar. 
Sandy, hjj retla, Ls^ retlld, ^fjj regi, tjb fto/tt'a, \JJ kirkira. 
Sangume, ^^/ pur-ldSin, J^^^ J^unrdar: see Confident. 
Savage, (wild) ^J^^^ jangU, ^<l^j wahsK: see Cruel. 
Saucy, ^}sm^ gustakhf .^JLjfcJ cfAif A, Ci^jt ^ be-adab, ^^ «A5^. 
Save, Saving, 1^ «ttra, ^jy^ chhorke : see Except 
Savoury, j^ J 2r^ mazordar, JjU lazts,j\^iL^ khushguwar. 
Scabby, ^^^jlcL Jdumshti, y\j^ khasra-pur: see Mean. 
Scandalous, 4,y,» j ^< ma^yub, M^cd^ mazmum, ^j^^J zabun. 
Scant, Scanty, Scarce, fS kam, JJi Jj^l, V!^ thofa : see Rare. 
Scarce, Scarcely, J kam^j:^ kamtar, ^ tjuSj dilfiat sh 
Scarlet, ^ v^\LL» sultant surIA, i^S^j \Jj^^ fcirmizt rang. 
Seasonable, v.^^ bar-wakt, ^yc U ba mauJca^, J^j! bar-mahdlL 
Second, ^J dusrcLy J^ sani, ^jj doyam, (inferior) ^ kam. 
Second-hand, J^fu.o musta^mal, \j\j\ utara, ^JUwa>rf\ xstCmaR. 

Secondly, i^j^ dusre, iJti j^amyan. 

Secret, 2^ Jum»^ poshtda, ^J-i^ malAfi, U^ chhipa, v--^lc gha'ib. 

Secretly, ^Ufi^^ JAufyatan, iJt^ M^ufya, ^\^ chhipake. 
Secure, ^j^U mamfin, ^^idS^ fnahfuz, sJo^-ji be-Muiira. 
Sedate, <(:uJbT ahista, U^ dhtma, ^^JbJ dhtra,j\Ji Icarar. 
Seemly, Aiu^l& shayasta, j \^ J dikha% dz^^Ji arasta. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives^ Adverbs^ ^c. 381 

Seldom^ ^ kamj Jl& shas^y Ijjf thorax _^ ^j^S hahht kabhu 

Selfish, x^<>jc> gharaxmand. ^jOji-i^i^ khud-gharax. 

Senior, \j{ bara,jJ^ kaKr, ^^ kalan, aj jJ Jpadim* 

Senseless, ^j^*:^, be-ltiss, ^ sun, ^Vs^ he-jan : see Stapid. 

Sensible, (^^m>* J^lS iabil-i^ies, (jmym.s^ mahsus: see Intelligent. 

Sensual, ijimij nafsant, ^y^ shahwattf L^ rasiya. 

Separate, 1j^ Jttda, (£j3\ alag, c^^Ujf tafawut, \j\J nyara. 

Separately, t Jc»- \*\>^judajuda, f£ji\ {^\ cdag alag, cl^l uio^ ek ek. 

Septuple, ^jfS^ sat-parta, \JLa sat-guna, ly c::^^ haft'taha. 

Several, J^s^ mutafarrik, (many) cu^ bahut, ^^^axi ba*ze. 

Severe, JcJ tundyjJ tez, uLoJss^ salAt, c:.*AyJ durusht. 

Shabby, |jf^P9'^^> ^/i^j*» gudar-posh (?): see Mean. 

Shallow, lf»\ i(M/tt, Jki^ a^ Aam-umuit:, (silly) \^^1 ScAAa. 

Sham, l^jp* jhutha, ^X^ Smalt, ^^y^ swangi, Jla3 na^ti. 

Shameful, jf^U^ sharm-itoar, ^ W lajS'u: see Bad, Vitious. 

Shameless, /^/^*; ftensAarm, L^^ be^lutyay ^zJS gustakk. 

Sharp, J«j tlz, ^ji burrariy \^y>- cKokha : see Acid, Pointed. 

Shocking, jJj\c^ nafrat'<ingcz,jJ>i\f^s^'st^jwa^hat'angez. 

Short, C^ff* chhota, s^^ kotah, \jj^ thora, ^ kam. 

Shortly, J^jald, «-r^y ^^ an-lcariby ^^ a J ^^ Wi dam men. 

Showy, yJ^^j^ manffishty j\jy4j namudoTytS^^ bharlula. 

Shrewd, ^J^JiP tez-hoshy \ij pakka, l3L«» siyana. 

Shrill, JJ iezy ^^^^^ mihiny flSiJo, barik. 

^^Ji JsO^ bharkely ^A^*^ tffCLpsht, l^^bF^ mahjub* 

Sick,jU^ VtmoTy ^^j\j\ azari, ^yj rogl: see Displeased. 

Signal, ^m^^^^Jf^ ajiby If^^ achambhayjy^ masVhur. 

Silence ! (inter).), l-^ chupy ^j^ls»- khamosh. 

Sflent, ^Jiy<^:^ khamosh^ ^^ l^^^ chup<hapy (j:^L sakit. 

Silken, Silky, ^<«^J reshmiy ^U pafiy ^/j>- fiartru 

Silly, )^ bhola, ^UU ncnlan, ifjU soda, Ue kachcha. 

Similar,^];; barabavy ^^^il^\ ek-sany i^^\<-A* mutasawl. 

Simple, (plain) sjLt saday (single) oji^ mufrad : see Silly, Mere. 

382 Vocabulary. — Adjectives^ Adverbs, ^c. 

Since, (conj.) ^(m]auA^\ is-wasteki, si^^jab-ki, (adv.) ^/t age^ 

Sincere, ij:^j rast, ^j\^ sadikfjLs^^Jj rast-baz, \js^ sachcha. 

Sinfiiljjlwblif gMwaA-gar, ^^i>5p-i, 15^^ «?«» tl/0l3 riorpak. 

Single, L^ aJceHy \fJ tanka, (not married) OjJs:^ mujarrad. 

Singular, (uncommon) l, ^^.t^ ajtb, (in gram.) iX>-)^ wahid: see Rare. 

Sirrah ! ^\ abe, i^J\ art, ^ Ac, ^j re, (fem.) ^J^ ari, ^^j ru 

Situate, ^\^ waJkC, ^y* tnauzu*^ \^j rakha, |^ para. 

Skilful, y^U mahir, i^\^ tvakif, JjU ^abil, ^^ gum. 

Slack, Lihj dlnla, c:,m.. a sust, (as a knot) \L^ phuska : see Loose. 

Slant, Slanting, \|^ tirchha, U^ <«rAa, jlUj dhalu. 

Sleek, 1:1^ chikna, c^U ^o/"* see Smooth. 

Sleepy, Ujcj nincZo^a, CJUj^^ kha>ab»nak^ iAfi^\ unghasa. 

Slender, hj patla, ^^j;ii!>- chhin, CS^J^, bartk, kl/jU nazuk. 

Slight, Sbj patla, ^^«^£\^ ka gh azu CS^ tunuk, C^f^ chAota. 

Slim, Ibj |7at/a, d^V ftarift, 2b J dubla, C^\j tulzuTu 

Slippery, \:il>> cAiA:na, lyL^ phislaha, (uncertain) j]^l3 na-karar. 

Slope, Sloping, jSIj^ dhalu, tj^] utaru, j>^j\j»a sarazer. 

Sloppy, Lilu panktla, ILse ftuoAaiZa, J^ ^j^^ jal-thal : see Dirty. 

Slothful, ij: 1 «t<«^, Jjb\^ /caAi/, v-^JJ^ A^jt aram-talab. 

Slovenly, <<aJ^.>j be-salika, laJx ghaltz. ^jSj^ chirktn. 
Slow, dr^iJbt ahista, u; ^^.w*.*^ «t£«^, LjbO cfAt^a, U^J dhtma. 
Slowly, ^ci^^Jbl ahista, ^yb ^yb Aau/e-AauS, ^ W^.^ ^^^^ ^* 
Sluggard, Sluggish, J^l askatz, c^JJ^ /»|;T aram-j[aiai. 


Sly, ULm) siyana,j^ chatur, <— ty. J »5 /atfeiif^ i^Ag ghaddar. 
Small, 15^^ chhota, If^ nannha, CS^^ kuchak, J;^ kkurd. 
Smart, (active) j\i^\a-i» «Ai^a6-Xcar, Ij^ pAur A/a : see Keen. 
Smoky, jUjJtybJ dhffan-dhar, ^J^TjjJ dud-aluda. 
Smooth,yi]^ ftaraftar, ^^j^tJb hamwar, (j^j^ chauras, c^JU so/l 
Smutty, (obscene) t-U ghaliz, yJ^\f>- JAurafafi : see Dirty. 
Snappish, lyS^ kataha, ^y^y^- chirchira, L^ harkiya. 
Snug, (private) if JuAj; poshtda, (neat) l^fu- ^uMra : see Fit. 
So, L«jt aisa, L«jj waisa, ^* so, ^jl^u:^ is'tarah, j^y^ yiMt. 

Vocabulari/. — Adjectivesy Adverbs^ ^c. 383 

Sober^jLi&yb hoahyaVyj^JJbji parhezgar, (grave) ^Juacu sanjida. 
Sociable^ jLm1« milansary ^^ milapi, ^^^^^^y^ ^^ askna-partist. 
Softy /^y namiy ^)U mula'im, ^iAjpilpila, J^ komal: see Easy. 
Solar^ Solary, ^^>>»4Jt shamsi, ^\ii\ aftoK, 

Solemn, (grs^^c) y*^-?^ sarijida, 4^^ ftAari, (awful) ^^^J;-^ Sfera^i. 
SoUd, 4V4J5X« munjamid, l^\5 fonlAa, cr>^ ^Ao^, C^^ sakhL 
Solitary^ IfJ tanha, ^ ikia, S\^ nirala : see Sole, Hermit. 
Some, 0^ kuchh, ^ ^ kolj l!Jj\ ,^ ^ kol ek, J^ chand: see Few. 
Sonorous, Jy^ pur'awaz,j\^\ JcL bukLnd-awaz. 
Soon, 4^oJl»- JaZdfi, ^^\:J* shitab, ^sJ^. beg, ^^ A^Zi, ,^1 abhl. 
Sore, «^«>^ pur-dard, ^ l^J dukha'u. Sorely, ^ tz^JJ^ shiddat se. 
Sorrowful, ^^ J dilgtr, ^JiMx• ghamgtn, JjU malul: see Sad. 
Sony, ,J^aJLj^ pasKemarif (worthless) tj^^ na^kara: see Vile. 
Sound, .^^ fofiipy ^>%^ 1 *» salamat, Im^>- )1^ bhaH ckangd: see Firm. 
Sour, ^jyt tursk, \5^ khatta, cl^ ckuk, ^ja^\»^ pamiz. 
South, Southerly, Southern, i^^ dakhm, ^j^ janubu 
Spacious, ^\^ wasCf »o\:l^ kushada, L^ phaila, ^jifarakh. 
Spare, JJi Jkaltl, \j^ tftora ; (to spare) *4>bj ziyada : see More. 
Sparing, ^y^ kifayatt, ^^ ^ kam-kharch : see Economical. 
Special, ^l»> kha^^j, ^yaki^ makhsus : see Great. 
Specious, UjybUtf saAir-numa, a\jS>^ ^^jy^ surat-^aram. 
Speechless, ^>)^jii be-zuban, ^s^ ^Jjj zubatirbasta, J^\ anboL 
Speedily, ^ ^J^jaldi se, ^ sr^j^lj!^*^ dauTardaufi se. 
Spick and span new, Ks! tatka,jj^ tah-darz, \\f kora. 
Spirited, jljJlpj-Jan-dar, JjarjJj zinda-^il, j2j diler. 
Spirituous, Spiritous, jJ tez, JcJ tund, \^^ chokha. 
Spiteful, ^j<Ci^ kina-war, ^"i lagt, ^J!L^ kapatu 
Splendid, 1;^^Sj>- chatkila, ^jH bharktliy lijj rangtla. 
Spoken, \yb 'iy bola-hffa, \^Sb \^ kaha-kffa, dsJ^ ffifta. 
Spontaneous, t^iLrxs^l ikhtiyari. Spontaneously, ,<^<-^f ap-se. 


Sportive, (j!^^ khiisk, j--t(^y- Miush^tab*, J^\ achpaL 


384 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Sprightly, LS. ->>* > - chust, l1^1>^ chabuk, ^yJt» shokh^jym^ hansor. 

SpuriouBy \^^^jhutha, J^jal, ^^ lihasi, iziX^ sakhta. 

Square, ^^ murabbcT, ^^j>^ chau-kona, iJ^j^^ chaurgosha* 

Stable, j^y^ bar-karar, J}j ka*imjj\s^ pffedar: see Finn. 

Stagnant, Jcj barid, f^^jj^ norrawan, ^J\»^ sakin,j^ tJdr. 

Standing, \^ khara, JiSi Jka'im, \}ji bar-pa : see Stagnant. 

Stark, (adj.) e^-i?^ salAt, J Inch, (adv.) j;lk« tnutlalt, ^jos^ mahx. 

Stately, \ji bara, »*Ua umda, ^^llJl^ aU-shan. 

Stationary, ^L sakiujj^ asthir, J\i l^aHm : see Standing. 

Steadfiist, JlS J^aHm, Jl^ir*^ musta/ikam, Jj\ ataL 

Steady, ^M4i« mazbut, j\j:^\ ustuwar^ |%«3i ij:^^ sabit-^cadam. 

Steep, f^ khara, Jbj\^ ^^Aaf A, loc^y uncha, ii^j\ aughat. 

Sterling, 4L» sikka, (^\fi^ IMalif, fj} nirala, \^^ chokhd. 

Stem, ^^jy^^D rukhi-^urat, \j^ji karwa,ju:^ tal^-ru. 

Sticky, (viscous, adhesive) ^x^f^ chipchipa, LU laslasa. 

Stiff, \^\ akra, \^ kara, jOfT bajr, (stubborn) yic magra. 

Still, j^ thir, \y^ khara, (silent) ^L:.^ sunsan, c^^^ chup. 

Stillborn, \i^ \y< mffajana. Stingy, (J^^Jf^ tang-chashm. 

Stomachic, M^\ib haxim, d^^ pachak, ^^^ifJ^ mushtaht (?). 

Stormy, vi^^ ffifi^^f ULibJJl andhiyaka, cAj^^moc ghazalmak. 

Stout, ^jii^S* mazbut, ^^y Jj^un, f^:^Oji>^ chau-dant. 

Straight, Ujums stdha, ijL^j rast. Straightways, c:.J^ turant. 

Strait, 1^ «aftra, (^^ tong, ^ l3 n^p^aAan, ^z^^^ chnst. 

Strange, (foreign) <t3lCj begana, (unusual) ^^fJf^ ajtb. 

Streaked, Streaky, t^ljb*> dhart, b^ 2aAnya, jtjiks^- iAatt'-dar. 

Strenuous, tXs^ bofjidd, /^//^ sar-garm, )oyf,a^ mazhut* 

Strict, L£.-Jtf- «iM'* ^^^ to»g, (exact) jJj daJa^, (1^ thtk. 

Stringy, jb^ij^ reshordar, (viscous) \jb^ lijlya. 

Strong, i^y Ij^am, jj^j^j zorawar, ^ bati, )oyf^A< mazbut. 

Stubborn, L^ hathtla, \f^ magra, Jjjt atyal, ^Ju^ Mdi. 

Studious, uu^j J Jl& f /m-d5«f, uu^j J ^lk« mutala*a-dost. 

Stupendous, v,,^. ^ o/ift, ^ol3 no^ir, u::^ jl adbhut, ^^ axim. 

VoccAulary.^^ Adjectives f Adverbs^ ^c. 385 

Stupid, Jk«^' ahma^, cr^^ K-^S^A, 4-iyjjj be-tDukuf. 
Sturdy, h^*-" -^ tnustanda, c:^<^^ chaudantf c^jb Sa/toan^. 
Subaltern, Wp nlcha, ^Ijf ^afti*, j:^^ kihtar : see Inferior. 
Subject, ^^J^U tabCdarj l^^j^ maghlub. J^i^ficu mutcLhammiL 
Sublime, Jk^ mu'SUa, ^U aZt, 2r«XAc ^mda, JcL buhnd. 
Submissive, (/!^j^ ^^^1^ iialica ba-gosh, J-^J dabel: see Humble. 
Subsequent, ILfs^ j)tcAA2a. Subsequently, i^f^ pichhe. 
Substantial, ^J-p^ a?/«, ,^ybf^jauharz, ^}U-j>-Jwin5ni: see Real. 
Subterranean, ^^jjl) zer-irzamin, ^^3llLS-.<a^ tahivrUirz. 
Snbiile. Subtle. /LjJ ^Ai/c« Twittv) uXial Zali/1 

Fine, Thin. 
Successful, (^y^) c:. ^.^^^Juj b uA*^ kam*yab or bedar^bajdu {hSna). 
Successive, y'y:-« mutawatiry ^^fi^ mutawali, j\j\^ lagatar. 
Successively, ^^j*> ^^ P^^ ^^ P^h jyji^ tabartor, ^^ paiham. 
Succulent, JiS^j ras-darj c-^bLi gJiodab, \j^ (j^j rcu-bkara. 
Such, Li J waUaj Lj\ aisa, L-:^ Jawa, \^ ^ ^J^ is tarh ka. 
Sudden, ^J^ Mgaht. Suddenly, ul^U-l achanak, ^\^\j nagahan. 
SuflBcient, ^j^, bos, S^ kafi. Sufficiently, ^^ L^^jaisa chahiye. 
Suitable, j^jjj- sazawaVj ^\y^ muwafif^, J^^ sumel 
Sullen, jJ^ mukaddar, ^j) barham, ^j!:^\j nor^mh. 
Sultry, ij-J^ khamas, L^ khamsa (?), -^^^ ukhmaj (?). 
Sundry, ^^^J do ttn, C^\ ^ kal ek, ^^a*) bazl, *^ chand. 
Superb, aJ^ awimjjiS kabttj ^^llJli^ dliskan, sx%^ umda. 
Superficial, J/\ uparla, ^^^^ uprauncha : see Shallow. 
Superfine, ^j^^^^ ^-^^ bahut mihtn, dX^^b ^ d^jb bank se barik. 
Superfluous, jJ|; zffid, ^l-ai»-Jl J^'j za'tdu-hilitiyaj. 
Superior,/^ bartar^ Ijl aulA, ji^i fa\ik, \j} bora, ^\ ala. 
Superlative, J-tfi^ ^fifal, \j»\i'i^ ^ C;.^ sab se bhala or bara. 
Supernatural, iJiL^S^\^^ fauku-l-ddaU 
Superstitious, u^%>giC>^ muta'of^ib, ^^^j wahmu 
Supine, ^\ utan^ ,(^Jb^j^ urdh-munh^ ^^'^ chit: see Lazy. 
Supple, Ap ndrnif )lXf lachkHa^ mSLc mulffim, \y^ ckimra. 

3 D 

386 Vocabulary.^^Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Suppliant, Supplicating, ^j^as^ muUamis, Jc^jU nij/azmand. 
Supreme, is-\ ala^Jj( bartaVy \y, bara,jXa fodr. 
Sure, ^jJo^ yaktn, ^^]} waki'f. Surely, see Certainly. 
Surly, ^ tal^, \^ kara, )j»-jf' chirchira, yj^ talkhrru. 
Surreptitious, J,;/-^ nuisruk, \^ UU ^ *«r^ fareb se pay a hu*a. 
Suspicious, ^Jj^ shakkl, cJ\j 41j Jjf ajideshornaky )L^ bkarmila. : 
Swampy, ^oJ J daldali. Swap, ^ ^'j^ jf^o^p se : see Hasty. 
Swarthy, lyL sariwla. Sweet, l^S^ mlthaf ^jijJ^ shtrln. 
Swift, Ao^jdUty^ ^^^9 3jji^ tez-rau, «X:j tund, {^Jij beg. 
Symmetrical, ^yU ba-iartnay ij\jij\\j borandaza. 
Synonymous, (^ jl^ mutaradif, ^^^>J^ ^^ hwmrmani. 
Tacit, ^s^S^ sakity ^yc mauniy (implied) ^^4>^>4> mutofammtn* 
Talkative, Vjy U &a^untya, ,^ &aAA;?, j^^^obj ziyada-go. 
Tall, UJ lambiy Jj^ fflvnl, \a^1 uncAa, oJj &tt2an£2. 
Tame, hb hila, /^J ram, fj^r haUm, (dull) J^ kund. 
Tangible, (^ymA^ mamsus, ^^.^f^C*^ mumkinU'lrmass* 
Taper, ^dj^ gaw^um. Tardily, ^yuJbT ahiste, ^yb havH. 
Tardy, L^J ^Ai Za, Jjb\^ AaAiZ, 1 JCw« manda, ^ts^JbT ahista. 
Tart, ^^ ^tcr^A, IS^ ftAa<fa, V^j^ ftanoa, c^.'sfir' «aM^. 
T2Lstefal,j\tiXj^mazardary JuoJ 2a|ts, ^Ij^^^ khush'Za'ika. 
Tasteless, 2r^^ fte-maza, ci^oJ ^ be-lass^t, \C^ phika. 
Tawny, ]^jf>^jAat<nra, lU j^iZa, v£j^j\;^ bhura-rang. 
Technical, ^^^-^Ua.^^ i^tilafii, ^^^^^ fiikmatt, ^5^ *Zinf • 
Tedious, LjbJ ^/itZS, i^t^ Mart, Jj^ tawily^ l^ thakffii. 
Temperate, J Joa^ tnu^tadil, fJbX* maddkam : see Sober. 
Tempestuous, ^c^lijL j^ti/Sni, J^jJ^J ^S^r 5 ^tineZ; see Stormy. 
Temporal^, xj^jt^^ chandrdzoy ^j^ drizl, ^-Lsi/o^Zt. 
Tenacious, jM^ sakkt-gtr^ (viscous) UuJ laslasa. 
Tender, ajJ narm, J)L« mulffim, il^\j nazuk : see Kind* 
Tenth, ^I^J daswan» Tepid, ^fjfi^ shtr-garm, iii^ gunguna. 
Terrestrial, ^^j\ arxl, 1/^ Mjakl, ^J'^t^j zamm, i^^*^ dunyawh 
Terrible, Terrific, d/Uyb haulnaky jSj\ <j:, .LM dahshat-angez. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 387 

Testy, Tetchy> \^^chirchira, ^\yo{l^ tunuk-mizaj. 

Teie^4ete, jiji^j rUrborru, t*ijj^ti do-bar-do. 

Than, ^^ se, ^^^ sen, ^^ son or (dakh.) sun, ^ lci,j\ az. 

That, (pron.) s^ wuh or (dakh.) wah, (^\ us, (conj.) i^ ki, ^^ kyun-ki. 

Thee or to thee, ^ -^cs? tujh ko or ^^cr tujhe. Their, ^^\ unh-ka, &c. 

Them, j^^t unh-ko or ^j^\ unhen. Themselves, c^t (^ tri ap, &c. 

Then, u^ toi, c3J tad, y to. Thence, ^ f^\jbj wahanse: see Therefore. 

Thencefortli, Thenceforward, ,^^fsa> ^ tis pichKe, ^^ JJ tad se. 

Theoretic, Theoretical, ^\^ khiyali, ^\i kiyasl, ^5^ ilml. 

There, ^bh^ wahafi,jS^\ udkar. Thereabout, i^f^ lag-bhag. 

Thereafter, ^T jt Jju bad az an. Therefore, yj^^ o^\ ^ wasQ. 

These, ^ ye. They, ^^ wt, ^ ye, ^ ^^^ wnAow ne. 

Thick, (not thin) U^ mo/a, j^jJj daldar, (close) \i^ gtiana. 

Thin, isj patla, lb J dubla, (licJ tunuk, fjJj rd^l^. 

Thine, LJ tera,jy tor. Third, \ji^ iisra, a^^ siyum. 

Thirsty, L»\jpyasa, icjLJ tishna, i^^UU tishna^-kA. 

This, ^ ^A or dakh. yah^ Thither, ^^t udhar : see There. 

Thorny, tji kafila, j\jj\^ khardar^ (arduous) ^^^ kathin. 

Thorough, J^\$ kamil, \jy pura* Thoroughly, j^^j^ sarasar. 

Those, ^jt0e. Thou, y A. Though, ^T JU- ^a^-anAt ; see Although. 

Thoughtful, Ct:^^ fikr-mand, clA3 AIjjJI anrS«Aa-naX;. 

Thoughtless^ ^^^lij bhfikr, 1^^ bhparwa, JiU ffhafil. 

Threefold, l:£r tiguna, IjSj tilara, JCi>-<iL» si-chand. 

Threescore, ^^^^ ^ ^n Aori, «^L «af A^ Thrice, j\) ^ tin bar. 

Thrifty, ijt'jj>' juz-ras, ^}i^ kifayatt, ^^ mS kam^-j^rch. 

Through,y»9|^ sarasar, j\jj^^ warpar, (by means of) ^ se. 

Throughout, \j Ijr^ sar-ta-piyj^ bhar, /%liJ tamam. 

Thunderstruck, i^U yj^, bijli'mara, \jVc ^ gaj-mara. 

Th^«> uHy^j ^A y^^^h W^ flw5, ^JaJ is-farh. 

Thwart, 1 ?T ara, U^ ^^r/ia, l^>y ^trcAAa : see Across^ 

Thy, \jx: tera,jy tor. Thyself, cJfy tu ap, ^y tS-ii. 

Tidy, i:i^\i\ arasta^ lXU 2alt/l tj^u^ suthra. 

388 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Tight, i^j^ tang, ca.>.^^ chust, gxJL^ kashlda, tju-J:?^ sal^. 
Till, ilio tak or dakh. (^ tc^, ui3j talak or dakh. ^sJ^ talag. 
Timely, ^^^^ji bar wa^t, ^y*ji bar maul^^: see Early. 
Timeserving, jL aiUj zamanorsaz, ^Uj Jjbl ahl-irzaman. 
Timid, Timorous, l^jj j j dar^okna, j\jj daralu. 
Tiny, \5j^ vju%^ fraAv ^ chhota, \fJ nannha, 4^^^ Idturd. 
Tipsy, o--^ wflw^, Sl^ matwala, ,J^^j^ sar-Jdhush. 
Tiresome, j*l^ MaAa'u, ^ \^y-* riAra'u, (^b^ tt<2atf . 
To, / ko or dakh. ku, J^ ^ ke tain, CSi tak, CJ^ talak. 
Together, <^L C^\ Ik sath, >ftb baham, cuw^^ ^ome^, \^ ikaJLlha. 
Tolerable^ j'ly-» sahd% jtf^^ sahanhar, (passable) ^ ^^ ftaiii^iii. 
Tonguetied, Joj ^bj zaban-band^ Jo) ^J girifta-zaban. 
Tonic (giving strength), sjjl^ ^^ mu^aivunS-mi^da. 
Too, » Jb J ziyada, u:^ daAtt^, l1^ nipa/, ^ «>>. ^ Jd «8. 
Toothless, hy^ popla, ]t^ mttrfi. Toj^er, ^y^jpcwakkar. 
Topsyturvy, ISb Isll ulta-pulta, 1^i)^2 tah 5 &a/a. 
Torpid, )j^ thithara, ^ sun, ^/m£^ be-fiiss, us. ■ » >»■ < «ttf^. 
Total, aUJ tamam, J^ Au/Z, u^^^ «ai, V|^ pura .* see All. 
Totally, \j\j^ sarapa, ^^ ^ )>- juz-o-kuU, JflU bi-Ukull. 
Tough, \y^ chimra, ci^.^sir' sa^t, ^y^a^ mazbut, \^U>- chimtha. 
Toward, Towards, «-Jjt ^-^ kt faraf, *--^ W ^ lAjanib, ^^Ij ^ fte/Mi. 
Tractable, jIj^ J^ iiukm-bardar, Mji narm, aJl>» ^aZtoi : see Docile. 
Traditional, ^\jj zabant, ^U.^ samSf, ^i3 na^ff. 
Traitorous, jbli J daghabdz. My^i be-wafa, ^U^ Jdut^in. 
Tranquil,^ ^Air, »J^i dsuda, ^Ljmb «ttii^n, ^^<^ ««&Ai. 
Transient, Transitory, jl Job U norpcTeddr, ^^fdm, Jaa^ chanchal. 
Transparent, uJlLSi shaffdf, ^j{ barrak, («JU ^o/l 
Transverse, l?l ara, ^|>y tirchha, \jj^ bcnda, \j)\ tra (?)• 
Treacherous, ^^Uj^ ^ &e-man,^^tXc ghaddar. ^^JJi kapaii* 
Treble, Triple, \Jj tigund, \j^ tihrd, J^ ^ ^cAa?i€/. 
Tremendous, c»^^*v^ muhlb, C/bJyb haulndk, bj'\^J dara'oiia. 
Triangular, CJ^ musallas, UjO tikoniyd^ iJi^^i^ si-goska. 

Vocabulary.-^Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 389 

Tributary, jtjd ^]^ IMraj-guiarf j\S> ^b bqj-'guxar : see Subject, 
Triennial^ 4IU iU Mala, ^Lj ti-sala, U^ ^,Jf (inrbarsa. 
Trifling (trivial), UU halka, iljC^ ntite/r, lf>.jl ocA^a. 
Trim, ^bu.»yT OTOBta, L^ zS&a, <— ft^lal ^aj^T/", jUjL saz^baz. 
Trite, bU purana, ^j£«> cSrina, (common) |»U amm. 
Trivial, UJub AaZ&a, uX;.o subuk^jJSu) he-iadr, Ujf aJ»a« 
Troublesome, jj^j ranjawar, ^^l^ (Aari , jCl^ muskkiL 

Truant, uu » «tt«^, ij^^^T atrara, ^^^jj^ harza^gard. 

True, U*^ sod&cAa, ^ <acA, i^:^j rast : see Just, Faithful. 
Truly, ^\^ waJj^X s^s^Jim^^ fi4^1iafflkat, ^ sack. 
Trusty, Trust-worthy, ^^^cui^ mu\abir,j\i^ ij>jt«1 amanat'dar. 
Tumultuous, s/v^ ^tchalif \jiy^ Akobt, ui-^j dangait. 
Turbid, "i^ gadia, jiiL^ mukaddar, \ibj\^garpa: see Dirty. 
Turbulent, ^;.*JjJ ciangai^, jU l/^^ dangi-baz, ^t>yb hur-danga. 
Tush ! Tut ! ,^ ;iA»A, ^-|^ cAA?. Twain, y do. 
Twice, ifj\iy> do-bara. Two-fold, lyJ jJ do-taha, U^J diigna. 

Typical, Jb r2S22, l^M^ tams^R. Typically, HjuJ taw^Um. 
Tyrannical, JQ^ sa/m, ,^40^ ^'^omi, ^^^ kaihin : see CrueL 
Vacant, ^U^ j;Aa/i, ^^ HAi, (unemployed) Jki»« mu'attaL 
Vague, ^ji^ jii^ ghoir mu^aiyan, |%jU« U fto-m^/Sm : see Doubtful. 
Vain, (fruitless) « jjIU h^fffida, <>U ftojiZ J^US &AafiZ. 
In vain, ci^. a&aif, ^;^\; ra'Sgail, jb^ bar-bad. 
Valiant, ^1^ <;i£r, jjl^ bahadur, ^le^ «A«/a*, lU)o dil-chali. 
Valid, JlS ita'/m, i^^igiM^ mustafikim^ u^ti ^aMt : see Firm. 
Valuable, ^^s^V l^matl, ^U ^y girdn-maya, l^ ^\f giran-'baha. 
Vapid, 2r^ ^ ftS-mo^ra, \C^ phtka, \^^ sitha: see Insipid. 
Variable, Jjus^ mutabaddil, ^j)a^ mutofotttrtn .* see Inconstant. 
Various, J[;£s^ mutitfarrij^, \d^ \d>a^ juda-juda, t^pUfe^ mukhtalif. 
Vast, Vasty, 1^ iafa, ^JIsa ascm, ^^-^a^ tcosi*, jM opar. 
Vaulted, jb i^ gumbai-dar, j\i^ ^ Jj^be-dar. 
Vehement, jj jyii skadid, ^JL^^ss^ saMif, \j^ kara, jJ tez, JcJ tund. 
Vendible, cffr ^y*^ bcchne-jog, 1:Jl^ chalanta, ^^j rawy. 

390 Vacahulary^^^AdjectiveSf Adverbs^ ^c* 

Venerable, aJLo mukarram, jj/uc miCaztaZj i^J^, hizurg. 
Venomous, ,^Jbj zahriy J\*^ ybj zahr^lar, (noxioas) i^^y muzl. 
Venturesome, Venturous, jb^jj\>-Jon-i5x; flee Bold. 
Verbal, ^\>j zabant, t^j^ \i )y *P^ munh-hola or -akhri. 
Verbally, Verbatim, UaiS lafzan, laib loi! lafz ha-lafz. 
Verbose, aK J^ tul4calam, Jjjk Jjt tulrtaunl, j^ pur-go. 
Verdant, J*«» sahz^ Syb hara,jf0^j^ sar-sabz. 
Verily, see Truly, Certainly. Veritable, ^ sack, t£-%-*;J durust. 
Vernacular, t<— ifc> desi. Vernal, i^^ Ja/iSri, ^y^jj roii *! . 
Versed, ^^^j^ kar-dan^J^ arJ^t azmudorkar: see Skilful. 
Very, (adj.) ^ sack, see True, Real : (adv.) ci^ bahuty vJUJ n^/. 
Vexatious, ^<^^);t azar-dihy (^]/»* J«3 diJMuxrashy ^ b .^J dukh-dffl. 
Ugly, C-^j^tf JJ bad'Surat,^j <ju^ isisA^rti, JjJ jj btiddauL 
Vicious, Vitious, ^^^ aiHijjijit shariry ty^\i fasid: see Bad. 
Victorious, y-sj-Jtrt, CmAi ^i fatf^yaby ^»JU gAflZi&f Jjjp-i flroz. 
Videlicet, Jjy y€^ne, y U- jaiio. Vigilant, jlTT agSA : see Cautious. 
Vigorous, j^)jfi^J zarawar, (^y ^atrt, ^^^Jj»j itdbar-dast* 
Vile, ^ nicA, u:-^ J7€»^, JJ J S^^^j^y^ Mapaxy ^y^ dun, 
Villanous, l<>*^ po/*^ '^ '^^^^> ^lij Tizalayji^ fuiiiir : see Base. 
Vindictive, jj^U«^ klna-war, ^jS J^^ U ^\£J^ tn^t/bam- or wail-kash* 
Violent, jj jJ» shadidy i^i^^xof^ safdUy JcJ <«fid. 
Violently, {j:^^^ sajdif. 

Virile, ^14>^ mar<2ana. Virtually, j^J^^J^S ^ fi-l-hafikaL 
Virtuous, t^y^ dharmiy cIXJ neky 1^ bhaHf ^U sa/i^. 
Virulent, oj jy& skadtd, tr ^ 5aM^- Viscous, Urf^ lajlqja. 
Visible, yfclb sSAtr, ^«C/* §ariti. Visibly, \ji^ zahiraru 
Visionary, ^5^ wahmty ,JU>- MiiyaRy ^jy^ t(z§auumrt. 
Vital, irjjj zirida, c«;y.j^CL>Lai- hayat'maniAbyj\^\s^jan-dar. 
Vivacious, JjarjJj zinda^dil, jlSi Jj dihshady ^^f^ magan. 
Vivid, (bright) ^2;^^ rosAan, (splendid) M^^ chatktla : see Lively. 
Ultimate, ^JfJ^ akhiri. Unable, jjAi«^ bhrnakdur: see Weak. 
Unacceptable, jomjU na-pcisand, jjiax<\j na^matMir. 

Vocabulary, — AdjecHveSy Adverbs, ^c. 391 

Unaccontredy jU ^ be-saz. Unaccostomed, ^J\j! be^abt 
Unacquainted^ L-iSljU na^oa^f, ^^\ ajan. 
Unaffected. isS-L^ be-sdkhta. Unanimous. i]*^(l^\ ehrdil. 
Unanswerable, ^^Ji lorradd. Unarmed, \f^ nihattha. 
Unasked, v,^ ^\U^ be4alab. Unassisted, ^(X^^ be^madcLd. 
Unavoidable, Jj) Vorbudd. Unauthorised, Jc^^ besanad. 
Unaware, Unawares, uioU-1 achanak, CjiA \^\ tk-a-ek. 
Unbecoming, c»^jU na-zeb, U3 Jj bad-numa: see Improper. 
Unbidden (uninvited), \^\ anrbulaya, CL^^iW be-dawat. 
Unblamable, ^^^^ nirdokht, Jua^jj rursufaid: see Faultless. 
Unblemished, ijjuj be-^agh. Unblown, teixA U norshigufta. 
Unborn, \iaf\ anjana, f^l3 na-paida, (future) i*^:J\ ayanda* 
Unbound, (a book) jIjc^^^ ghair mujaUad: see Loose. 
Unbounded, jU apar, d^ bc'-hadd, J^«xsr«^ ghair-mahdud. 
Unbridled, (*^^ he-iagam. Unbumt, \af\ anjaH. 
Uncertain^ jJl^j^ ghair mulcarrar, cJ^t*^ mashkuk* 
Unchangeable, Jj«Vl5^ be-tdbdil, i}]^j^ be-zawal, (JL^ amit. 
Unchaste, ^y^ shahivatl, ^\«>^Ul3 na-pakdaman. 
Uncivil, jUju badMul^, J^^ kaj-^ultc, J^m^ be-stL 
Unclean, see Filthy. Uncomfortable, ^As>-U na-khusk. 
Uncommon, ^^fS kam-yab, \^y\ anutka,jd\j nMir. 
Uncompounded, c^^*^^ ghmr murakkab^ \aj\ anrmila. 
Uncontrollable, L^.J^i be-zabL JuIj be-kaid. cl^« il arok. 
Uncouth, IjJ^ bhonda, c»-^J^ be-dhab, <^ J Li\^^ be-aslub. 
Uncultivated, fjy/*^ ghair mazru, ,^JJj jparff, ^^s!:^ jangK, 
Undaunted, C/Lj i^&a/:, ^^«JbLi saAosi. 
Undecided, jy&«b noFmu^arrar. 

Undefiled, see Pure, Clean. Undefined, ^^^as^ \j na-musha khkh as. 
Undeniable, ^>j^ be-daregh. Under, ^^^ ntc/ie, ^Jj taU. 
Underhand, ^v^ pinhant, ^^^^ mukhft. Undermost,^^J ztrtar. 
Undeserved, {^,^.^\^ j*i ghair wqjib, J>*1} norliaklc. 
Undesigned, JuaS ^ be»ka§d. Undesigning, ^j^, be- gha rax. 

392 Vocabulary^ — Adjectives, Adverbi, ^c 

Vndeiermined, jjLo jJi ghair mu^arrar, ^yc^JJU shakki^mizaj. 
Undigested, ^^a^^jji- gh air munhazim, i^^j^\j tut-mttrattab. 
Undisciplined, «x&|y ^ be-^wa'ld, Lj^ bhr€ibi. 
Undisguised, isjXm^ be^sa^ta, t^ khula, ca-ULj be^UbaSM 
Undone, (ruined) <-r>|/- Mflrab, (opened) \ji^\ udhra, (not done) 

\jybS\ adhura. 
Undoubtedly, il ^t *i btshdkk, \^ j^ aur kya, ^^^^ he-^hubha, 
Undutiful, ^f^^ na^ftuknu, (son) uiL^U vSMudaf, ^^^ kaput. 
Uneasy, (*\i^ ^, he-aram. Unemployed, Jii«»« mu'atUiL 
Unequal, Uneven, ^|yiJbU na»hamwar,j\ji t- ^t't nasKebfaraz. 
Unequivocal, Ci^Cl^U nornuuhkuk, c^U fofy a^^^ ghair mubham. 
Unerring, dl^t achuk, Uaacu be-t^ta, J \jJ^ ^lU niihan^mdaz. 
Unexampled, J^l<^ bc^mi^aL Unexpected, ^l^U ftagakanu 
Unexperienced, j^^U^li na-ttyriba-kar, UiiStjU tAwa^. 
Unexplored, li^y^t an-dhundha, »t>yej\ \j na^azmtida* 
Unfading, ^\^pyijt anrmufjha*ii. Uniair, c:^^\^U na-rast. 
Un&ithihl, U^ IS-wafa. Unfashionable, r^^ji! bc^atoaj* 
Unfathomable, Unfathomed, Ifft atha, J^ agam* 
Unfavourable, ^J^j^^ lA-mihrban, Juum^U n5rmus*ad. 
Unfeathered, JV jjj 15^ ^^P^^ ^ ^^^* Unfiseling, see CrueL 


Unforeseen, «jj«x1^U na-^esh-dida, irjjjlj iia-<2fc2a. 
Unfortunate, fj:^^S) bad-bal^, ^^^^ abhagi, C^\i^ mafluk. 
Unfounded, \j\i^^ b^hikana. Unfrequent, see Uncommon. 
Unfriendly, U^T^ ghair ashna, ^b^U nS^mihrban, l^j r&kha* 
Unfruitful, J^\ aphal, Jc^^r^U norbahramand: see Barren. 
Unfurnished, jLmj bMaz, i^\^\^ b^sbab, JixJj\\j norSrasta. 
Ungain, Ungainly, tji^^]}* ^ be-nazakat, %^^\ anafi: see Uncouth. 
Ungenerous, «3^^^l3 na-jawanmard. Ungenial, (ji\y\i normuwafik. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives j^ Adverbs^ ^c. 393 

Ungenteel, (^S^iJ^^ nd-kh^ssh-^iulkf ^b«jL^U na-sha'ista. 
Ungoveroabley Ungoveraed, k^^ ^Mi ^ be-zabto rdbt: see Disobedient. 
Ungracefuly ff^^V bad-sof, w ■^^hX;/ bhdhaby o-^Jj^ ^-nazafta^. 
Ungracious^ ij:^\^ he^nazakatfj\ji U n5-gatrar,^yA sharir. 
Vngmtefal, Jj»\j nashukr, u:..*4*}y\f A5/?r-i-wi"«ia^, li^ be-^afa. 
Unhandsome, C2.>;^JJ badrfurat, JjA^t^l3 7za-ma Ai<Z. 
Unhappy^ (^j£>^l3 norkhush. JyJ»^l3 na-fdhushnud : see Unfortunate. 
Unhealthiuly Unhealthy, ciu^JcJU no-^ancZttru^^, (^V^^ na-mtttro/!/:. 
Unheard, U«Jl ansuna. Unholy, (^«Xi«U narfmikaddas. 
Unhurt, cl?*^. p be-choL ^Lj be-zakhm. ..XioJh^ be-nuksan. 
Uniform, ^^l-^' ek-<Mn,j>\j) barabar. Uniformly, j<-»4^|^ barabartse. 
Unimportant, f^\ j^ ghqir ahamm, l^ » subuk, KJjb halka* 
Uninformed, ^Ik ^ ^ ghair muttalC,jJ^ be-khabar^ ^f Jb nadan. 
Uninhabitable, JjIS U ^ ^J c^V^*^^ fttirW-ft&A fcarnc he na-kabiL 
Uninhabited, LmJ) afAaaa, ^y nirjan, jUTU norabad. 
Uninjured, ^I^sa:^ fte^tti^an, ^«Vi;^V)Tl3 nSrozir-rasida. 
Uninstructed, \^LJ\ aiwiAAa, (^^^^ bS^aRm, '4jy^ murokh. 

Unintelligible, . ^ ^ x\ bC'Samajhf ^ja^\SO nordanistanu 

Unintentional, Unintentionally, J^aj be^fcasd, '(3^^ be-irada. 
Uninterested, ^1^««j beswarth, {jOjc'i Uh gh araz^ *^y^. bl^ud. 
Uninterrupted,^^! an^antarf ^Ulb biUtrfa^la. 
Uninvited, iZJ^iX^i be^a^toat, U^ b&4iauta, UlUt anbtdaya. 
Unique, UG yakta, ^\ ikka, ^CS lorsjant, jU^ to^, 4X*s^j wa^zd. 

Universal, j3k.« mutlak, ^ kuUi, ^^ umumt, ^^jami. 

•• •• 

Unjust, j;>-U no^aXrit, uJUa}! ^ he-^in^af, J^Juj be-dad. 
Unkind, l:u£L&^ be-shafaJlcat, j,^^ be^mikvy ^^j^*^ na^ihrban. 
Unknown, AjU««l3 no^-iMa ffim, UUr! anjana, ^J^f^ anpahchan. 
Unlawful, ^i^JL>^ ^ilaf'irshar*,ji\^\j naja\lZf aS^ (laram. 
Unless, 211 ilia, jJo baghair, ij^\ agar^wij^^ magar. 
Unlike, djll^U Tta-mushaMh, Juwl anniel: see Dissimilar. 
Unlikely, c^UU nargkaUb. Unlimited, J^^ be-hadd. 
Unlooked for, (Jl^U na-gakanh Unlucky, ^jm^^ manhus, 

3 E 

394 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Unmanageable, ^^^5^ be-zabt, yj^j^ sarkash, /^^^ Ve4agam. 
Unmanly y ^\jy«l} na-marciSna. Unmannerly, i^C^^^ be-adab. 
Unmarried, libUjl anbyaha. Unmeaning, i^^^^iji be-nuTm. 
Unmercifiil, j>>^ be-^a^m. Unmindful, blikrf b^4i/iaz. 
Unmixed, Iaj] anmila. Unmoved, l}^ achat, cs^,«» be^kkat. 
Unnatural, ^J^^ na-maJtVa, c:^.maJ9<^1»> Idiilaf-irtab^yat. 
Unnecessary, j^jta \j na-xarur. Unobserred, \^*^\ andekha. 
Unoccupied, Jyl!L«U noHmaskghuL ^U^ MiaR : see Vacant. 
Unpalatable, ^jj bad'maza,j\^\j na-gawar. 
Unparalleled, jjJU _j be-manand. Unpared, ^Lfsf^ anckhtla* 
Unpardonable, Unpardoned, jjJa^^^ ghair-mazur, 
Unperceivable, ^jojU nordidanu Unperceived, ^«>£43U na-dida, 
Unperishable, J|^jil la-zatodl, ^jli) lorfanJ: see Eternal. 
Unpleasant, ^^U nS-AAftfAy jl^ U na-gawar: see Disagreeable. 
Unpolished, Jam^ ^ be^aikal, (rude) 9AfJ^\p \j nortarashida. 
Unpolite, ^^^^ be-muruwat^ J^^. bad-Uiulk. 
Unprecedented, J-^i-^cuJ be-tamsjl, Jy^^^^ hhmc^muL 
Unpremeditated, ,^Jc>JL^ bc^eshbandi, i^*^ badiht. 
Unprepared, jLjU na^taiyar, Jucui^j^ ghair-mustaifidd. 
Unprincipled, d^l j 43j bad'Zat,j^Si bad-guhar, Aj^^ be-rah. 
Unprofitable, Jyi^l^!! U'-hapl, 2rjJlLj Ve-fSida. 
Unpromising, }4^y^\ anKonhar. Unpropitious, ^^^ bad-yumn. 
Unprotected, f[L«^ be-saya, ^^^, be-^afila, ^^t asaran. 
Unprovided, ^^^^jj^^<! bc'sar^d^saman, t— jL-i1^^ ht-asbab. 
Unqualified, j;^l3 norWik, Ji^yJj na-sazawar. 
Unquestionable, fjo\ji£\h bilari^tiraz, -vf-^^<? bhshiAha. 
Unquiet, ^;:*^ bc'chain, (J^^l>- chanchal, i^Jio^a^ muztarib. 
Unread, U^l anparka, irjjI^U na-ldmanda : see Ignorant. 
Unreasonable, l^ &^':/2, J^M«l3 no-ma'AS^ ^^^H^ be4hikana. 
Unreserved, <^B\(r»j/ be-takalluf, J Jc^iJU faf'dil, U^ Ae-riya. 
Unrestrained, JuLj be^kaid, aIlLj be^lasam. ^*»du» He-zabL 
Unrighteous, ^U^^ ghair'SaUk, uJl^^j^j Ae-tit^o/*, ^P^pSpi. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives^ Adverbs^ ^c. 396 

Unripe, IC}^ anpaka, ^bai:;l3 na-pukhta. ^Jui^l} na-^rasida. 
ViavnXied,Jai^^ bc'Ttazlr, i^^^j^f be-ra^tb, i^mj^j^ ghair~/iarlf. 
Unraly, ^3^*4^ be-zabt, ^^muj bc'^Uzgam, S^ be-^ukm. 
Unsafe, <ju-w«LiU na-salamat, ifJa:>A) bor^atra, ^\ ^ be-amn. 
Unsatisfactory, (^|^l3 norfawiA, jiJj nor^az. 
Unseasonable, cuo^ bl^wakt^ IsXi fte-^a, |«V^i<j &^*aiyain. 
Unseasoned, l1i^4\;» ftS-namai. Unseemly, y^^l'^^U na-mujiasib. 
Unseen, V^J^l andckhd, \JLJ^S\ adisht, a^Jj jU na-dida. 
Unsettled, j]^A^ ie-Ararar, (ju^jOCi^^ be-band-^-bast. 
Unshod, ^j^L^ nangepa*dn. Unsightly, UJjj bad-numa. 
Unskilful, (^t^U narV)akifyj^^ be^hunar, ^y nirgun* 
Unsound, dz^Sj^ shikasta, j^ J^ aib^ar, iji^^ssi^, be-sihhat. 
Unsparing, ^j«x^ be^daregh* Unstable, j]^ be^karar. 
Unsteady, ci^Uiu &e-|a&a^. • Unsuccessful, i X ^aSu^] be^mak^ad. 
Unsuitable, (ji\y<\^ normuwafik. Unsullied, c^-^jr^ be^ib. 
Untamed, 1^\ anhila. Untasted, V^^ anchakha* 
Untaught, is^yc\ U na-amokhta. Untimely, us^^ bi-wakt. 
Until, uii 1^,;^^ jab'tak, <*j3 fag. Unto, / to, ^^^ ke-talv. 
Untold', ly^t ankaha. Untouched, ^y^^ anchhua. 
Untoward, see Perverse. Untrue, c:^^\; ^ na-r&f . 
Unusual, j^Juj b&dastur* VnwKry, jfSSX} be-khabar. 
Unwearied, il^\ athak. Unwelcome, Jc^-iJ U na-pasand. 
Unwholesome, jy ^ na-gaw7ar. Unwilling, ^\f \j nd-rax. 
Unwitting, ^\sf\ anjan. Unwittingly, is^\o U nordanista. 
Unworthy, j;j^ U 7iarlffi^,j\j^\j^\j na-sazawar. 
Vocal, j^t^jl^l awaz-dar, ^yc ^autl, i^«vS» shabdi. 
Vociferous, fjL^^jyii shor-pusht, i^'lcji ghavghal. 

Void, JU- M^2i, i^v* ^^'» cT* *"^' (null) Jtb batiL 
Volatile, (winged) 2rjJ^ paranda, (playful) Jsa>- chanchaL 
Voluntary, ^^^Ij^^ ilditiyariy ^^JuaS A:a^^, <^^ j1 a^ My^. 
Voluptuous, i^l:^ aiyashf \^j rasila : see Luxurious. 
Voracious,^^t ^y^ ju^u-l-bakar, V^^ mar-bhukkha. 

396 Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Up, y jt upar, % bala, (out of bed) \^\ ntha : see Standing. 
Upon, jj P^^fji)^ upar. Upper, ySb baHtar ^s\ ala> 
Uppermost, \sf^ Vy^V \^ <>-r^ '^^ ^^ balatar or uncha. 
Upright, (erect) \^^ khara, (just) joU ^odt/: : see Honest 
Upward, Upwards,^^! upar, (more than) 2^j\jj ziyada. 
Urgent, jjy^ zarur, Ap lazim, cs,^ ^ saldtt, Seer bajidd. 
Useful, \^ ^l^ kam ka, ^'^]j^ kar-amdant: see Profitable. 

* m 

Useless, \j^\} nakara, UC nikamma, ^«3jU^ be-fa'ida. 

Usual, ^'\j ra*0, ^^^j^ murauwaj, ljsJ^ chalnt, t^J^j^^" 

Usually, ^t aksar, L,^Ae\ aghlab. jjJL^j bcshtar. 

Utmost, Utter, w::^V^ nihayat, \S^ nipat, v::^l^ ghSyat. 

Utterly, JU^ ^ aUJ tamam o kamal, «x^ ^add, (i^^ nihayat. 

Vulgar, (common) aU amm, _i^ ut/i, (mean) ii>^ kamna. 

Uxorious, tXij^ ^ zan-murid, yj^ karlagVa. 

Waggish, f^JiJa zarif, XjS"^ maskhara. ^^ u^y^ kkushrtalT, 

Wan, tijj zard, 5Lj pila, ^)/^j zi^faranh 

Wanton, ^jL sh dkh. j\jj^ lahar^baz, J^^ achpal, ^\^ kami. 

Warlike, ^J^jangt, Al-j /^jj razm-pesha, \C)\^ laranka. 

Warm, ^f garm, \xi tatta,j\>^ Karr, (ardent) ^^ ^sar^garm. 

Wary, jL&yh hoshyar, tj>j^^ agrasocht, ^^ chaukanna. 

Waspish, |}>J^ chirchira, ^j Jjjj zud^anj, \j<^ ghuna. 

Waste, ^\f^ Tdtarab, \^ji} wtran, JUJlj p5'5m5Z, JfU-l vjar. 

Wasteful, ^Tjft tcra'ti, uJ^-o mnsrif, ^js>>^ ^^yai fcusulrJdiaTch. 

Watchful, ^^<XJ be-dJSLr,j\J^^ hoshyar, (j-f^ chaukas: see Cautious. 

Watery, ^\ abi, ^jj j^aniAa, (tasteless) Ljj pansa : see Insipid. 

Wayward, ^^ shokh, lgf?Jb hathila, ^/Ju? si£?c2?. 

Weak, jij^j |»S^ Aam-jzror, uJ^jt^? ?a^, c:,--)J ^j zernlast : see Feeble. 

Wealthy, j^JiSU maUar, jtj;J zardar, 49a4.2!jJ daulatmand. 

Wearisome, ^ l^ thaka^u, uP;^ &Aari. Weary, 2rjjU manda. 

Wedded, ^\j byahta (f.), UU ft^aAa (m.). Wee, see Small. 

Weekly, isiibyb har hafta, ^ddb isJub hafta hafta. 

Weighty, ^j^ waznt, ,^j\^ bharl. Welcome, cl^V^ mubarak 

Vocabulary. — Adjectivesj Adverbs, ^c. 397 

Well (adj.)) ^1 ackchha, 11^ bhala, \il>> l^j bhalorchanga. 

Well (ady.)> cs^^J durust, IfJ &Aa2a, c->y^ M^^> c;^ l5^^ achchhl" 

Wellbred, jU. ^^ Jdvush-IAuJJi:, }^\ uXJ nek-aiwar. 
Well done ! (^^Im^ «Aafta«A, ^^JbJ ;raAey ^.yl a/arin. 
West, Westward, ^ m^ pachchkam ko, ^J^ cJ»^ tarafd-maghrib. 
Westerly, Western, lyH^^ pachchhamt^ <«tr^ magAriftt. 
Wet, \x*(; bhlga,t^ gila,jj tar, J n^m, i^lAii^ namnak. 
What? \J kya, ^^ kaun. What, ^ Jo, Whatever, ^^jo kuchh. 
Wheaten, ^ i^y^^ g^hun ka. When ? v«^ Aa6. When, ^.^-^jab. 
Whence ? ^<-i j^ly^ A:aAaii «?, (from what source ?) ^J^^ ,^ kis 

Whence, ^ (i;V^ j^^^ ^h (froni which source) jJa-ilj (j-isj- Jw 

Where ? ^^l^ kahati. Where, ^^^^jahaA, ^»A>- jidhar. 
Whereas, iL^j\ az-bas-ki, ^y^- chunrki. Whereby, ig^\j^jisse. 
Wherever, ^^Vyflj- ^\^jakanjaAan. Wherefore, Ja-»^^ (j^\ is waste. 
Wheresoever, ^^^-^ e^W^ jahan kahtn. Whereupon, j-«»\ us^par. 
Whether, ii ki,\S kya. Which ? ^^^ kaun. Which, j>'jo. 
Whichever, i^^jo-ki. While, Whilst, CJ<ifPr jab-tak, »^jad. 
Whimsical, y^\j>- (^*^j^ har^dam^khiyalif ^^^ lahrt. 
White, li^sufed, c^»wm«» set, (fair) \jf gora, (bright) 1U»1 ujH. 
Who ? ^if kaun, ^ ^ kis-ne. Who, ^ jo, ^2;f>-jaun, ^{j^jis-ne. 
Whoever, i^'^ y^-jo-Jcol. Whomever, j^ ^^— ^ ^j^^jis kisi ko. 
Whole, (sound) Ju«^ musallam, (entire) aUJ tamam : see All. 
Wholesome, j^t vju-sft:^ ^hat-awar, (Ji^y^ muwafik: see Useful. 
Why ? ^^ kyuii, />^^ kake ko, Ja^i^j ^j^ kis waste. 
Wicked, \ji bura, ^b papt,^jJ^ sharir, A* bad, ^%y)j zabun. 
Wide, \j^ chaura, K^ chakta, Ixyj pahna, ^ji farakh. 
Wild, ^J^^jangU, lA^y wa^ht, ^A^^ das/itl: see Licentious. 
Wilful, JcwmJ 43^ IAud-pasand,j^ Jy^ khud-sar: see Perverse. 
Wilfully, Jts«J\jj yjjj didao danista: see Intentionally. 

398 Vocabulary. -^Adjectives f Adverbs, ^c. 

Willing, L5^b '*^?^» '^^^^ ^b raza^mand, ^^ khmh : see Desirous. 
Wily^jb J^L^ Ai/a-daz^jU >bjj robah-baz : see Cunniiig. 
Windy, 4^ lyb hatoal, i^jU fto^fs, (puffed up) "t^^phula : see Stormy. 
Winning, \uibyc mohna, hjj dU-^ub^, ,^ Jo diUkash: see Charming. 
Wise, JoJla^ a^lmandy JiU aitt/, Ub £fana, C^Jj zirak. 
Wishful, ^\xL^ mushtaJc, <^^jjjT arzumandf (»^^j raghib. 
With (prepos. or postpos.)i ^5^ <^» (along with) ^U «aM, w« in^. 
Within, ji^ bhitar,j*^\ andar, ^ bich, ^^^ meil. 
Without, (adv.)yibU bahar, ^.^ iSrfin, (prep.) ^ be, h bila. 
Wittingly, ^^/^ry, {J^jan bujhke, Aa«Jb^ afjjj dida o danista. 
Witty, ^ji» teZ'fahm,j»' chatur, t—ijb S^^rif: see Jocular. 
Wofiil, Cj\j mg, gham-nak, j^tu-» santapi, j^ i^y^ sog^toar. 
Wooden, \^ ^gjC! lakfi ka, ^;-J^ ckdbJn. Woody, yJ^^^jangU. 
Woollen, ^^ uni, ^c*^ pcLshmi, <i'*j.>»li pashtnlna* 
Worldly, jblJ J dunyordar, vl^Li^a «an«ariA, 1^^^ dunyawh 
Wormeaten, 2rJ;^ /»^ kirmrldmrda, \:^ghuna, l^ ktraha. 
Worse, y Jj badtar. Worst, 1^ ^^ ^^ Jure «S iura. 
Worthless, J JAJ be-lcadr, ^J^ narkara,J^\j na-chtz* 
Worthy, ^Jji la'i^, JjIS ^abil, u^.^^^...^ mustaujib, )L^ bhaH. 
Wrathful, v.l/U«.ac ghazab-nak, cS\j a^!;^ khashm-nak. ^jr^ kopl. 
Wretched, u, ^j>^:i* > be^nafib, ^^y pareshan, f^^oJi kangaL 
Written, |yb \^ likha hu*a, isJ^f nawishta, ^^j^ marlpim. 
Wrong, c^^^lx^U norfnunasib, j;>-l3 norhalck, Lii ghalat. 
Wrongful, uJl.^\ ^ Je-iii*5f, J>-U na-halfk. Wroth, see Wrathful. 
Wrought, Li bana, \jb^ garha. Wry, UjJ terka, ^ kaj. 
Yclad, \yb Lyj pahva hu*a. Ycleped, J) a\j nam-zad. 
Yea, j^lib Aan, ^Jj JaC Yearling, ^L-^' cA-tfa/i. 
Yes, ^U Aafi, ^ij iaC, j^jT are, y tau, l^ J'- 
Yet, (conj.) ^^ y tau-bhtfj) par, (adv,)^ ^ tis'-par: see Beside. 
Yon,. Yonder, 2f^ wuh or (dakh.) waA, Jl^ parla, \? 4^ jjarc A5. 
Of yore, l^ u.? x* muddat ka, %\ agla, ^ f^ysi kadim se. 
Young, fj\y>-jawan, JL *^jy>^ khurdrsaU y nau: see Small. 

Vocabulary, — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 399 

Your, i;V^ tumhara, Uj^ apnia* Yourself, c^l *j turn ap. 
Yoathfuly L^^yr jowan, xj\i taza, i^yi kawi. 
Zealous, m^ garm, ^fj^ sar-garm, dcJ tund, ^^ sffi. 
Zigzag, UjJ ierha, ^^ ^ kaj o pick, JjG bakra (?). 



yb 4^*T ^ ^l^ kahaA se ffe ko • . . . Where are you from ? 

^/\>^jib^ kidharja'dge Where are you going ? 

jib f^^ Jf turn kaun ho Who are you ? 

^ i/*T ij^'j t/-^ *** wa«j[c 5? Ao . . . . Why are you come ? 
^^^ ^ ^j^ mujKe kuchh kahoge . . Will you say something to 


^ ^j^ ifj touh kaun hai Who is he ? Who is that? 

^'\jbd\ idhar a^o Come here. 

J I ilSi^i nazdik So Come near. 

Is^ 4^1)3^ jaldija Go quickly. 

jj;»- ^jJif^ jaUli chaB Go (or move) quickly. 

Sj ^.^^ chup rah Be silent. 

/^ i^j^^ ^aziri Wo Bring breakfast. 

J J Ul^ khana ld*o Bring dinner. 

J J ^V2; ^^?* ^'^ Bring bread. 

J J JbJjJ dudh Iffo Bring milk. 

jJ 4-r[r^^ mi^ri d5 Grive some sugarcandy. 

^ 1^ \j\^ khana kKSo Eat (your) dinner. 

J^ JbJjJ ^ii^A p7o Drink milk. 

J jU* 4U>> chiraffhjalffo .... Light the lamp. 

J jU^ ^u battijaWo Light the candle. 

yijMS gulgir Iffo Bring the snuffers. 

j! J^ gul Jo Snuff the candle. 

Short SenteTices. 


/\^f^ i^i hatd bujha'd . . 

3^ (^yU farms la'o . . . 

j*\^\ ^^y\i fanm utkffo • . 

(j:,^«« <^^ bhuliyo mat • • 

• uj l>- cha banffo . • • 

-V^tt^i^ ^a'hlphird . . 

J jb ^^y^ moiiyonrko huWo 

^ Im J«^ ffi^j? Jaga'o « « . 

^1^ c^U«i^ €ubah UjSb . . 

yi^^J-^ mez utha*d . . . 

ybjlfc)^ khabar-darM 

yfj^ s^ji^ gort toiyar Aaro . 
^^ ^Li« .1^ kuchh muzayaka nahiil 
^ ts^M^jf w turn 1A fur sat hai 
i<*^ v^U-« t^ Mtb ham ko mu'af ktjiyt 

y^ sjv ^j^ '%» ^^i^ ^'^ - • 

^ bl^ae? Ujf^ bichhauna bichhaya hai 
^^ Jc^ ^IjL^ cfartraza ftancf karo 

^^ lAV 4v[9 ^^ burKl haisa • . 
^ i<^ A^ '^ yiA kam-bakhit hai 

J J ^^\s^ ^^^^ rneri kitab Wo 

J J Lyjs>" i^jn^ mertjuG Wo , 
^*l>-^ljU aJ ^um bazar ja^b 
j^bf-^jftj^ f ASra gS«A^ Za'd 
^ c:«>v« J J £fti{: mat karo • 
' • j^^UUjIc^ 4,5^ mere khansaman ko buWo 
jJ A^ \^ L5^^ ^AanS ka hukm do 
ujj l>-^b ^^^ maiA.bahirjffunga 
j') 1^ 1^ mSra Icapra Wo . 
j^\ jJb»- w tumjaldffiyo. * 


Put out the candle. 

Bring a shade (for the candle). 

Take away the shade. 

Do not forget. 

Make tea. 

Turn to the right. 

Turn to the left. 

Call the porters. 

Lay the table. 

Take away the things. 

Remove the table. 

Be careful. 

What is (your) command ? 

Get the carriage ready. 

It is no matter. 

Are you at leisure ? 

Be pleased to pardon me. 

Bring a little bread. 

Have they made the bed ? 

Shut the doon 

They are old. 

This is a misfortune. 

Bring my book. 

Bring my shoes. 

Go you to the market. 

Bring a little meat. 

Do not plague (me). 

Call my khansaman. 

Order dinner. 

I shall go out. 

Bring my clothes. 

You must come quick. 


^ ^ji^ ^\j 

err* '■=-r>'^ ^^:-V v/-' 

SAor^ Sentences 

raj mistari ko buWo 
KoiKi marammat hard 
khabar ka kaghaz Id 
yih umA-i hai • . 
wahan sab-ht havi 
wahan kol hai 
vmh pher kaho 
ham kaljawenge • 
top kyun chhufi . 
palkljaldi mangffo 

sahib uiha hai 
ghum-kar a*d , . 
zarra ahista chdR 
a'd moze utaro 
ghar se niklo . . 
umh be-wakuf hai 
apne hath dho^o , 
apna tnuHh dhS'o . 
bahut garmt hai . 
touh kitab ham-ko do 
yih ittifdJc kab hu^a 
thanda pant la'o • 
thorasharbat la*d 
ghata namud hffa 
aj pant barsega . 
us-ke bahut dost haiii 
yih achchha mausim hai 

us-kt ban darht hai. 

• • 

yih kya chiriya hai • 
yih unrka tamasha hai 
wuh bora matwdld hai 

. Call the bricklayer. 

. Repair the house. 

• Bring the newspaper. 

• This is that very (thing). 

• They are quite all there. 

• Is any one there ? 
. Say that again. 

• We shall go tomorrow. 

• Why is the gun fired ? 

• Send for the palanquin im- 


• Is the gentleman up? 

• Come round. Turn about 

• Qo a little more gently. 

• Come, take off (my) boots. 

• Get out of the house. 

• He is a simpleton. 

. Wash your hands. "^ 

. Wash your face. 

• It is very hot. 

• Hand me that book. 

. When did this happen ? 

. Bring (some) cold water. 

. Bring a little aherbet 

. It appears cloudy. 

« It will rain to day. 

. He has many friends. 

. This is fine weather. 

• He has a great beard. 
.What bird is this? 

. This is their fun. 

• He is a great toper. 

Short Sentences. 


\^^ ui^ocr «l&«)b 

(:;*r' W"^ ^\<^ »>r» b 

unrka bard gunah hai . . 
yih maidan kis-ka hai • • 
us-ka mukaddama aj hoga , 
yahanbahutTnakkhiyasi hain 

kitfie admt hazir haiA . . 

• • 

chirdgh mcA tel fiahlii . • 
]/ih fakat /nla hai • • • 
ham-ho ek namuna dijiye • 

tumhare pas rassi hai • • 
badshah tafd^t par baiiha • 
us'kl dwaz achchht hai • . 
topi aur kurttjhdro • • , 
yih kaunsd jdnwar hai • • 
tumhdri kyd §aldh hai • • 
tDuh niewa khdnd achchhd 

is-nien tumfd'ida pSogt • 
apnc bdtMrmen kanghi karo 
tumhdri umr kyd hai . • 
pdlki merepds bhejo • . . 
hdth dhovie kd pant Wo . . 

yi \^ \^y^ CSi} tkjord kaprd Wo . . . 
jH «m^ Ji c;1jj dawdt kalam kdghaz Wo . 

\j^ U^ hr h ^'^^ 8P^^ kaun hai • 
^ \j^ \LJ ifj vmh kis-kd ghord hai 

L5^ ^J^^J^^^ irt y^^ hamdrt gkori hai 
^ \^ ULi^ ^ yih kis-kd ghard hai, 
^ L^ aU |;V^ tumhdrd nam kyd hai 
^Jb cSi\f- ^iS^. ^^ tvuh bahut chdldk hai 

Their crime is great. 
Whose field is this ? 
His trial will be to day. 
There are many flies here. 
How many men are present ? 
There is no oil in the lamp. 
This is all a trick, 
Be pleased to give me a pat- 
Have you any string ? 
The king sat on the throne* 
He (or she) has a fine voice. 
Brush (my) hat and coat. 
What kind of animal is this ? 
What is your advice ? 
That firuit is not good to eat. 

You will find this very useful. 
Comb your hair. 
What is your age ? 
Send me the palanquin. 
Bring water to wash (my) 

Bring a suit of clothes. 
Bring the inkstand, pen and 

What European is that ? 
Whose horse is that ? 
This is our (or my) mare. 
Whose water-pot is this ? 
What is your name ? 
He is very active. 


Short Sentences, 

K^jy^ u;^ "^ y^^ 2raf7ttn shbr hai • , . 

y$jf f cr^V^i/^ ''^^^ naJUn to girogS . . . 

^ ^J^ ^JJ '^ y^^ ^piy^ fn^khi hai • • 

^jb Jj JL& ^iLsl tM-£i «Aa/:Z icu2 hai . . • 

^ jCl^ ^Uj t^ji/^^ angrezi zaban mushkil Juzi • 

Jb l|>.) <^:2-^ '^ y^^ ftaAtt^ achchha hai • . 
. L^jf^ S""!!^ *V:t y'^ ^"^^ JdyoAar hai . • • 

^ uJU t—fj^ i^UJT 

uJS* c^ U^ sd 

umh hushyar adnu hai . . 

jhilmil uihffo 

barton lgd*d 

ffih darakktjald mauUga • 
turn hamesha ghalai karte ho 
wuh bandj-khane mak bheja 

U8-ki daUl mazbut hai 

• •• 

touh bara b&^dab hai 
asman khub §af hai . 
we larlie sholch hain • 
us'ne bafi saza pffi • 
tee sab chup raKe • • 
tis-ka dil be-kardr hai 
yih ka gh az tar hai . 
kaun shor kartd hai . 
turn kya kahte lio • . 
turn kya khate ho . . 

This ground is salt (barren). 

Get down lest you &1L 

This rupee is adulterated. 

It looks ill. 

The English tongue is diffi- 

This is very good. 

This is wonderful news. 

* We are (I am) hungry and 

He is a prudent man. 

Raise up the Venetian blinds. 

Take away the dishes. 

This plant will soon blossom. 

You are always blunderii^. 

He was sent to prison. 

His argument is strong. 
He is very unmannerly. 
The sky is very clear. 
Those boys are pert. 
He got a great punishment. 
They all remained silent 
His heart is unsettled. 
This paper is damp. 
Who is making a noise ? 
What are you saying? 
What are you eating? 

* Like as in Europe the plural of the second person is commonly adopted when 
applied to an individual^ so in Hiodustani not only the plural of the second person, bat 
also that of the firsts and even of the thirds is in use much substituted for the singular. 

Short Sentences. 


^)!y i^<^!^ u-^ 

v^ t»; u/ c;^> 
jV i^ v^ i^s^'V' 

^^ ^ ^ 

yi ^\s*' j^ ^l, ^JJ\ 
U5*>' '!&<?' s&W 

■ ef* */ r^ v/^ -vi 

«aZts Ain£{i /o bold . . • 
c/talejffd, rukhsat ho . • 
wahan phvr mat jSb • . • 
ham-ko kinare par utaro 
wahan kaun rahta hai . . 
sidhe age chaleja'o • • • 
kuchh sharab pant la'd • • 
pant khub thanda karo « • 
khana- tnoz-par Iffo • . • 
hawrKo ban fajar jaga^o . 
y din pharchha hai • • • 
aj kuchh abr hai . • . . 
ua-ne ikrar kiya hai • . • 
ham^ho mnd att hai . . • 
wuh aksar matwala rahta hai 
yih sari lakri achchht hai . 
us-ne bahut daulat jam* kt 

abht ham kam shurvT karen 
apnS sath hatnrKdjane do • 
vmh bara akil hai . • • 
yih khub mewa hai • . • 
yih QjehchK roii hai • • • 
ma bap un-ke mar-ga'e hain 
tumhart chhuri iez hai . • 
kya yih chhuri tumhart hai 
uS'ke dant men dard hai* • 
yih battt mom hi hai . . 
yih phal bara khatta hai . 
yih kapra bara mota hai . 
yih sab se bihtar hoga . . 
yih Icalam bahut narm hai . 

Speak easy Hindustani. 
Go along) you are dismissed. 
Gb not there again. 
Put me down on the shore* 
Who lives there ? 
Go straight forwards. 
Bring some wine and water. 
Cool the water well. 
Bring dinner on table. 
Waken me very early. 
It is fair to day. 
It is a little cloudy to day. 
He has made a confession. 
I am very sleepy. 
He is generally drunk. 
This wood is entirely sound. 
He has amassed great wealth. 

Let us now begin work. 
Allow me to go with you. 
He is a very wise man. 
This is fine fruit. 
This is good bread. 
Their parents are dead. 
Is your knife sharp ? 
Does this knife belong to you? 
He has the toothach. 
This candle is of wax. 
This fruit is very sour. 
This cloth is very coarse. 
This will be the best. 
This pen is too soft. 


Short Sentences. 

^ Ij; ^l^ \^ ^^ar, 

yiA ^^orf hadrsurat hoi • • 
^tffft angrezi hoi sakte ho • 
i^ gAaf f fto l^ chdto • • • 
ham sah kuchhjante haih • 
toe babut kuchhjante hain « 

ganna bafa mltha hai • • 
is ghar ka lawazima nahm. 
toe be-khabar sote hain • . 
turn is ghar ke malik ho • • 

kaho to tDuh kya kahta hai 
is admt ko tumjante ho. • 


wuh mUm ka kam karta hai 
rfft ka gathar kkoB • • . 

us-kt darhl ban hai . 

• • • 

turn iska sababjantc ho 
cliaukt to baithb » • 
kaun bab ham parkin 
us'kl ban izzat hai • 

• • 

_fti^1:j C^,^ ^ I4 miiCi ^e int banal hai 
^ l^J Am9^i\^LJ J J turn ne naya madrasa dekha 

iJ^^P^j^J3^ ^ {^S^ Aang^j lo azar sirjharo . . 

^^1 l^ Lmj\j ^ yih bob ka akhir hai • • • 
L<^ ^W v:;E*f*^ U^ jXLA^ g;uft^ kama tumhen bhata 

fyb c::-^ ^\ ^ji yj^ ga^ baras anaj bahut hVa 

V tha, 

This letter is ill fonnecL 
Can you speak English? 
Take away this watch. 
We know all. 
They know much* 

The sugar cane is very sweeL 

The house is unfurnished. 

They are dead asleep. 

Are you the owner of this 
house ? 

Tell (me) what he says. 

Do you know this man? 

Will you go to the auction? 

He is by trade an auctioiieer. 

Open this bale of cotton. 

He wears a long beard. 

Do you know the cause? 

Take a chair and sit down. 

What chapter shall I read? 

He bears an excellent cha- 

Bricks are made of clay. 

Have you seen the new 

Take a comb and comb your 

This is the end of the chapter. 

Are you fond of converBatioQ ? 

There was plenty of com last 

Short Sentences, 407 

^\ .'^ c:,%4.jj L*^ kya Kmat hai in cKtzon-kt What is the cost of these 
^)j^ things ? 

Jb ,<«Jl^ \^ji jCil us-ko baft khansi hai • • She has a bad cough. 
(^ {J^3 b^ "^ y^^ ^''^'^^ watan hai • • This is my native country. 
L5^ Cj^ ^^ <^^ yih bartan phuia hai • • This bason is cracked. 
i^\o ^ JbJjJ ^^\ is dudh se malfft nahtn hoii This milk produces nocream. 

^ *Jb cub |^1.(4> 7 tomAan ia^ Aam sachjante I give credit to what you say* 
^ ^U. Aain, 

^^ ,ji^ <tiJ jC^I t^Xio Za^to laA^^ Aain • . This is called a creeper. 
vj^ ^ul^ «^ ^^0^ s^ vmh btht baft allama hai . She is an excellent critic. 
IC;^;^T ^^^^ ^ji (j^ wahanbaranugma admit/an- There was a great crowd of 

V ha tha, people. 

v^^W V'« jfT" ^:fi^ ^ kyatumKenchhenabhatahai Are you fond of curds? 

^ *} u:-^ j^ -^ yih ghar bahut nam hai • This house is very damp. 
^\J ^^ ^ Li»- ^J^\ ns^l khatt Ki kaun tart^ Whatisthedateofhisletter? 

^ half 

^ uuJj Us^ c^^ ah kitna toat^t hai ... What time of day is it ? 
i^j^^^Ji \ji ^ touh bara karzdar hai . • He is very much in debt. 
yj^ fj^ ^ ^-r^/ S^J ^efareb se din kdtte hain . They live only by deceit. 

f c,,^.j.r. ^^ hy.\ w tvm is-mm aib Ko djekhtt hZ Do you observe any defect in 
^ji«C»o this? 

U^jJ^ (j!r^'*^ (V*^^ tu^S adalat-men usr kiya • He made his defence in court. 
^ji*^ dQi ^^ i*^ c/*^ ^ A^vt men baft der hai . There is much delay in this 

Jb t^ Jk^ l^ c->!ll7 (^t w fa/ai ia umu^: kya hai . What is the depth of this 

\yb s\J ^ i^Uywi^ s^ wuh chausaT'-bazt £ tabah He was ruined by playing at 

hffa, dice. 

^^^^U ci^U i^lfiJ ^ Aam temAari iaf manenge . I shall attend to your direc- 

408 Short Sentences. 

^ kJic g^ i\j mj,^^ yih rah barl ghaUz hat • • This road is very dirty. 
Li^Viir^^l^'Try'^ yih/auf^awStdnahinjantt These soldiers are undisci- 

. . plined. 

^ \^\ u:^ <i>MC^ ^j t^i^A yM hahut achchha hai That is a great discovery. 
^^ ^du»- i.^..«.i» aJ^ Aam <a6 htla norkaren • • Let us not use di^uise. 
j^ /^J \i ^j^ ^ w turn is maraz ka nam kaho • Tell me the name of this 

4^W2t <>^2^ '^ ^-r'^ ^^ ^t<A bcthut lorchari men She is now in great distress. 

lJ^ v-/ l5^'!^V^ StT^*^ dusrlmcihtnc ki pahU tarijdi A dividend on his estate wiD 
j^. J'^ i/-»' ^j^ ««^4« »»5Z Ai i5^£ pahwnr be paid the first of neit 

^^^jsiyj kJI cAegi, month. 

^ l^ (-^M' ^^ ^^ iw-i!^ pesAa tababat ka hat • His profession is that of a 

^ UJ^ ^b si;^ ^^ ^-^ karnc^ala kaun hai . Who was the doer of this? 
^ lj4> C^l;^ ^«3 ^c^^f us'tie do kfidrak-i dawa G . He has taken two doses of 

K^^ ^JT^i^yf^ \^ J^ ghar ke niche mart hai . • There are drains under the 
' house. 

v^ Sfyu \y^ s^ umh bara matwala hai . . He is quite a drunkard. 
\sQ Jj«a«^ \^^j0,i^ (j^] isjins-ka mahsul lagta hai . Do these articles pay duty ? 

^ i^y^ ^ ^r^.^H thore din hu*e is mafiatte Anearthquake was felt lately 

V 1^ y u^s^ L^** ^^ iir^ra Afi'5 tha^ in this parL 

vj^ ^W 1^^ ab-ht bhatha hai .... It is now ebb tide. 

j^ t^J tjLA \yd t^*^^ Aam-nc c2at0a t«-A5 rfi par I gave him medicine, but it 

\^ ij *jjli ^ ^^1 us'Sefffida na hvHif had no effect. 

^^^^J^ (il^^ ^ l*'^ Aam ne ek chiriya ka ghonsla I saw a bird's nest with four 

i^jJl jl»» ^ ^4.»i1 j^l aur t<«-min cAar andS eggs. 

Li i^j^ ^j^ Lf'^^ hamrhe darya kinare baithe I saw him sitting on the 
l^ J jCI 1^*^ hVe un-ko dekha, bank of the river. 

Short Sentences. 409 

^ C^ L^J3J ^y ^ ^"^ bare zor se ham karta He goes to work with energy. 

C^ jJUC.,.,^ Jb^jUy iauna trtiA Aat ^'i^/ra itocU Dwarf — one who is small in 

^ chhota haij stature. 

\J^3 UJ^ ^ J^ L5^^ tt^-Ae maZ fta ftaun wasi hai Who is the executor to his 

yjb estate ? 

U^ tt^ L5i;^ f*^ U^ iskamkarnemenkt/at^rch What will be the expense 

1^ ^y^ hoga, of doing this ? 

^ jll^ ^^j^.jj^ ^ w?ttA ftar o 6ar wen mash- He has experience in busi- 

skalk hai, ness. 

1^ ^sS ^ /^y' *^ \S kya yih awamm kl guftgu Is this mode of expression 

^jjt ka taur hai^ common? 

JSj ^ )a»^ ^ iS ^ ham Tit is khatt kJ nakl I showed you an extract 

s/ \^J ^ji^ tumhen dikhffl, from his letter. 

«y^ (^yjb*i^ jCt Jb ham unrko be-dharak kah I can speak to him without 

^^ L^^ saktl hain, fear. 

^^^Lo J^ ^ ^jj ^f in dono ki shakl mild hai . The features of these two 

^ are alike. 

CSJj^ ^J^if^ AJL^ (j^\ us makam men ek dengi hai There is a ferry boat at that 

4^j^ (^p»-« c-^SU (^t t« ^a/aft men kol machhU Are there any fish in this 

^Mj i<-» J^'^^ vS/1 ^ cAaibnoXr se nikte . . • Fire is produced by flint and 

^^^:»4Jb ^jijiii J^ cl^f i/c gA o/ iAifoti-fta Aan?-ne I saw there a flock of sheep. 

l|^J dekhd, 

^ ^^Ly ^ju ^ ^T ate se roti banii hai . • . Bread is made of flour. 
^ 1:jU- ^K'^^r^V h ^^^ ftan^rt bajajanta hat . He plays on the flute, 
c^ uW^ ^-^^^ u^^d y^Aan &aAt£^ makkhiyan Here are a great many flies. 

^Jb t^«3Jljf^ ^ji^^ uS'ko baft dur-andeshi hai . She possesses much fore- 


410 Short Sentences. 

\S fj^ %£^^ ^\^ ^^^\ us-ne tnal bahut jaw^ kiya . He has made a large for- 

fjfy cLuj ^ j^ ghar-ki bunyad pari • . • The foundation of the house 

was laid. 
^^ jjb CL^\j ^ 2r J^T ayandorkt bat ham naliin We cannot see into futurity. 

^^U jantt, 

Ac\^ L^jf^ \^ yj*^^ hum-fieuseMiabarkekqghaz I saw this in the gazette. 

j^ L.;..^>'U ^j^\ J turn tis fohib kojante ho • Do you know that gentle- 

(JlJi\ ^^fi^ {joj\ Jl& ^^^\ us-nc tlm^i-^rz men ek kitab He has composed a book on 

^ ^ ULXni t-*\a^ tasnif *i hat, gec^raphy. 

JLj^^ftJ4^U -Cy«l us-ke panch larke^ tin bete, He has five children, three 

^Jb ^JU J J do betl hain, boys and two girls. 

^^ J^ ^ j\^ jfS^ ]diabar dar yih sahl men tut Take care, this will easSy 

1^ yJLJ^ ^W* ^y j^^g^ ^hlshe ka hat, break, it is made of glass. 

^L.iJ \Jy>^ CJsA L<2y4Jb ham-ne ek jora dastana mol I have bought a pair of 

i^ y Jr* %5 *^*» gloves. 

^ ^^ ^ (^W* (^ tumjante ho kis se saresh Do you know what glue is 

l5^ W u-tt/^ bana hai, made of? 

J&«fj ^ji (^JL^ L5^^ ^onerupeloKepitalyatambe Is this chain made of gold, 

^-flsTj ^ v^^ \t *^ zanjir bant hai, silver, iron, brass, or cop- 

^ v^ per? 

.^^ L5^ cy^irv^ ^^ ^l' m£Ar&ani ftar^e khabar Have the goodness. Sir, to 

^<:*sa^ ktjiye, inform me. 

^-^^^ J^ S^V v^^ v.5^^^ «£«*^e opnH &ap Ao ftaAic^ He has caused much grief to 

4^J uJJiu taklif dtf his father, 

j^j^ ^j^ ^ ^/jl ^^1 M larke ka murabbJ kaun Who is the guardian of this 

^Jb haiy child ? 

l/ sI^ l5^^^^ j^^ f»-X^ §ubh-ke phirne hi adat He is in the habit of walking 

^ c^ jU Aat, out early. 

Short Sentences. 411 

^ jG ^\sb ICil us'ka hath pakar 25 . . • Take hold of his hand. 
^^ (<^ rrj^ y^ Aam-^o 5i«ra/ nikalne se kam I must go to work every day 
^iJjh ^\p^iS^ J£ kamejane hota hai, yih at sunrise: this is a great 

_ib JCs;^ ij[^ i*Y2 ftafi mushkil hai, hardship. 

,iL>\ ^yb JCJ j^(^S\o dak ghar band hoga, is-ITe I write in great haste to save 
^^"^ icj\^ ^^iiAJb hamrnejaUR chittht likht, the post. 

"-, n r(^ .,,^^<^ Li^^^ tt^ne AamarB men ghusit On entering theroom he took 

JjU^ ^y topi utar It, off his hat. 

LjJta^i^\ j<-*j^yTX-»t us-ko age se ab takhftf hai, She is now much better than 

_ib she was. 

Jb -J^ Kj \^(Xcl^ ^ly£ yahati haghaz ka bara dher Here is a heap of papers, 

^J c;:^^ "T^J^^J^ ''^^' lekar aur jagah m&l put them away. 

^y U \jm^ ^jf^ kJ^ chalne meA mera pa!on us-ki I trod on his heel. 

W-i A ^y v/-*' *r» par m gay a, 

j\jj J ^ 1^ Wt i«:£^ ftttet uncAtt'l is diwar hi hai What is the height of this 

i/i/ wall? 

^^ ao (^t ij^Ujb aj^ ^tt9t Aamare {« kam meA Can you afford me any as- 
jtb y^^ S «> J^ -fp AucAA madadkar sakte ho, sistance in this ? 

^/^ s£;^ ^ Sft ^^f^h^i torkart khakarjtte They live on herbs solely. 

ij>syj Jflyj ^^ ^^ bangale metl pahar bahut There are but few hills in 

^^ J kam hain, Bengal. 

yf^^j^ t/-' ^ i^\ i^^ M*^e ishara kiya is irade He gave a hint to this effect. 

Cj3 ^^ ISlf y^^^ yaharirse ganga sagar tak What will be the boat-hire 
\^yb L^ l^ l/^ H]/ kiraya kishti ka kya hoga from this place to Saugor ? 

JU^ i^^ uT^* c^ (^^ yaAoii zamtn men suraMi Make a hole in the ground 

karo, here. 

^ c^f ^5 ^ jli> o^ &a/itc^ c/er Au7 ab ham ghar It is late, let us now return 
^:,'t3^j^ jaiDefi, home. 

412 Short Sentences* 

i^ b iJDjc 1^ iV^^ WHie baft tzzat pal . . He has obtained much ho- 

C^\ ^ if^ l/"^ ham-ne bansi se tk machhtt I have caught a fish with a 

*^J^ ^^Vf* pakfi, hook. 

i^Cvj.ii ^ ^^^lf ^jj is ga*e ke sing nahlit . . This cow has no hoins. 

Ixjj ^U^ UlJI jb (J^f eA daru-sh-^kafa wahofi ba- An hospital is about to be 

nJsga, built there. 

^ lor L^^ Lr^V" /^ tumjante ho kya baja hat . Do you know what hour it is? 
«ff^ L5*^ s/^ L5^ ^m-nS gtrne sc kuchh ckJot Had you any hurt fit>in yoor 

4/\ci^ pa% fall? 

(^ ^ V (J:^V' J^y^ ^am^io khiyal nahtil tha ki I had no idea that you woiikl 

^j \ JT ^m aj ffoge, come to day. 

^ jCiJ ^ ^ J ^^c;^ kitne din se turn ko yih How long have you had this 

L5^ ^J^^» &f mar? hai^ illness ? 

f^ L^^^ JW^ -VJ ^^ khiyal kahofhse paida Whence came this idea? 

^ r^ (^ -*i yiA muAfmm-i^V" A«i • • This is an important affiur. 
^ jy^L^JL^ s^ wuh makkar-i mash'hur hai He is a notorious impostor, 
u^^ U^^/V^ '^ y^^ muAr nuAtn tcf A^t . . This seal makes no impres- 


^jiJA ^^^^ Sr^ '^ y^^ ^^' ^j^^** ^^ i'^^ ^^n H&d ^s piece of wood been 

ur' f^ C/*^ y S^>^ ^^^> ^^ ^ ^^^ ^''^ ^^'> c^ u^cb longer, it would 

(J I have done very well. 

citX^l^^^t^ juU-^ tumjante ho us-kt amdavS Do you know what is his 

_Jb U^ Aya hai, income ? 

^Jlyj ^^ f^s'tY^ (^T^ <ft<^e maAin^ Ai pahli tarikh Will my staying here till the 

t^jLub CJj ^U tak hamare rahne se turn- first of next month be any 

-fr {jai^ ^ t<^ hefi kuchh ranj hoga, inconvenience to you ? 

l:.^*^ ^«^ i^\sS ^ is kitab men fihrist hai . . Is there an index to this 

. ^ book ? 

Short Sentences. 413 

^--# ^^^ J r'- " ^ aJ ^w Aifnc Jinon «c Hindus- How long have you been in 

ftib ^^ ^\:u.»jjjJb ^an men ho, India? 

J a^ ^^ imA (^^ ^ yih kam aisa nahtn ki turn This affair is not to be treat- 

j^ cs-Jic ghaflat hard, ed with indifference. 

J|p>1 \^ «^ W^ Wl^ W ^tt»t Aar? ftlntar? X:a a^u7a/ I heard of your indisposition 
^ ^^Mb ^ t^J**** ham-m^ ga!t haftl si suna, last week. 

^\ y >^H-; ^3-^ ^a// bhgo to dbht dak post, you must send it to 

\J^^' \:Jir*jr^^*^ g^^ wicn bhejne chahiye, the post-office now. 

\^ 4i«-' ^ J jM^ ^/nm rS yih nusMui likha The doctor wrote this pre- 

^ Aai, scription, 

Ut ^^:if«L*i^Ujb_iM>f us-ne hamare samhne aisa He said so in my presence. 

\^ kahdj 

^ u:.^J )asij \jUjb hamara talaffuz durust hat Is my pronunciation cor- 
^ JS JJ«3 1^ ^J^\ *j turn w-ftt kya dalil late ho . What proof can you give of 

jj l^y-i aAy? |J ^ttm ^o«Aa «q/ar Aa karo . Make provision for your 

^\^ ^jLJ c-^ta^ -r^ yiA ftiVaJ kis-tara^ chhapi Is the work printed in folio, 
b Jh itear t^L ^ gal sara talAta hai ya quarto, octavo, or duode- 
^ b l5;j *-* U \ij^ yd do-wara^a ya si-toaraka cimo ? 

Ujf^ ya chavrijDarakaf 

^ Imj jicl^ ^ Jf Jjf gtii2ar «c ka gh az bantd hai . Paper is made of rags. 
yy> ^Jjby i^ jy\ (JJLc malik aur tnalika wahan The king and queen were 
L^ j^^ dono hasir the, both present. 

LL^\ j^\ f^ iLSi\ ek icalam aur ek dasta kdr Give me a quill and a quire 
^Jj^ <^^^ *^^ ghaz inayat Utjfi% of paper. 

^^t^ i^^j^ l^ v. y^* fi^^ ^^^ ^^ kitab-se This is a quotation from some 
L<^ y LiT?" chun liyd hai, other book. 

414 Short Sentences. 

jy^j^ i^^j i-r^ L<^^ iS'-nt sab rupYe ghur-daur Ki He lost all his money at a 
,Jj W ^;-^ jV iS hazi-men ura di*e, horse-race. 

LLy j\j ,^ ^ cAj bagk kt kuchh bar tut gal . Some of the garden rails are 

jj!s broken. 

\^j^ 'yi (jl^ kaun yih khabar laya . . Who brought these tidings? 
^jjb ^^:lj 4i»^ ^5^ we tiukka plte hain . . • They smoke tobacco. 
j^ l/W J^^^^ yj"^^ ham-Tie mash'al jalake sair We travelled by the light of 

L^ kiya^ torches. 

y^y^ CSi} jC«Jb ^^^\ us'he ham-ko ek chhofi kitab He gave me a tract 

^ L^ <C-j J^lf^J tumhara pesha kya hat . . What is your trade ? 
yj*^ vjl^ ^<:^« tj]/^ ^ ham MuLzanl men jate I am going to the treasury. 

U^ fj:-'^ ^^y< \J^ vtn motiyan-ki ^mat kya What is the price of those 

^ haij pearls ? 

jy^ L5^?^ ^^^ (^ hamchhataptchhechhorffe I have left behind myum- 

^^ ^ T Aflin, brella. 

•>1^ (^.1 ^ c-^1:;^ (jm\ is kitab ki ekjild hai ya do Is the book in one or two 

J J b ^Jb volumes ? 

^^ J^r^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^^j^haz men mandrds-ko He is now on a voyage to 
^jjb vJU- yL»5; JCm« Jaie hain, Madras. 

^Jb ^ aIC^ ^ yiA kis'kam ka hai . . . What is made of this ? 
L<^*^ j^^ ^--^^ y^ ham-ko ek wefar dijiye . . Please to give me a wafer. 
^ (JU ^ Ix^ L^ iya maAma ^um pate ho . What wages do you get ? 
s^ ^J^a^ i/^^ ^^gMn diwar gir pafi . . The garden wall is fito 

i<-f^^ <^^-p ^J^ tumhdrigharlachchhichaltt Your watch goes well. 

^ i^ y^j*^^ ^]j -v. y^* ^^^ Chandarnagar k% Is this the road toChandcr- 

hai, nagore ? 

^S^S ^\ r)^ ^ ^^^^^ kis-tarah ns-ko karenge In \lhat way am I to do 


Short Sentences, 416 

j^ ^5;V ^^ /f^ *ldt y^^ patthar kitna bhart hai What is the weight of this 

(Jj^ ^«jf 1j^ uiof eX; /:ii'a un-sc khJodnl kakd . Tell him to dig a well. 

J v.^.^M0y ybU^ w ^ttm cAaAo ^5 sab Zo . • • You are welcome to the 

Jb L^ ^jfjb\y>^ Sr^W^ tumhari Idmahish kya hat . What is yom* wish ? 
^ \:Li^ yb ^ L<x^ tum-se yih ho sakta hai .^ Are you able to do this ? 
J\»- j^ j^j lu J *ib ham das roz ghair pazir the I have been absent ten days. 

L5^y ^^ lJ^ (^ ^^''^ M^^ zamtn par baithe We sat on the bare ground. 

.\p ^ p7 i^cr^^^ /^ ^ %^ ^^ zVmen tak^lr-war Am I blamable in this ? 

^jyajL) mj l1^^ -» be^shakk turn be-kufur ho . Without doubt you are 

L5^ ^ Se^ S^.;^ '^ y^^ c^^^^^ ^^t^ kund hai • This knife is very blunt. 

^^ H • 

Iff Lib \L^ L^^j^ij^ samundar Miub tKera hu'a The sea was quite calm. 

^ w ^ ti^ ^ jfl>* jo wuh kahta hai turn sach Do you think what he says 

^ ^^^si^^ samajhte Ao, is true ? 

lT^V l^ y^^ (^ l;^ ^^^ ^^^ tt^/ro yakmjante Yes, I am certain of it. 

w us^ ^^ ^2;:?'*^ hamenjara bahut lagtd hai I feel very cold. 

^Jb ^Ly^ Lj\ >^fj£ atvamm aisa kahte hain . . The common people speak 

J^^ i:fi^ U^J Lr^ h ^^^ ^ zahan men kamil hai He is complete master of the 

^ language. 

Jb ^^JL^ ^ yih scttr terhl hai. . • • This line is crooked. 
^j0^ JT ^ iS\ ^^J^\ us-ke ane na atie men shakk It is doubtful whether he 
^ Cjj^ hai, will come. 

416 Short Sentences. 

L5^ ^J^- \^^ ^ ^'^^ S^^S^ bahrl hat. . • She is both deaf and dumb. 
ivW {j^ji L^ lA* sd ^^ mittl ke bartan banate They manufacture eartheo- 

^j^ haiuy ware. 

^Jl^Jj;^ J^yU?^ ham tutn-ko sahal sahaJk I will set you an easy lesson. 

^ jf ^^'l^ 4^ ,e:jl a/me ftare iAa*t Ko yih kitab Give this book to your elder 
1;jO (»mj\S dena, brother. 

L^ ^ !/^ \J^ U^y^ (^ ^^ 4P^^ ^^ baf^ kaun hai Which of you two is the 

elder ? 
y^j i i^ ji]ji ^ ^ do khatt barabar khaincho • Draw two even lines, 
e^ kJ^^'t^^ l/t^ sft ^^ ^oh ke sab gal hain . . They are gone, every one of 

^ iJ^ t^'^*^^^^ ftiw-^ Aol manC nahtn jo You are free to do as yoo 
j^y^j^^ chaho so karo, please. 

^ ^AS^si^j^ i^ wuh g hair muptamil hat • That is not probable. 
bl «M^jly£>- »j wuh jahaz jald aya • . . That vessel has made a 

quick passage. 
^ ^> j«^^ '^ yih nadir buta hai . . . This is a very rare plant 
S" y» ^\^ Jj V . kachcha chawal khana kkub It is not good to eat rice 

^;-y nahtn, raw. 

c-jL*^ J*«IV c^ir?* vji y^ chtzen U-UfCl kamyab This article is now scarce. 

[j*^ hain, 

*j ^^fi^ jV \s^ S^W" (^ ^am jane «e ia^r nahin rah I cannot avoid going. 

<^«^ i/^ ^ (V"^ Aam-ne ^tcna tre ff^ifi sala- I heard of his safe arrifsl in 

^^^^Ly{ fjtS:} i^^^^} mat landan pahunche, London. 

^ cT^ U^ ^^^'^ ^^^''^ y^ttn nahtn ki aisa I am not certain that it is so. 

1^ |yb Lj\ hffa hai, 

^ ij^^ ^^ ^J^ (^ ^^ ^i^ haghaz chahte ho Do you wish for thick paper, 

^^-^jV ^ y^ bank, or thin ? 

c^jUlcJ ^^^ ^^Us ^^^1 un-kejCton men daghorbazi Their conduct was fall of 


L5* *5£;^ 6Aart Aai, treachery. 

Short Sentences. 417 

Is^ viv^ ^ *V^ y^^ M^/Ji nagahanl pahun-^ This letter was unexpected. 

^ ^ Mm3 ^Jbj^\ ^jjH tum-ne aur hi kism ka blj You have bought the wrong 

L<^ y J>^ ^^ %^ ^^^> '^^'^^ ^^ seed. 

yLt ^ ^^ti^iAf^ H^y^ «7^ ^^''^ AaA^e Aain ^um i^Ao Do you accede to what I 
cTt^ ^ y^ l3^ J^ ^afttf/ A:ar/e Ao ^a TiaAiii, propose, or not? 

^IfiJ ^^fi^j^ij^ ^ hamapneghar rnen tumhari I can accommodate you in 
^Jb ^jLa^ S^^'S^ mtAmSni Aor saA/e hainj . my house. 

jt^Tf LT^l^ l5^^ trrr* ''^^ ^P^^ khxpahish bhar^ I was not able to accomplish 

IC>^ pzir na-kar saka, my wishes. 

j4) ^ I— ^yj^ Jifi* ^T a/ mahfil maukuf hai do To day's meeting was ad- 
\^y^jiiJ3j i/ ^jr^ shamhe Ac roar phir hogt, journed till Monday next. 

HL;'^<^^^v.^^jf^'j w«A Muibar sunke bahut The news afflicted him 

lyb azurda hu*a, greatly. 

(JJ ^^^«y fjb l:^^ l:Jt t^na nuzAina ham nahSn de I cannot afford to give so 

yji^ sakie, much wages. 

0X9 i^j^j{^ s/V/v^ mihrbant karkar hamari Pray afford me your assistr 

^^ madad karo, ance* 

{J^ {J'y^ *^j^ {ji^^*^ odalat-mm khare kote At On appearing before the 
Ifl ^J>^^ ijj wuh kampfic laga, court he was much agi- 

i^yi il^ J^ ^j^ ■'■ 4.Mh hanhne kal ek baft machhli I caught a large fish yester- 

^ ^^^ jCx;^ t^ji^ guxre mangaUko mainrne I saw him last Tuesday. 
llCji^yLst u-ko dekha, 

^^ v:r^V^ ^ V^ -ti ^'^ '^^^^ parAa nahmjata This writing is not legible. 

|i^ ^..i. / .J Uw^ |;Ujb Aamara maAina M-Ae*«S kam My wages are less than his. 

^ hai, 

-T^ {:fi^J^^iJ^F^» b ^ouhhe-jcM Kokar zamtnpar He fell to the ground life- 

\y^ gir pafa, less. 

^ ^ SrL'^ '^y "^ y^A ^j^ bhart hai ya halka Is this package light or 

l^A V heavy ? 

3 H 

418 Short Sentences. 

L5^ cT^JL/ ^-'j^ ]/^ '^ y<^ kamara kimb roshan hai This is a light room. 
{^\f^^^sJ>^ f^^j^^ tft y« kothriyan bahut uncAt- These rooms are very lofty. 

^^ yan hain, 

L$v^ ^;libj ^, J ^^Jc^ jj turn kitne din wahSsi rakoge How long shall yoa remaiD 

y^^'i i^j^ f^z^ s^ wuh bahut t/iojrt Jj^Jmat The price he asks is very 
^ l:u)te mangta hai, low, 

^ \yb [)yo c::-^ ij wuh bahut mota hffa hai . He is now grown very lusty. 
\j\>-sj UU- \j\^ ^Uj v>ahan tum/iarajana najana It is immaterial whether yoa 
i^ji^ji barabar hai, go or not. 

^«^ (.Af^ ^ J V P^^^T kdjutnbish nahzn . • A mountain is motionless. ' 
^^ ^*^^ ^ ^^J^ ^j*^ is-men tarafain ka fSida This will be for our matnal 

hjbga, benefit. 

^J^^ {S'l!^ ^j^3^ (^ ^''^ cttwre mahthe wahan We will go there next month. 

^^..U jawHge, 
^<««i/J^-^\JX)1(^Ujb hamari ungliyan jare si My fingers are numbed with 

(jt^j^ thithir gain, cold. 

f^^u;r^^Lf^^L5^^ ^^wi-wg gpng AAaj?/ »ien tarlkh You have not dated your 

v.5^ viT^V^ taAtfi /iAAiy letter. 

^ ^J^ k^ ^ ^2fi^j '^ yih zamin bSH gal hai . • This land is cultivated. 
JlslT ^ ^ILk^t ^ yih i^tilafi Jirlrhal matruk This term is become ob- 

^ <^>^ Ao^ solete. 

v^j \L«! ^^U ^ jj dbr A:e mare us-ka rang zard He became pale through 
LTyb J^ ho gaya, fear. 

Lf yb C;*^J^ L^\ Xj wuh ab ghartb ho gaya . . He is now become poor. 
j^y^kfi y/f ^ jj jjb ham tum se kol maM^ bat I wish to converse on par- 
^^ ^^V ^ ^^V ^^^^ chahte hain, ticular business. 

jj\ 15^ V^ ^^ '^ y^A ?4f ^^^''^ ^^ ^*^ ^^ '^'^'^ writing is plain and 

N \}l>. ^8; ci^V -asam parhajata hai, easy to be read. 

cs^U ^Ji:^ ^ ^j^\ unhon nl maldifl bat-chtt hi They held a private conver- 

fJ ^^>^ sation. 

y^^ ^ (^/T J^l^ ^ yih kaghaz dg-se senko . • Dry this paper at the fire. 

Short Sentences. 419 

j^ JU jj Jj«A^ (^^ w ^andui'ko jdAU karo . . Empty this box. 
^Of^^fj^^^\^^kaunaUeBgdiirldihamdega Who would employ such 

people as these ? 
^^ ii^ ^< L^ \j\Aib hamara JduiU apnZ jdwit Enclose my letter in yours. 

j«3 '^j men rakh do, 

\J^ ^jjy /^^ Lf^ ham-Tie is-kd naukar rakha I have engaged him as my 

iai, servant. 

j^ ^ J C-f T*-^ fb ham puchh-kar tum-ko I will enquire, and let you 

,JliJ[J Muibar denge^ know. 

LSi\y^ ^^ ,^'lib if^ wuh danal men har-ik se He excels every one in in- 

i^ l5^ lT* ^^T^ *^*' telligence. 

Jl^ ^^\^iaAijyU ^ ye janwar falcat ghas khate These animals feed only on 

^ hain, grass. 

j1 9y^\^y^ ^ ?V/V i^'S *5** «^ '*^r« ^w^w'^ '^'5 Go fetch some fruit out of 

the garden. 

y^yj^ ^j^jfjj iJ^ is pech'ko rett se ghiso . . File this screw. 

^^^ sjb /U- ^T J turn age ja'o ham pichhe You go before, I will follow. 

^^j\ awenge, 

\J^ cMJs?" vji (S tum ye chlzeti kitnt jaldi How soon can you furnish 

f" kJ^JJ^ i/*^ taiyar kar sakte ho, these things ? 

f^^^ jjjA« Jjt ^/j we apne makdur bhar bahut They hasted away as fast as 

^ ji^r JaW ga'e, possible. 

Jh1y» \|^^ 4^^ ^j \iJ is>ka zaidim ab achchha hVa His wound is now healed. 


lT' ^"^^ uiJ??" \J* y^ chtzen tdlayat se aln These things were imported 

^ JA hain, from Europe. 

\jj Lj\ ^JaJy^ ^^^ tum-ne kis-wasie aisa karna Why did you teach him to 

\Ji^ ^\ use sikhlaya, act thus ? 

^^ys^ A^ ijm\ ^yS Jtib ham kyun vs ham men hath Why should we interfere in 

^\j ^U daUn, that affair ? 
^ \z^ yUjb Hy f^ jowuhham-kokahtahaitum- You must interpret what he 

^^ ^J ^^^y ij^ ^^^ ^ar/MWifl karne hoga, says to me. 

420 Short Sentences. 

Ju^l yl^Jb \^^r>\^ i^\ ai §ah%b ham-ko ummed hoi I hope. Sir, I do not in- 

^ M^-^^-^r ^ 15^ kijancUh-kota^dt norden, terruptyou. 

jljOfT ^^j;^ <UJJU ^ ^tA mu^addama hamen We must investigate this 

^^ (J^ tajwtz kame hoga, matter. 

ij:^ ifj ^^^ j*s^ *yj; yih Jdiabar sun-kar vmh ba* Tbeiiews very much alarmed 

LT jk> hut dar gaya^ him. 

i/> l/^ ci^ Li^-?-^ *^ »aW Tupiye pant se we They allow five per cent, difr 

|j-iLj^ ^— jjj^ ^b panchrupiyesaikrachhor count for ready money. 

jmJU ^^ c^L»>" ^aft Aar/ce pansau rupiye The bill will amount to fi?e 

^^ x<ri,^j honge, hundred rupees. 

S^j^ f^ 15^^*"^ bisoh-Ki jan^ dekh-kar ham- I was amazed at the amount 

\yb c^.'^jB^ yl^Jb -X:o ta^ajjvh hVa^ 

^^^^ ^^Jii>' 15-^^ ^^^^^ chizen kimat tajwtz His goods will be appraised 

_^ jj^ J-:!^^ Ao/^r bechtjawengi, and sold. 

|yb Ju3 jj\ ^]^ '[^ t^ttA pakra gay a aur kaid Hewas apprehended and put 

hu*a, in prison. 

^^ji4<^ ^^^W yUib Aam-A*o c^hiye apas-men We ought to assist each 

^ji JiX« madad karen^ other. 

U^<^ ^ ^ yf^ ^5^"^^ Aam-ne khabar pal das I have received notice to 

j\j (juJ^ ^ l5^^ ghanie ke walct ddru-l- attend the court at ten 

•• •• 

(jyb ^U- ^^^jM^cJtj^l adalat-men fiaxir hone o'clock. 

\^ hoga, 

jf^ j^^ji ^ ij^ AJf tumpere kb barhakar tanur Bake this dough in the oven. 

y\S^ ^^^ men lagffo^ 

fS ^ l5^ ^^^ ^3 ^^^ ^^ P<''i^^ ^^ ^""^ nahln He would not abate me one 

tfjy^o\ ^j:^^ i^"'^ hatnrhe bahut admiyonrko I saw numbers bathing in 

fjjji J^ ^ji^ ^^ g^^gi ^cn ghusl karte the Ganges. 

\4i^ dekha, 

Short Sentences, 421 

i»iU^ ^ L^ ^^^-Mb y^ JO hamr-nl kiya kai mu'df I beg your pardon for what 

^^jflc;^ kljiye, I have done. 

j^^«xcl^g^L>^^1 _:»»>) is-ne apne sare kaghaxoir He blotted his paper all 

t^J Jl J ^>U-J por siyaht dal di, over, 

^y^^ ,J ^^^ jC>l i^fto mat7i-ne n> par bojh I saw him carrying a load 

l^j cjlfo) Ujate dekka, on his head. 

^^^J^ ^ (J (^^^ tenAon vZ khatt likh^kar chor They have circulated no- 
kJ^ \sf^' J^ uJ;!? ton taraf Jdiphar bhejl tices. 

ifc^ ^^^^ 4,j y> > «yj| *Jb ham yih khub nahzn samajh I do not well understand 

,j:;C» saktt^ this. 

Jbji ^ \j\Aib ^jXi tum-ne hamara kam darham You have confused my work. 

bj j^ ^ji barham kar diya, 

^\ .f>-^ [S jLy-s^ jahaz ka bojh i»S arhat The cargo of the vessel was 

Ufbj ^^ (.r^JbjT ^^ £{tya gaya, consigned to him. 

jJi>-Ji^ L<!^^ .9^^ ^^^^ ^^orchahiye kuS-ko We ought not to despise any 

^^fi^s&^ fkikir samjhtri, one. 

v::.^w« j^\ S ^y ^ J turn us naukar-ko aur mat Do not detain the servant 

y\iS\ aikffd, any longer. 

i^j^ vl^^ jIj^ ^*^ ^ ^^^ ^ pohar par ek guzre He dines at one o'clock. 

Jb \j\^ \j\^ khana khata kai, 

/ J>^ ^^^ r^ Li^"^ ^m-n^ a; ^aA cKor-ko na I have not as yet discovered 

\j\f\i ij pahchana, the thief. 

^j^ tij fjb Jl>> \L^\ us-ka fiukm ham radd nahan I cannot disobey his orders. 

^li-rf ^ kar sakte, 

^^L^^^^^\mS tum us-ko man^ kar sakte Cannot you dissuade him 
f^J^ \^j^ ifj ii ho ki wuh phir aisa na- from doing so? 

y ^^ \j^ if ^j ^ is rasshUo duhra karo to Double this string, and then 

l/J^ l^^ kcim-ki hogl, it will do. 

c-'t ifj j^ jff^ \j^ tl^a sabr karo wuh ab Waita little, he is now dress- 
^ ^^^ f^j^ kaprl pahanta hai, ing. 


422 Short Sentences. 

U^ f^ l5^ tJ^ ^ ^ '^^^ ^ ^'^ ^^ rSpiyc Id this way I can earn ten 
j:jL)U^ L^,^;i^ mahtni kama sakte haifl, rupees a month. 

^ ^Jj\ib jis»» UjI aisa jald hankne ko gafi- Tell the coachman not to 

j^ «jw« ^ ^Jj g^b "ban ko man^ karo, drive so iast. 

\^ l3»> ^T ^^^Aib ^ jo ham'vZ age fduitt na-likha Pray excuse my not writing 

_:«£^i^U*«;^ ^ yih kn§ur mu'df kljiye, before. 

J^ |;V^ u-^^>^U i^\ at so/lib tumhara^ukmjaldi Sir^ your orders shall be 

\fiU* L^ 4/'^*^ ^yO'ja^egif executed without delay. 

p fr y* y^yi (^ x^ ^S^ ^^^ puchhd to jo turn If you ask, he will explain 

Sj Jb "1^ ^^^^ A) na samajhtc Ko wuh turn' any part which you do 

Uj J IfiT^^ ujff^ ^^ 9amjha degOj not understand. 

^^ i^jl^^ <^b •^ yiA &a^ angrezi men k%84ar^ I do not know how to ex- 

Jb vJl>- ^^ t)^^ ^^ j^^ ^^ ^^ nahin press this in EnglisL 

y (J^ j^f JJt« ^^J^\ ws'ki madad agar na-Kott to Had it not been for his as- 

ij ft\af\^ /%\^ \jUib hamara kam sar-anjam sistance I should have 

bU napata, failed in my purpose. 

\ljj ^^ y UjCJ Ij jS) agar timA na^pakarta to I should have fidlen into the 

^y ^ \j^ main e2arya mtn gir river but for him. 


U£^ f^ y} id\ J ^\ agar turn ate to ham bahut I should have been glad if 

^yb (jLy^ JdMsh hote, you had come. 

^Sj)^ t-i^ f» ^ ^\ agar phir tum aisa karoge If you do so again, you must 

L^^ (V?**y ^^ mti;r»m Aoge, be fined. 


jlyflj- ^ j^ ^ J^^ jatcar bhar^pur hai jahaz It is high water, the vessel 
\0>-^ (Jli c«>l aft pan? jmzt chal^ga, will now float. 

v<^^ v:r^ lT^ ^ ^^'' -P^*^ ^^^^ ^^ ^*"" 'f ' should happen to see 
4^J j^ y ^^j^ hunga to khabar de dunga^ him before you do, I will 

lx)jj tell him this. 

c:^.^ j^^jJ^ ^\ 4/9 U7f opite malcdur bhar bahut They hasted away as iast as 


^ jAsj- jald ga'e, possible. 

Dialogue. 423 

Jjb^j» i^j}p ij^} ^j wuhapneghorepar eharhkar Having mounted his horse, 

Us 1>- chala gaya, he rode off. 

fS ^^ ^A^ fjb ^ jo ham kahte hain turn sunte Do you hear what I say? 

^ l/ L^^Hi \J^3 wahan pahunchne ke We To go there I must hire a 

ji^ kJ^^^ ^-^^ \J^ hamen ek palkt aur kishii palanquin and boat, 

t/y^ vJ/ ^]/ iA^ kiraya kame hogt, 

i^«>b»- _Jb Jw«) ^ ^CiJb hamrkoyih ummed haijaJdi I hope soon to see you. 

^^ CL>ti]Lc ^<x^ tunhse mulakat hogi, 

fr s:fi^ ^^ U^*^!^ ^^ y^^^^ A^^ nahtn jo Is there no one here that 

^ ^*ysU (jm\ ^^f£^4Jb hanien is mukaddame kl can inform me concerning 

(.^^ ^^jT^ M^^ ^ sake, this ? 


^^^CS ^ ]a:L d^b ^ jo bat khati ke likhne men Interline what you have omit- 

*J l5^ J^ (^ iJ^ ^"* ^***' ff^'^ *^*** saUvfir ted m your letter. 

jj ^ ^j^jj^ 'mien likh do, 

i<^y,J^^j{i^-!>^CSj\ ek chlte par ham-ne kal We fired several times at a 

^J^ ^\j\xl ^U^ goUyan laga'iyofi lekin chlta, but not one ball 

^J3i _fi cl^J l5^^ «^A:e eA 6At na*lagi, struck him. 

y l&^yLiJbj5«lMj 2f^j^1 agar wuh beshtar ham-ko If he had informed me of 

iJ^ cr^ ^'^•VJ ^ AaA^a ^5 ham bahut Khmh this before, I should have 

hotl, been better pleased. 


Addresses at meeting. 

Absalom Peace or safety ! 

JLU pL salamun alaikum .... The peace (be) on you ! 
^^b \Sji ^jB> jJTj^ bgnda^ arx karta huit . .My service to you, Sir ! 

424 Dialogue, 

In reply. 

/XJ\ JLLfi ^ wa alaikumu-^'Salam . . • And on you (be) the peace ! 

l:U'v<!L0 u.^^.,»-litf sahib salamat Sir^ peace or health (to you)! 

^<sl^ ^Jcj Lj^ i^jti^ *w5ri bhi bandagl pahunche My service, also, to you ! 
^JCJ u;..s<La dJ^J^ pazrat salamat bandagi . . Sir, health (and my) service 

(to you)! 

At parting. 

\ai\^ \*^ khudd hafiz God (be your) protector ! 

Farewell ! 
aCJlc 2Li salamun alaikum .... Peace (be) on you ! 

Inquiry after health. 

Jb c:Jl>- \S (j^lf4j tumkari kya halat hai • • How are you ? 

jJ^L«i^^1j^\^c^l (^ ab ap ka mizaj kaisa hai .1 

"• •! 'i I . • .- . r How do you do, Sir ? 

^ L^ CSj\^ ^K< lJ\ ab mizqj-i mubarak kaisa hai) 

In reply to inquiry after health. 

^^ \j^ Ufc) du'd karta hurt . . . . I. pray (for you). 

<d] tXA^\ alhamdu lillah .... Praise to God ! 

} ^ _yS^ J«^ fazl-i iHhi se bahut achchha By the divine favour (my 

Jb l^^ hai, health) is very good. 

Inquiry after time. 
^ lib^ i.iti Us^ kitna din char ha hai 

L^ UT ^O \isS kitna din aya hai • 
_ib ^ J Us^ L^\ ab kitna din hai . 

Jb U^ ^J Us^ kitna din raha hai 

I^Whato^clockisit? (Asked 
i before noon). 


What o'clock is it? (Asked 
after noon). 

In reply to inquiry after time. 

^^dasghana ] Ten o'clock. 

ijj^ (jm*y das ghaft ..... J 


*-^j^ U^*^ ^JbjU Arhe dag ghari • • • 
^ J^bfi ^ Sj^ igarah ka amal hai • • 
^ J.4fi \^ 3fj[S \^ sawa gyarah ka amal hai 
^ ^^AC' l^ 4,^^ hj\i barah ghafi ka amal hai 


Half past ten o'clock. 
Near eleven. 
A quarter past eleven. 
Between eleven and twelve. 

\jSi^ \j^ mera mtgra pahunche • 
^ <Xa&« L^ i;V^ tumhara kya mak§ad hai 
^ tXaSuc \S l^ c^l ap ka kya mal^ad hai • 
^^Jbl>- \^ \S c^t op Aya kaha chahte haiA 

. My respects (to you) ! 
• What is your desire ? 
. What is your wish, Sir? 
. What do you wish to say. 

^j^j^yj^f UT^L^jyoflf guftgu darmiyan afca aur 
^ ij^ ^ naukaroH o ghaira ke, 

l5^ S^ J^ ^^'^ ^^ . . • • • 

iifi^ (^ I j^y naukar a*e haid • • 

^jjb t^'l ^«^ c^^^ sab nahtn a*e hain . 

UT ^^^ ^;^ iatfn na^in aya . . 

4/as:^ ^]U falana shakhs . • • 

\A ^j^ ^jckf^ ijii fatana shald^ nahtA aya 

i.»^%^U ^«^ naKa so/lib .... 

ujjl v-..^ 5j t^ttA iaft awega . • 

^"^^ v^ f^jry L^J^^ sarhe nau ghafi ke wakt 

L^ bT (^ U nal aya hai • . . 

ilXsjl i__-'^^ ^^^ nahhi sahib ab-tak nahtn 

^ J \jS \j^ miera kapra Wb .... 
JT ^v/ 15-* li?^ V^^ ^i' kaun-si kurti aj pah-- 


J^ 3^ LS?/ \J^ ^jt^ *"^* ^*^ Awrfi la*b aur 
3^J^J^J^ (|^\ s£r^ Aamrt angarkha aur izar 

3 1 

Dialogue between a gentle- 
man and his servants, Sic. 

Genu Is any one there ? 

Gent. Aretheservantscome? 

Servt. They are not all come. 

Gent. Who is not come ? 

Servt. Such a one. 

Gen^. Isnotsuchaonecome? 

Servt. No, Sir. 

Gtfn^. When will he come ? 

Servt. At half past nine. 

Gent. Is the barber come ? 

iS^^. I will see. Sir. 

Servt. No, Sir, he is not 
yet come. 

Gent. Bring my clothes. 

Servt. What coat. Sir, will 
you put on to day ? 

Gent. Bring my blue coat 
and waistcoat and pan- 

426 Dialogue, 

^ScJbl^^^J^^^U hath muuh dhont ka pom GenL Bring me water to 

H'o, wash my hands and face. 

j^ uy^ fa&Sn do Gent. Give me the soap. 

L5^ {J^ J^2^ rfianaZ ftaiaH hai . • • . Gai^. Where is the towel? 
L^ U^ S"^*^^ foAift yaAan Aat .... Servt, Sir^ it is here. 
yi (^\fr f^ji^ merejurrab Wb . • • . Gent. Bring my stockings. 
^X»*i^^?y^^^^->^^t 4/ 5p ap»5 JS^a pahvZngc Servt. Will you. Sir, wear 

(^jy^ U y^ mozS, boots or shoes to day? 

J J i^jy i^ji^ mere tnoze la'o . • • • Gent. Bring my boots. 
^jt^ {:f?^j^ cl^^M*^ miswak aur manjan mere Bring me a tooth-brush and 

J J ^^JoJ^^ toasie Iffo, the tooth-powder. 

^j)b ySj^j^ ^ I Li^^ iangAi ZS'o a«r «^er /£ iaZoft Bring me a comb and hair- 
J J jLj{ ^^aJ\^ ^ ke tDosfe brash la^, brush. 

L«^ 4j^^ J^!; Ir!^ m^^a rumal kahan hai • • Where is my handkerchief? 
J J iS\z^O i^j^ mere da&tarie la'o • • . . Bring my gloves. 
^ (mJ\ (Jla^i^ ^ ^;j^ kaunnse dastane ap tw chor Servt. Will you, Sir, have 
^ g^j4^^»^^<Jbl>- hiye hain chamre ke ya cotton or leathern ones? 

tiy- \> mtt, 

y J J\5.rfj ^ H^5^ chamfe ke dastane Wo . . Gent. Leathern ones. 

j^ !^ Lrs4-» '^'^^ *5 6tt/a'o Call the groom. 

Cy >^'>>U^^yipW (j»>4^ «a75 Aofir Aai ^aAtft . . . jSeir^. The groom is here, 

y^^ ic^JA ^)^ g^^T^ P^^ ^^^ bandho . . Gent. Saddle the horse. 
-> ^ vjiy lP S&s^ ^^^^ ^^^ i^P^ ^'^ • ' • Bring my new hat. 
^J u;:!^ ^''^T J^t; rumal jeb men rakka hai . Have you put ahandkercUef 

yJ^ in my pocket ? 

jb> ul^U^ chabuk do Give me the whip. 

^ • ^ [^^J^ kahdron ko buiyd . . • Call the palanqum-bearers. 
ArJ^ l5^^ j?5ZA:i taiyar karb . . . Get the palanquin ready. 
/p ^ t--.»-L cl-i^ Crrant fa/lib kegbarkitfiraf Goto Mr. Grant's. 
jV «-»> »/ ja'o, 
J ^^ l5^^ *Vi y*^ chitthl le-ja^b .... Take this note. 

Dialogue. 427 

J T jis** jald a*o Come quickly. 

yi i^\^ \^j\f>\ akhbar ka k agh az Wo • • Bring the newspaper. 

^ ) (Jb UjCifj \jy^ thora thandha pant Wo . Bring some cold water. 

1^ ii^^^>-li0 \2^\ji ^ yih Grant fohib ka ghar hai Bearer. This is Mr. Grant's 

y^j^ house. 

^ 4»^«>-U j^ .^ ^j^ ndhtii yih aur ^afiih ka ghar Gent. No, this is another 

^j^ hai, gentleman's. 

j^\i L^^^>\^ ci^ (J ^^^ falane ^afiib ka ghar Do you know such a gentle- 

^ (C^^* jante ho, man's house ? 

yL>f ^^^ i.;^>^U ^U Aan 50^ main usko Miub Bear. Ye&, Sir, I know it 

y^ IiJU. imfjy > janta hun, well. 

jSj^ 3jV)j J uVj^ dar&an darwaza khSlo . • Ho ! porter, open the door. 

^jf^^ dJi>\ i^ jjij^ ffhabar kard ki ek ajnaln Porter, Give intelligence 

4^ I i^x-^-U §apib a'S hain, that a strange gentleman 

is come. 
jyl}\ ^b pa/AI tt^aro Gent. Set down the palan- 

J ul Ul^ chhata laga'o Hold the umbrella between 

me and the sun. 
j\J ^j*^ i^jA^ ^ kis kamare men Grant §ahib In what room does Mr. 
J\|^ i^^U. w'^.^-U ^axirt iAa^S Aain, Grant breakfast ? 

\j\^ ^ \j ^^ ^^J daZan men ya ki khana In the hall or in the dining- 

^^ ^y^ ^ ijl^ kharA Kt kamare men, room ? 

^ U^ uX\ jlx:^4X8^ l^idmatgar ek aha ki piyaU Khidmatgar, bring me a cup 

L5^b ^J^ \J^n ^^^^ wasffB Wo, of tea. 

y^ J ^ J3^ V <*r^^ ?^^^ ^^ ^'^ hahwa dono Khidmatgar. There is both 
^\ .^ ^ ^*fi^j\p taiyar hain jo kuchh un tea and coffee. Sir, which- 

»to— J yj^ ^^ ufy^ donion men ee pasand ho ever you please I will 

i/ 4^T ^J<y« y ^ ^ mainap ki xoatRH'un, bring you. 

428 Dialogue. 

ImIj <^£^ ^Lyj \^\ achchhapahlSmerewagCsek Gent. Well, bring me a cup 

ji ^ Hy^ JLj {^S^\ piyalt kahwa let Ia*d, of coffee first. 

j^ ^^\ ande ISo * Bring the ^gs. ^ 

yS y JhJjJ^jl «^ kuchh aur dudh to Wo • . Some more milk. 

jH ^\j ^ l>- iliOl eh cha ki piyalt la*d . • • Bring me a cap of tea. 

JCN..J l>- lJ^^ ^ <^ ap-hS garhi cha pasand ait Khidmatgar. Do you like it 

^ ^1 hat, strong, Sir ? 

\f- L^j^ Li^ U^ ^^ mujKc garht cha par Gent* Yes, I like it strong. 

^ ^T «>:^ sand ad hai, 

^y^ SjB^ \sj\ iliol ek anda chamcha muR rofi Bring an egg, spoon, radish, 

«fsr jy\ ^^^|Co ^^u makkhan aur kuchh mu- bread, butter and some 

y'i i^j^ rabba la*d, jam. 

U> jjt ^ ^^ ^)b l^ cha-dan mth huxMi our cha Put some more tea in the 

jiu dalo, tea-pot. 

L^ ttn!V Jff* 1^ ^ *y5 4/ machhU nahtn milt . What, was there no fish to 

be got to day? 
L^^ L5^' L,-^>-U fo^ib achchhi machhti aj Servt. Sir, there was no 
^ ^;:?^ tH nahtn nnU^ good fish to be had to 

^b ti^f;-^ ^^ ^U ;nya2f men wim dSB hai . G«ir. Have you put sugar 

^ in the cup ? 

^^b 4,^5;.^^ «--^U^j;U Am ;aAi& mifr? do/t hai • iScrt;^ Yes, Sir, sugar is put 

^ in. 

j'J' ^j^ fj^j^ uXu nomai aur A:an mirch Wo . Gcn^ Bring me the pepper 

and salt 
^^^\r kS^^J S&'i^^ '''^ riAa&i Grant $a(iib ke Take my plate to Mr. Grant 
J Iso! cz-^l/h^"^^ l'^ C-^'a'o aur thofi for some fish and rice. 
J9^ \,Jif^ ^Ji^ J^ mocAAS aur Kkushka Wo, 

^ {Jif^ {^ f^U^ Am Amwi Ai mocAAZi op Serr^. Which fish do you 
ij^^ {:fi^ L5^^ cAaA^i Aain bhiktht ya prefer. Sir, bikti or mango 

^w«mj b tapam, fish? 

Dialogue. 429 

^Jifs^ 15**^ {j^ ^j}V ^^^ ^^ tapassi machhti Gent. Bring me some man- 
/i L^a-lj i^ji^ ^^^^ ^Mtt la*d, go fish. 

yl -.^ J8 lal mirch ISo Bring the red pepper. 

L5* ^j^ ^ ^^ Ifl? *y5 kaun si mirch hai kali What kind of pepper is 
'SJ^ JS \i ^^ ^^ mirch ya lal mirch, this ? black pepper or 


^ ^j^ J) ^ L^^.».U sa^b yih Vol mirch hai . . Servt. This, Sir, is red 


4e^ lC:Mil»- CS>\ ek cha pifie-ka chamcha Iffo Gen^ Give me a tea-spoon. 


L^\ dU-jTU. U |j>f-7 ^Aora sa fchagina ap khSi- Servt. Will you take some 

\xJl^ yega, omelet, Sii*? 

^y^^j^*^jf ^^ ^^;i^ nahtnfiulpkarhardar ho kaho Gent. No. Tell the hukka- 

i^j2t dJi^ ki ^ul^Jfa lawe, bardar to bring the hukka. 

^ ^ yf ^ ^ULjU. JAansaman ko kaho ki tifin Tell the khansaman to pro- 

jU> 1^ (juJj ^ he waJct panch char §5r vide every thing for tiffen; 

JLaIj l/ u>Jt^^ ^^^ ^ xoasU soman I expect four or five 

if J^ ^UL» taiyar karo, friends, 

bl^ (2^ j^ c-r'^ ^T 4; op gAar men khana Khansaman. Do you dine at 

l^l^ Ha'i^ega, home, Sir, to day ? 

^ ^b .|}L 4^^ ^Ijh Aan niere sath panch chfia Gent. Yes, I have five or 
^l J ,i j..> jf^l c,,.'>-U ^oAii aur &?&iya7l /cAani six ladies and gentlemen ; 
J y^ yj^^f iJ^ ko kha^hige so tum un^ke prepare every thing suit- 
j\3 ^ 4— .^L^ _^1 ntttnonft Ao taiyar karo, able. 

i^«^ c'^ f/* i^j3^j^ h^^ our ftl-murgh in dinon Khans. Good geese and 
^^ 15^ u5<?"^ cT^^ ''^^^ ^chchhe milte hainjo turkeys are to be had at 
yb ^j< ^ c^Ty^ op At marA ho to main do this season ; if it is your 
J^ c;^ ^^ cJ^ y ^^'^ ^^' iS'ttTi, pleasure. Sir, I will buy 

^tjSi two or three. 

^ ^ C^\ jJb ^U han har tk fcism ke tin char Gent. Yes, buy three or 
jJjl^ ^ Id, four of each sort. 

430 Dialogue. 

\ff-\ i^s.^jf \i J^ ^ jo blier ka gosht achchka Khans. If good matton can- 
l^ 4^\ y ,^^LaJ normile to ga*e ka gosht not be got, shall I buy 

Vi^jiJ ^/ tPM, beef? 

tl^i^j^ ^<lXj<^^ nahtntkmurghaurlkhatak Gent. No, send for a fowl 

J 1^ clXla^ martgffo, and a duck. 

(^ u^l l/ ^ ^ ita^a't fcc yaAan 5e go^A^ Co Get meat from the butcWs. 

i^jlS ^ ^t iK^ jtj^ khahardar ki y chha ghafi Take care that dinner be 
jU \j\^ <.iJj ^ kt wakt khana taiyar ready to day at ax 

^^^ howe, o'clock. 

^^ lJ^)^ Li^^ (^ ^^^ ^^^^ j^^^^g^ khana I must go now, it is diimer 
_jb u:.-J^ l^ (Jl^ * /(AariS ka wakt haij time. 

J J y» ^ jUj l3l|^ A:Aana taiyar ho to Wo • » Bring dinner if ready. 

bT^j^ Ul^ ^^^'^ ''^^^ P^'' ^^^ ' * * jSert;^ Dinner is on the 

^ ijjy^ \j^ thora sliorba la!o .... Gent. Bring me a little 

^^ji^ ^V ^ LsU^ shorbe ka basan mere wasQ Bring me a soup plate. 

/i jJa-*!^ Wof 

Ujlf c:-^ly ^jy^ ^ y^^ shorba nihayat garha This soup is too strong and 
^ /^^fjL^j^\ _Jb Aat aur ftaAti^ garm Aai, too hot. 

s£r^^ _Lfjs:« («^^ ^Aort machhR mere waste Get me some fish. 

J^^ L5^^ *^^ ^"-^^ ^^ ^^/ ri&a&t atcr chhurt A clean plate, and knife and 
J 1 ISJl^ ^jj^ kanta Iffo, fork. 

J J jl>-T j^\ ^^^^ chatm aur achar do . . . Give me the chatni and 

L^b ^£;^ S^^^ "fr ^^^^^ tarkart mere waste Bring some vegetables. 

^ )LLo^ «^ j!T .f/sr kuchhalukuchh karamkalla Some potato, some cabbage, 

_;y3j^ kuchh phul-kobi, some cauliflower. 

^*ll i^::^J^^ \^ fc^'lS' -ff^ i!ctecAA ga'c kd gosht la'o . Bring some beef. 

Dialogue. 431 

,y, cuw^ \> Ju|^ |?jff ^ASra &Aer X:a gosht sffar ka Bring me a little mutton, 

^ ^jF$r (ji^jT \!^ go^A^ bachhre ka gosht pork, veal, venison, kid, 

ijuJyf l^^jJb».i^jf Airan Aa go^A^ halwan fowl, partridge, hare, duck 

A. zJ fj^ \J^^ murgk tltar khargosh and ham. 

If .Lgi t^\ ^U-« <ji^ murghabi aur m^ar ka 

*s5r** u]j ''^^^■^ namak-aluda ran mere 

jj i5-» j*^ t/*^ 1;^ thdra its puWo se do . . Give me a little of that 

yi iiJLs>^j^\ ^ kuchh aur khuskka la^o . • Bring a little more boiled 

j^\ ^y\j j^\ CJ^ 'ff^ kuchh namak aur ra^ aur Bring some salt and mus- 

yi i)^j^\ ^j^ sirka aur tel Wo, tard and vinegar and oil. 

yi ijjy^ ^ S^^^ U^^ U8 tnithal se thofi do . . Give me a little of that 


Jb 9^ L» ^^ ^ yih kaun sa niewa hai . . What sort of fruit is this ? 

j^\ Jb ^T ^ Uj-.'^.U fa^ib yih am hai aur yih Khidmatgar. This is a man- 

_ft Suf ^ kela hai, go, and this is a plantain. 

j^ i-^--*j^^ jy^\ \i^ kyaangur aur seb aur anjir Gent, What, have you not 

1^ ^^ j;«fiKr\ nahmmUe, got grapes and apples and 


CS^{j^ S'^'^^c^ naAin fiakib is mulk mZn Khidmat* No, Sir, they are 

^-Jb ^d-c ^ ^j^ kam milte hain, rarely to be met with in 

this country. 

j*5l L^\jJ^ sharab la'o ...... Gent. Bring me wine. 

^ immA ^^A t^ (jj^ kaun si sharab ap-ko pasand Khidmat. Which wine, Sir, 

Jb jT Jc—j att hai, do you prefer ? 

(C^ <^]jJ^ Ji uSj^ ^hofi lal sharab mere wasK Gent. Bring me a little red 

^ jjsi-i|^ Iffo, wine. 

J J ^r^ji^ ^j^ CJij\ ek bir ka shtsha Wo • . Bring a glass of beer. 

yj^^ ^jy^3 ^ ^'^ ^^^ ^^^'"'^ Come, take off my boots. 

j! j\i\ ^J^ kurti utar to Take off my coat. 

432 Dialogue. 

_ih \i\^ ^3^ bichhauna bichhaya hat • Have they made the bed ? 

^j^ CJh •; A i^,;^.^\^ §ahib ab-tak nahinbtchhaya KhidmaL Sir, they have not 

\A^e^ yet made it 

/ i\f^ ^^^^^ff^ ^go>*o . • . . Gent. Set the lamp. 

yi^^^ar* ijiyi ^Mb ham-ko baft fajr jagffo . Wake me very early in the 


^jjjj^ ^^^ ghaft mez par rakho . . Put my watch on the table. 

(jJ^ vS jf^ ^J^^ kurdyan mez keaspas rakho Put the chairs round the 

i^j table. 

^S v£^^ ^j^ ^ yJ^ po^'M ka kuza palang KB Put the guglet of water be- 

•• •• 

y^j ,<^ nicJie rakho, neath the cot. 

^ icJ^;-* t/ iSJtJj palang ke sirhane par gharl Hang up the watch at the 

J ^ ic^/F latka^o, head of the bed. 

^Jj ^ _^ ij^!^ kunjiyan takiye ke tale rakh Put the keys beneath the 

jO ^j dOf pillow. 

j*3 Jj^ l/5^*^ S^*-* sab dariche khol do par Mut- Open all the windows, but 

JCJ ^jljjO J^^j^ ^ bardar darwaza band kt^ take care to shut the door. 

j^ jiyo, 

^ jl»-jj _M> j\ic;.«j^ Khidmatgar fie puchKo H Ask the servant whether he 

^l5^ lJj^ ^j^^ ^of tri taiyar k% hai ki has prepared breakfiist or 

^^ naA7ny not. 

_J^ L^ f^J \j\^ J y^ suno to tumhara nam kya Pray, what is your name, 

l^ t^^^^U i^Ji^j^\ hai aur tumhare sa^ib ka and what is the name of 

L^ jj\j nam kya, your master? 

(^b ^ i.,.-'^^-^* ^ tis fohib ke pas kab se nau' How long have you been the 

y^Jy L^ H^ ^^ ^^ servant of thatgentleman? 

jjl _Jb ^ly^ 4?^ \j\^ tumhara watan kahan hai What is your native countiy, 

L5^ JJ"^ l^lJ^ oV ^^'* y^^^^ ^ kxtm dur and how far is it from 

hai, this ? 

^ tJ'j i^j ^ i^^ (J tum kahan ke rahne^wale ho Where do you live ? 

ij-* u^i vJ^ *A^ '^* ^^*^ yahan se kitni How fiur hence is your town? 

Diahgue. 433 

_Jb \iJ\j 1^ ^ fj0^ das din ka ragia hai . • • It is ten days journey. 

L^jAc i^lf«J tumhart umr kt/a. . • • How old are you? 

Lrji LTii y^ s£;^ hamafi umr Ks boras it hai My age is twenty years. 

^Ui If ^ciiJ^rf Relating to commerce, &c.* 

^ P 

\^V\ai J4*}^^^y ^ 4^ ^ 

* / 

x^ c 

cp4 y^^J*- *^J ^ ^jV i/'*^- 

rf i^J^j^ *^>V err* 4^J''^ 

Sarcar, take the draft and bring the 

money. Be quick. 
What is there to do ? It is now eleven 

Be quick, that I may have the money 

in time. Let me have it by one 


» p 

^} '-^^ ^.p 

Go to the counting house, and speak to 

the head sarcar. 
Tell the sarcar to take bank notes, and 

pay the amount of the draft. 

* 9 

'^ lT?^ / Sp^ \^^ \4^.p The money must be sent to Mr. . 

\S^ U^ ^ Jj/ u^ l5^ l-^^U JSli Request Mr. to order what re- 
mains to be paid in before three 

% p 

dt.} ^^^ ^jV ^^V v/T ^/ 

* Extracted from The HindooBtanee and English Student's Assistant^" printed 
at Calcutta in 1826. 


434 Dialogue. 

l5^ \^ \a^ ^- \^ i-r'^*^ Sp^ a^ (^ Have you ever been to Mr. sucli a one's 


\^ ,^ J^ J 5 V **^5^!r»' LL)^ /^ "^^^ ^'^^^ S^ ^^^"^ immediately, eke 

nothing will be done. 

yf^, Li^ l/ 4/ ^1/ vJ^ ^^}^}^j^ ^enA a sarcar to hire a boat. 

l5^^^ lt^J^ T^ t^ ^ ^^ S^ *^ Chowringhee to day. 

J*^ Jr* {2)^ JjG*^j^ jliV W?" Go to the China bazar, and buy a pair 

of globe lanterns. 

ZiJ ^}yas>' djj^j Is Ju^j ^^ Who will collect the bills ? 

j^ t^^MO^ c^y^ (o:^^ (Jj^ J/^^ dV ^' Aghajan is clever in collecting bills. 

o / O % 9 

^ J^x UU) L<-^j>j i<-» c-^^U ^Xi It is very difficult to get money of such 

a one. 

^9 *':- 

^jfcjL ^^iii%) ^^^^^^^}^^ ^ I have been to the bazar ; sugar is now 

three and a half seen a rupee. 

%t o 

^^^ LJ Jy« \^ k^J jt^ d^^ Sr^^ It will be better to wait a few days, and 

then buy the doth. 
j\^ c-^^ t^j ^ ^ l^\^ yjj ^^Jl j^^l Of what use are such people ? They 

*" . .. . know nothing of business. 

W*^ S-^7* ^:n^^ c/^ ^J^V jV j« j*^ I understand business — I am not to be 

- «' ^ imposed upon. 

-^ / 

\^jir* -!?■ ff^Jj ^5^ Lr^~ Raisins are six seers for a rupee. 

» / 

^ ^^ S^ s?^^-^ -^-^ ^"^y ^^^^ ^^® thousand rupees worth. 

/ c o 

^^^ cm^ (♦J^ <^-^ fcri ^jb^ There is no understanding the bazar 




«» o 

In Calcutta, the bazar rate is scarcely 
for two hours alike. 

/ ^ 

^ o# o/ 

I made a deposite ; to morrow I shall 

see them weighed. 
See that you are not imposed on. 

Have you compared them with the 
sample ? Do they agree ? 

^Jh jS^ L4^ **r^ \S^ ^ ^ )*^ '^^^ ^' ^^^ packages are superior. 

^f ^ 

0" •>' 

v/'' j^ jV erf* j^ uij^ >^ ^ 

c/ o 

/ ^ «. 

J*** L^ V^' 

Go and procure a pass for the things 
that are ready. 

Get a boat, and send them on board the 

Sir, the captain's sarcar said, the goods 

cannot be shipped to day. 

Do not mind what the sarcar says, but 
mind what I say. 

Sir, according to your command, I am 

o o 

j*lb j^jIjL^ 4^jIj jt Piyada, call the cashier. 

. ^, o 

^ ^ c 

\:3^ fc/V t^ ^ yJ^^^J lT^ ^^^ "^^^^ ^^® collected yesterday ? 

1 li U J j^l^ ^i ^^2S ^^ j'jV What is the discount on the Com- 
pany's paper in the bazar ? 



o o ^ S- f 

i/J Jr« j^^v/ LsV^ 15^ i^jV •«?■ 

* / 

iir?^ v/^y!^' s^' -^ v^>^ -5*^ e^ 

If you purchase the Company's paper 
of six per cent interest, the discount 
is two rupees six annas ; and, if jou 
sell, it is two rupees eight annas. 

y^ -^ iP^y \^ vi^ c;^!?^ ^ Send these letters as directed. 

» ^ 

cs*^4' 'f^\jii3jy^ 

^^ tt^r* t^r iji>r sft v/-^'-H;i 


Bring those goods in carts from the 
Custom house. 

^j^ 1^ I c^^^ jl^ ^ iJ^j5i*^ii)^*i>j^ Darban, are the counting-house sarears 

^ o 


U5* ^ i*^ e!r c;^ si^^^ v^^ V Who is at work in the iron-iactory ? 

y (:;!fV *— ^ »^' ^J^ ^^^^U fc^\ Sir, nobody is yet come. 


This is the case every day, and there- 
fore Mr. 's work is not yet done. 

^ ^ ^ ij^jJUjb t--..>^U ^JJli Mr. is speaking to me daily about 

this work. 


3^ '^ii u^^ i^j\^^jfj\ y ^^^^ i^^ S-^ When they come, send them to me. 

\a^J^^^^^ tt;i>t LCi%s& ^ *-r^ 

.c >• 

How long are those Europe goods to 
lie at the Custom house ? 


c /c 


fiO f 

^ \^J (T^ ^ ^r' 

Sir, without an invoice to know what 
they are, how can I bring them ? 

By opening the boxes and seeing their 
value, you will be able to understand. 



^jfy i<^^ ^t^ M^ ^.cr' (-r"*-^ t/^ ^^> I cannot m3^If open the packages. 

«- O 

J T* u^^? "^^ j^ u^J^j^ *i^' Sarcar, take the invoice and go directly. 

o o 

/ o 

*/ ^^^ ^/ '■^. Jf»^ ^ ^ 

At two o'clock, the custom house officer 
came and opened the boxes. 

Kranee, copy these and give them to 
the Serjeant. 

Call a blacksmith and open the boxes ; 
compare the value and quantity of 
the goods with the invoice, then 
make them tight again. 

Serjeant, when you have signed your 
name, give (them) to the cashier. 

Taking the invoice, I had to go again 
and shew it to the head officer. 

^ c 

Having done all this, it had struck four 
o'clock, and the custom house was 

The next day I delivered the invoice to 
the officer. 


Having ascertained the value of the 
articles and the duty, he signed it. 

:c^ ^' 



Sarcar, I will not give a kowrie to the 
people of the custom house or wharC 

9 <# 

^y-S ^U ^^J\pr u^^^ (^ J^j^ ^^ Sarcar, why did you not go 

^ ^ police office and get a pass ? 

cji^ i^«^ttr!t>* iai.^^f> t-r^^s^' 

to the 

^^ c^ (^^ l*^ 

Sir^ what can I do ? For two or three 
days I have not had a moment's 
leisure ; one cannot get a thing done 
at once at the court. 

y^ -fF L^^ 4^^^ If I do not go myself, nothing is done. 

o u^ P 

oU:i^ U- 

Sir, I know that five days ago you 
wrote to Patna, that the things would 
be forwarded to morrow or next day, 
and no pass is yet obtained. 

How can they go? They cannot be 
sent without a pass. 





Selected from the AJlSilcjT^ (mir'atU'l-a^altm), printed at the 
School-book Society's press. Calcutta, 1836. 


/ / €. /O 

erf* ^ ''"l'' yj*^ ^/ ^i,^J^ c/. 


U?* u/ u/ uir^ S^ v:^ ^,b.-j*XiA ^ 

^Jj^^J^J^^^A'^U-^^^^fr^ ^ 

c/ ^ 


O CO / C X ^ o c> 

C"/ # c/.««'#o ceo 

-'•c o-^^o o^ o o^ 

* (jm the first letter^ as a contraction, of JIjmi suwal^ question, 
f «p> the first letter of ^-^|^ jawab^ answer. 

440 Dialogue. 

^\^^ jL ^/^^J. M^^u^^ irf)^ ^^ i/» ^J9' 

o #o 

tt;^^^^J^i u/L;/cr*u^^J•^ c/- 

o/ 0/0/ 

& /o ^ 

i/^^jj^ t»!> wV^i^ 1/ «>sf jj^ ^J,^,^ *j uTjy j%e ^y 

\iji \jjji, ^ \tj^ i^ AJU \Lar dL)\^ »/ j^ y;<^j jj^ ^^ 

OC <- C / «- ^ 9U «.# 

/ O ^/wO^^ 

i^-^j^^ *A-«' -^jbj^ "^vf ''v^v^j^ ^^ c 

X 9it C ^ ^ 

\ai^jyr*^j^ u^ u>/ c;^ *s^ ^r* tr 

0/ _ . o 

X X 

ii2^u/c;r»;^ ^J-* LT 

/o ->• c. ^ 

j!Ji *^)^jyi'^ Jb^f^t t^Uj oUT ji-te ^ 

/ O y ^ 

ctf* i^^ "-^-n^^ w/ w/ u)i- '^V'' *J| "i^y* cr 

Dialogue. 441 

JIK^jfiJiji '^^^ U^ ^J^. ^ XT 

<^ / o ^ ^ o ^ 

\:xf u/ (sT^* U5^*^ '^J^ C^ 

X # ^ ^ C oO 

y^ jJlj 40j^ ^;/ j^/ ^^ Ui\)o\ ^ j^^ ^4^:^ ^ 
if^Uj-41^1 JfcJCi-* ^laU jUjoS JjI^^^-aI^ -^ 

^ # o o O ^ CO 

y f ^ ^ ^ 

^ Cj\a^<» jy/ ^ y^ kdy (^ 

cr^ J>v^^>rv^ c;/ u/ v^^ 4/* 

9 U ^ 9 C *''^^*' ^ 

/ ^ 

y o y ^ ^ X o 


442 Dialogue. 

\a^jyr^jT^ ^ u^ cT* u2^T* u^ cr 

*»' Jt* ^ • C X bC -^ O 

!/tte- c>s^/ •^^^ ;>^ V|^^>^ 

o <*/ o / C X 

mf O 

ttJe* erf* «J^ v/ <^V t/i^ «■?— c^ 

jjl ^Lf ^ JlAp ^^^ J,U ^^^ J*L, ^^^\ ^'p Jy ^ 

X / o 

CO 9 ^ Co 


c o 

cr?^ u^* c;^**/^ ^^J!J' 

o /o 

v^ v.5*^ l>^-> M' (^ ^l:-»j^ ijm 

• -^ 


O /O 

Dialogue. 443 

c o 

^ \J ^i.jS J ^J»,\ tr 

^U J cylcL* ^^ jJU j»Uj *r V cJlc yr t?^ fl* ^^ \^ ^jU 

TVoiufatioR of the foregoing Short Description of India.' 

Q. What sort of country is Hindustan ? 

il. It is a very extensive country, which by reason of its popu- 
lation, products, manners and customs, has continued famous from 

Q. What are the boundaries of the four (sides) of Hindustan ?' 

A. The northern boundary is Tartary and Tibet, the- southern 
boundary is the Indian ocean, the eastern is the Banna kingdom and 
bay of Bengal, and the western boundary is the gulph of Arabia and 
Persia (Arabian sea). 

Q. What great rivers are there in Hbdustan ? 

A. The Ghmges, which after flowing seven hundred kos (1400 
miles ?) falls into the gulph of Bengal. In it the Jumn^ and G(^ra 
from the west, and Brahmaputar, called also Sampu, coming from 
Tibet and Assam, &11. And, on the west is the river Sindh (Indus), 
also called Ntlab, which is composed of five rivers : so that, for this 
very reason they name the countries which are about it, Panjab. * On the 

444 Dialogue. 

south is the Nerbada, the Godavery^ and tlie Kishna ; which three 
rivers^ flowing to the east, fall into the bay of Bengal. 

Q, What celebrated mountains are there in Hindustan ? 

A, The Himalaya mountains are well known throughout the world, 
because that^ in respect to height, no other mountain is equal to them. 
They lie between Hindustan and Tibet. Morsover, there aie the 
hills of Rajamahal ; and, in the Dakhan are the Ghat mountains, 
the chain of which is to the east and west over against the sea coast. 

Q. Into how many parts have geographers divided ftindustan? 

A. Into four parts. The first part is that which is situate on the 
Ganges as well as on the shores of those rivers which fidl into it : the 
second is in the districts of the river Sindh (Indus) as well as in those 
of the rivers falling-into it : the third part is that which lies between 
the Granges, the Sindh and the Kishna : and, the fourth is that which 
lies to the south of the Kishna. 

Q. What Subas (provinces) are situated on the sides of the Ganges? 

A. Bengal, Bihar, Ilahabad, Oude, Agra and Dehli. 

Q. In the Suba of Bang (Bengal) what noted cities are there ? 

A. Calcutta, Dacca, Murshidabad. 

Q. What in the Suba of Bihar ? 

A. Azimabad (Patna), Benares, Aazam-gadh (Azemghnr), Jaun- 
poor, Ghazipoor. 

Q. In the Svha of Ilahabad, which are the most renowned cities? 

A. Ilahabad. * 

Q. In the Suha of Oude, which are the most celebrated cities ? 

A. Lucknow, Baraitche, Fyzabad, Bareily, Gorucpoor. 

Q. In the Suba of Agra what cities possess celebrity ? 

A. Agra, Mathura and Caunpoor. 

Q. What in the Suba of Dehli? 

A. Dehli, Meerat, Hurdwar, Kumal. 

Q. What Subas (provinces) are situate on the sides of the river 
Sindh (Indus) ? 

Dialogue. 445 

A* Cashmere, Cabul, Candahar, Mooltan, Sinde, Ajmeer, Malwah. 

Q. What celebrated dties are there in those Subas? 

A. Lahore, Cashmere, Cabnl, Attock, Ghizni, Candahar, Mooltan, 
Tatta, Ajmeer, Oojein, Gualior, Jeypoor. 

Q. In the middle part, what Subas are there ? 

A. Gujerat, Khandesh, Berar, Orissa, Circars, Dowletabad. 

Q. Of them, what cities are renowned ? 

A. In Gujerat, Ahmedabad and Cambay; in Khandesh, Surat 
and Boorhanpoor ; in Dowletabad, Bombay and Poona ; in Berar, 
Aurungabad, Nagpoor, and Ellichpoor ; and, in Orissa, Cuttack. 

Q. What provinces does the Deccan comprise ? 

A. Bejapoor, Golconda, Camatic, Mysore, Concan. 

Q. What are the &mou8 cities in those provinces ? 

A. In Bejapoor is Bejapoor ; in Golconda, Golconda and Hydera- 
bad ; in the Camatic, Arcot, Madras, Pondicherry, and Tanjore; in 
Mysore, Seringapatam, Trichinopoly, and Calicut ; in Concan is Goa. 

Q. In (aU) those provinces, what provinces are out of (exempt 
from) English sway ? * 

A. To the north, whatever is lying on the north and west border 
of the Sutlej and Indus ; that is to say, Cabul and Panjab, all which 
country is under the government of the Seikhs : Oude is a kingdom 
of itself: and Smde as well as the small provinces of Tanjore in the 
Deccan are all under the rule of their own princes. 

Q. What are the articles of commerce of Hindustan? 

A, Indigo, cotton, opium, muslin, silk, rice, sugar, shawls, warm 
spices, and jewels, so that the diamonds, emeralds, and rubies of India 
are celebrated in all the world. 

Q. How many are the inhabitants of India? 

A. One hundred millions, of which seventy-five millions are Hin- 
doos, eighteen million seven hundred and fifty thousand Mahomedans; 
and, six million two hundred and fifty thousand Christians and Jews, 
the latter of which are chiefly in the Deccan. 

446 Dialogue. 

Q. What is the climate of Hindustan? 

A, In the provinces of the north and west, there is cold in the winter 
season ; but, in all the rest of Hindustan except the mountains there is 
no symptom of cold. The rain is excessive or the heat is excessive: 
by this alternation the difference of the seasons becomes known* 

Q. What are the qualities of the people of India ? 

A.' In manners and customs excellent; but, void of probity and 
sincerity : that is to say, there is amongst them, for the most part, no 
reliance on one another, and disinterested friendship exists not. In 
works of art they are dexterous ; yet, with the construction of me- 
chanical instruments they are unacquainted : had science of this kind 
also prevailed among them, it is probable they would have become 
famous throughout the world in what relates to the arts. 



Extracted from ** An Introduction to the study of the Hindostany Language as 
spoken in the Camatic. Compiled for the use of the Company of Gentlemen 
Cadets on the Madras establishment at New-town, Cuddalore. Government 
Press, 1808." (" Reprinted by order of the College Board, 1843 "). 

With notes on the variations, where they may occur, of this dialect from the 

Hindustani of Northern India. 

^ i^jf kol hai 

i:^ ^* ' e>!/y ^^^^^^^^^ 5*5 hain . 

f^ <i/ f i^pv^ S"^ ^^^ nahin a*e hain . 

}^jybj\y^ jJis»- ^1 qjjald sawar ho^unga 

• 3^. f \^3 Sr5^ ghore-walB led hulSo • 

jbJjU ^^jjI i^j*p ghorepar zin bandh 

%^S (jV^^ bhoHyoA* ko hulSd . 

3 ]/ j\^ lJ^^ J95ZA? taiyhr karcCo . 

J \>'j^ ^S u^^ J^ falane shaldi§ ke gharja 

J^ J iJ^ f \^y^ dhoht ko kapre de*o . 

/^ *^jS l/ Lf*Hi P^Aawnc Ice kapre Za*5 
j^ lJU ^G^ kurta §df karo . . 
J oiLrf ^ battt silga*d • • . 
j^jy^j^ wiJi sham mtZ'par rakho 
3 t ^!^ "^W^ ii>W ^O'bari ujala hote-ch-}^ a*d 
/I ^jJ 4^ ^^U» sabaA baft fajr-tchf a'o 


. Gent. Is any one there ? 
. Are the servants come ? 

• Servt. They are not all come. 
. Gent. I will ride out soon to 


• Call the horsekeeper. 
. Saddle the horse. 

. Call the palanquin bearers. 

• Make the palanquin ready. 

. Go to such a person's house. 
. Give the clothes to the wash- 
. Bring my clothes to dress. 
. Clean (or brush) my coat. 
. Light the candle. 
. Put the candle on the table. 
. Come to morrow at daylight. 
. Come very early to morrow. 

* The plural form: see Shakespear's Grammar of the Hindustani, par. 87. 

*}- The ^jAtfOS^ \^j>- harfi-taldlstSs adverb of identity or peculiarity in DakhnT, 

corresponding to ^ hi or ^^ i in northern Hindustani : see Shakespear's Grammar, 


par. 1 56. 

448 Dialogue. 

^jjjb ^ ^J^ iji}€ bhd'iyati kahan ga'e hain . Where are the palanquin 

bearers gone ? 
^l>. (.J^ ^*>^ sidhe taraf chato . . . . Go to the right. 
j)l>- «— I;^ ^}'^ da'cw taraf chaB . . . Go to the left. 
4^^T ^^-y j^«A«A>- -T ajjamdar nahhi a*e Aawi . Is not the jamadar come to 

^ day? 

yb f j\S»j^ s£;^ harkartjamdar ko hdffo . Har^ara, call the jamadar. 
_xib^ ^^ (JU^ JiJjtAP^ jam dor kdt mM rahte haM Does the jamadar live in the 
^^rtfi^ 15^^ V M:^^ 7^ a'p^ ghar melt, barracks or in his own 

^% ^JSj batlar ko huWo .... Call the butler. 
sJ^'\ ^T' ?r^ J^'V^ khabardar aj char ghanKti Take care, dinner must be 
\jybjjj ^\^ ^ ko khana taiyar hona ready to day at four 

y jf (£^ 1^ t ior* tMiin al tag ghar ko matja Do not go home till I come. 

^ ^ i^\f U^^ ^--^ y^^ ^^^^^ Atra'e ko Ie*d ^ Hire a house. 
J ]/ ^1/ Ijji (-^ y(^k parwa kiraya karffo . Get a boat hired. 
c-^*^U vJU- ^ly^ kahan jane §ahib . . . Where are you going. Sir? 
^j^ ^ ^^ darya ke sair ko , . . . For an excursion to sea. 
tJ^JiJ^^f^ U*^[,^ Are^e din turn wahan ra- How many days shall you 

hengef^ remain there? 

J3J ttJ^ ^ -^'^ doya tin roz Two or three days. 

j\ya ij uu^^ fjm^ ki^ wakt turn sawar Ao- When will you embark ? 

^^H^ v^nge,^ 

sfiy^ J !5?" ^J^ **r^ j^^ AAarl cJiarSo howe . . When it is high water in the 


L5^ J^^ y ^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ * ' ' • I^ i^ QO^ ^ow water. 
(Zj\j ^j*^ i>iA,M .fsr kuchh muzayaka nahin rat No matter ; it will be high 

uj^yh /^jf-jil f ko phir charffo howegcLy tide again at night 

* In DakhnT, the second person plural of the future and aorist is similar to ihe 
first and third. 

IHaiogiu. 449 

yi «yS\j ^ ^i^y 1^%^ papDerwatan led tatSd karo Give strict orders to the boat- 

^j^ yi^W ^ ki ^axir raken, men to keep ready. 

L<^ (S^J)^ ^ W. ^Jj^ ^^ bichhana aur khane Send the bed clothes, bed- 

j 4/9J-> ' ,^ : "^ ^ piTK^ ^2 cuftai parwepar ding, with the things for 

J^tXsqi^ bhSf-de^o, eating and drinking on 

board the boat* 

K>> tf^ ^^^ (--^^ -Vi y^A «a& saman hhej chuka All these things I have sent, 

Cy^^-lg ^jjh Aun ^aliib, Sir. 

^^Ltf ^«^ ^ ^ ^^ kyuA hht ho main sahan I will positively go to 

\x9j'U. ja'unga, morrow. 

L5* (jjj? j^ 5 * kaun hai Who is he (or that)? 

^'l|} 1^ ij>j^^. iS ^T ap he bawarchi ka bhal • Sir, the brother of your 


-^ /V t/*^ l)^3 fjjj^ g^T^^^^ pasjakar yahf Go to the horse-keeper, place 

J^j ^1 ^I^\ 4j\ti dana us-ke age rakhkar tins grain before him and 

fljyp ^ ^ yfiO dek/iokio ghSre-ko khilata see that he gives it to the 

^ \ji^ hai, horse. 

u^byV lJ r-^ U-^*vi y^^'^ *** ^5^***'* kejanu>aran What kmd of animals are 

^ hain, these ? 

^^ ^^U^ murghabi hain They are waterfowl. 

^U .S *^^ lSj^ (^ ^^ ^^^ khawind ke hath For how much will you sell 

^tvg'yUj!? ^ju^ /:S^e Ad beehen^,% them to my master ? 

^ ^«^ Jift 4^UJ tumarl^ akl men is ghar ka In your opinion is the back 

l5^ lt^ W^ ^ j^ P^^hha age se ^mshtar- of this house prettier than 

Jb UJ J^y>' numa hai, the iront ? 

* Dakh. hcy she^ thai or t7: see Shakespear's Hindnstani Grammar, p. 158. 
+ See Shakespear's HinduBtani Grammar, p. 159. 

j: In Dakhni, the second person ptur. of the future and aorist is similar to the first 
and third : see Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par. 113. 
§ See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, p. 158. 

3 M 

450 Dialogue. 

i^j^ \j^J, ^^P^ ^J^ hargiz TUihtn bar aks mere By no means, on the am- 
^ \La\ ^^ J^ Mdyal men tta-ka aga trary in my opinion the 

\^\ c:-^.^ ^ l5^^ ptchhe se bahut achchha front of it is much prettier 

^ hai, than the rear. 

j^\ \Sjj \d \p^\j ^l^ kahan raja ha beta aur What connexion is there be- 
it^ 4^ ^;l^ kahan yah shuhlra, tween the prince's sod 

and this report ? 
^ JLff \J ^^UJ tumari* kya §alah hai . • What is your advice? 
m^y^J^ l5^ W'"* iri y^^ ^^ ^ bihtar hSwega . This will be best of aU. 

^ M^\ ek'tck\- hai It is all one (the same 

^*^ ji ^^ kuchhfark naAin. • . • There is no difference. 
l/^ Jy i^J^^ f^ tumangrlzi bolsakte hainX Can you speak English? 

y vJ^«^^^ ir*i^ ^ &Aa2a ^aZtf Aindu^^ani to Well, speak easy Hindos- 

y^ kaho, tani to me. 

^ Ly^ \^ ^y yif kaho to 0% kya kahta hai .. Tell me what he says. 

uT^ c^ I i^^i' ^ly^ J^ turn kahan se a'e Aatn§ * . Whence are you come? 

j^ J J .^ ^1 y^st^ mujhe aur kuchh dar-kar I do not want any more. 

kz..^ji^ fM \ij\ J ^ agar turn apna kam durust If you do not do your bosi- 
^}f ^)o ji f ^^^^ norkarenX to bar-taraf ness better, I will torn 

kariinga, you away. 

^'^ isJ^\j nashta la*o . . « • . . Bring breakfast. 

^ J K^j»A< mi§ri dPo Give me the sugaicandy. 

J^J y JbJ^J j^ ^^ kuchh aur dudh to dPo . . Give me some more milk. 

* See Sbakespear's Hindustani Grammar, p. 158. 
f See Sbakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par. 156. 

% Dakh. o or wahy &c.9 instead of the Hindustani wuh : see Shakespear's HindosUBi 
Grammar^ p. 158. 
§ See Sbakespear's Hindustani Grammar^ par. 113. 

Dialogue. 461 

^W l[W^V {jii^ [:fi^ main ah-tu . hahar jaya I want to go out directly, 

3l>- cu.« jjj\ ^U^ tooAaii (oru7'Aan)an<2ariiki^ Od not in there. 

^S^J^^^y ^pv^ jj/j^ 5^3 nahtn to gjir parengl * . Come down otherwise you 

... will fall. 

^yj^Jj^ y^^^ jj jf^f>- i^^r l'^^ kahhiM cAarhte Why do you . climb up the 

^ hain,* tree? 

\J ^ ^^^ {ZJ\i ^\ itni hat kahne se kya hasil What is the use of talking 
IftJl UL»t ^j^ fj^\^ mainus-kaadhabhinahin so much? I do not com- 

(jiy^bfi:^ A^ _|j samajhta huUf ■' '. . prehend one half of it. 

^Jp^^ fj^ ^ aI^ ^t is kam par khuda wasfsftyo not tell me^ for God's 
^^ v::.*v« '4^j)£»- IjI itnajhuf!!;. mat bdl5, jsake^ 80 many lies about 

, ' ' this business. 
^L^ aUII^ ju»j ^^j\ & basttkanam kyahdi • . What is the name of that 

place 1 
jsf- H^^ ^ si^ t:;^> n^aAori. (or to'Ao^) khane ki Is any thing to be got there 

^ (J^ AucAA cAf z miZ£ Aai, to eat and drink ? 

^ c5/^l i^^ t-j^jJ^ cfAifp he asre ke waste kuchh Put up something to shelter 

j^ \j^ .^ i^'^V /rAara karo, us from the sun. 

L5* l5?" i:>^ S^5^ l/^ *^^ 5*^n ^^'^ cAara§ Aat . What o'clock is it ? 

J txi^ s^«>^* i«^^ palkt jdUR manga*o . \ . Send for the palanquin 

V^^^ J% ^ UJU}^ mazduroA ko butti'o our sab Call the porters and send all 
'f»L«^£^U^L:u^«»Jj^ chtzbast hamarasathbkef my baggage along with 

^:*^^ ^'5,11 me. 

* See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par* 113. 

f Dakh. khuda waste or khuda ke waste. 

-*— - •• ' •• 

:{: Dakh.jAu/, in Hinduatani most commonly jA&M; but, in Dakfani, an unaspiraied 
letter oflen occurs where it would be aspirated in Hindustani. 
§ In Hindustani charha, || In Hindustani usually do. 

462 Dialogue. 

^f^^H/^^U^f^ turn kahaai iUref^e sahib . Wbcre will you alight(8top), 


L» (J)i yUjb jl>- cAaB ham-'ko f alone fo^b Come, take me to such a 

^ J ^^?^ C/*^ 1/ ^^ p^ pahuncha de*dj gentleman's house. 

lJ^^ S^y ^ cAAttIt •••••• Has the gun been fired ? 

y^J t^^ \j^ Cjj yakjora hapre dPo . • • Give me a suit of clothes. 

jJfl^BN- ^J^ ^Ji ^i ktartajharo • • • • Brush my hat and coat 

_ib iJ^*^^. i*)!,j ji i^jjp gkorepar zin bandhihai ya Is the horse sauldled ornot? 

^ U nahti/i, 

yi ^^^ hfJ^ eawafi ka ghora lad . • Bring the 8addle4iorse. 

^ \Jii /^ «f^^ S&^ hamare sath tum^io bhi ana You must come along with 

^ji P^T^g^f me. 

(J^fsj\ Cyii>-U g^Ujf tumare §afiib alhtag* utke Is your master got up yet? 

^5^yb ^\ hSwenge, 

^^^ ^^^ Cy'ii'fc^U y^ AS ;a)it& SAtn kahtn bahar Tes, Sir, but he is gone oat 

^^ ^J^yb\i ga^ hain, somewhere. 

^ L5^ C^9^ "H^ J^ tKiRpXfo kuehh malum hai ki Do you know where he is 

^JlT^^ly^ kahan ga% gone to? 

j^^j ^Ij (J^l ^Cift Aam-J!(d ckpiyaladudh ihdji Give me a cup of milk, a 
^*^^(>l^^kJ/A^i^jj^ mifrt ek anda chamcha little sugarcandy, an egg, 

^j L<^^ ^^^?^ MuZiroli maska aurtkSra a spoon, a radish, bread, 

jj J <U^ 1^ jt^^ ^^^ muraftia £2?o, butter and a little jam. 

^ L^ aj]^ \^ ^ Cjj\ ek din ka kiraya kya hai . What is the fare per day? 
yi>- _l>. fl Uju.1 ^cfAa age ehaleja*o ... Go straight forwards. 

^ t Sj^ phir^kar a'o Come round about. 

jM ^ ^U ^Ju»» sidhe hath kS phiro . . . Turn to the right, 
j^ ^ ^\jb ^^jb dawen hath ko phiro . . Turn to the left. 

^]l>> 4/<^>W* ja2cS chalo Go fast* 

y^- 4it&MJbT 2r^ J xarra aAuto cAaiS • . . Go a little slower. 
^W^CSib hat-kar ja'b Make way. 

* In Hindustani ab^tak. 


Dialogue. 453 

A ^vS^ kkafe raho Stop. 

s^^^i^fj S^ '^uT^* inatnpAtr ffetag*yahancAf Stop here till I return. 

ybj rahoj 

l^j I ^ ^\ ^^fi^ main ab-Kt phir ffunga . . I will be back immediately. 
4^ Jgl ^;*s>- ^;^0 ^S\ age daurkarX khabar Z?o ki Run on before and enquire 
b ^Jb ^^j^ ^ ^ r Aia §afiib ghar men hai ya ifthe gentleman is at home 

^jf^ nahln, or not. 

^j ^js^j i3b ybj ^j raho rafio palkt niche rakh Stop, stop, put the palan- 

Jj» J de*d, quin down. 

^^^^^c.^*^>-U]^Uj tumara sahib ghar men hai Is your master at home? 
^ jp j^\ yi^t ^U palkt uthffo aur ghar ko Take up the palanquin and 

Ji>. chato, go home. 

jLsnj ^^^ f>^/^^ y^ gathrt ghar ko le^hato Carry the bundle home, 
^^l^ ^ i^o^^Xa (JiU Afe hamfalane fo^ib ke yahan I shall dine at Mr. such a 
^ J 15^^ ^^ hhana khaenge turn tin one's, come there in the 

} I 4:>^9J^^ jiKiAar ^u^aAan a'S, afternoon. 

J2^l7l 4^^ ^T a'o mozS utaro .... Come, take off my boots. 
j^ ^U c-^]^ i^jjf thofi sharab pom ISb . • Bring some wine and water^ 
jj^ \x>^ ^y^ ij\» pant khub thanda hard • • Cool the water well. 
^y i^^J^ lil^ khana taiyar hotoe to la'o . Bring dinner if ready. 
lui \5j^ i^j^ uJltf §af chhurl kanta de^o . • Give me a clean knife and 


.^ ^y\j CS^ 1^ thora namak ral mirch Give me a little salt, mus- 

Jb ^->^J-J» 4^-rfjWT achar sirka sharab panl tard, pepper, (some) 

^U \lS^}^j^ Kz^^ gosht aur ek saf basan pickles, vinegar, wine, 

J£j ^b de*d, water, meat, and a clean 


* Observe this sentence, which in Hindustani might have been mere phir one iak. 
f See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par. 156. 

X Or, in Dakhni, daurkar; the dental or simple ^, d, or r being in this dialect fre- 
quently substituted for the Hindustani I, d, or r. 


454 Dialogue. 

J \^ \^\ ^\j basan utha leja*o . •- • . Take away the thmgs. 

J jt sc>\i Jj d^l^J dawat kalam kaghax la*o • Bring the inkstand, pen 

and paper, 

(^b ^ L^^'>\^ iJJLi falanefohibhXpasyahMiati Take this letter to such a 

j^\ /\i^ iasi- ^ U-ja^o aurjawab kt wasti gentleman's and wait for 

JLrV^Li^'jL^^V^ thahro, an answer. 

l5^ ^ s^b^ ^ ^^^ fa^^^g^ kaun hat • • Who is that European ? 

^lJ^ULi^2[^ wah kis-ka ghord hai • • Whose horse is that? 

Li^^ (^y U^^A)^^ P^karkar hdUi^ to ham If you speak loud, I shall 

sunei^€j ' ^ ^ hear you. 

tiAsN- iai] j^l itiuJhT ^iiuJbl dhiita ahista aur lafzjudd If '.you speak slowly and 

^<^U3 ^y ^^ t«x>. ' ' jttc2a boHn* to ham tumari distinctly, we shall aode^ 

^ j^^ ' jgy *^ '^V ' *^ bit samjhbige; ,. stand you. 

c.r^»-^ ^^^ >^ Ij^ ^^k'nara Mi2am ajiiie my compliments to 

yf ^ kahdf your master. 

yjii\^ ^ <f yj^\ ij>\ «s ddmi ko tumjaniS haiHf^ Do you know that man? 

^/ lT?/ -^ *^^ Cr^ tt« ha gh az ko kursi ke tale Bring me that paper fiom 

y^ \^\ ^' ^ - ' is utha fi'o, . beneath the chair. ^ 

^ l^ ^UJf ^J e2eJfc£d.a^niafo ftAiiZa hai '. • See, is. the weather cleared 

' / . . t . up ? ; 

4-JU -yb ^^^^ u^^ jAtiyan achchhi tarafi sqf Clean (my) shoes well. 

^J hard, 

^jlJ isJ^\j nashta taiyar hai. . . .Is breakfast ready? 

^^ c-.->-U j^^ ^1 ab-hi nahSn §ahib Rkin sarre Not yet. Sir, but it will be 

j\j ^^ i^s^^ 4^v> traits men taiyar howega, . ready in a little time. 

vJ^ (J^ Liff^ "T ' ^ %^ 4/ ^AcA<^^A^ naAin int/z What, could no fish be got 

to day ? 

* In' DaUtei, the second person plural : see Shakespear's Hiriduslani Grammar^ 
par. 113. 

Dialogue, 456 

vJ^ c;:^ lsK^ l5^^ acAc^Ai machchhi nahlA There was no good fish to 
C;^.«^litf mill fohib. be had, Sir. 

^^^ V* c;^ u^^^V* <7^^~^S^ ''^^ ^^^ dala* . . Have you put tea into the 



C;^.«>*li0 ^yh Slt> dSZa A2n* §ahib .... I have put it in, Sir. 
\^j i^j»aL^ ^j^ ^jyP^ kathori men mip't rakM* • Have you put sugar into the 


c,,if»-lg ^ ho §ahib Yes, Sir. 

^j^ Cyyv- Vhvh kathiori men cha undel Well, pour out the tea. 

^\^ ^UL soman nikato Take away the things. 

^ c^^o-U fofiib y Kete ganthonf ko Sir, at what o'clock must 
b^^LjUl^^ khana taiyar kama, dinner be ready to 

day? . 
jj vs^j^^j V" S^J^ *^r2 cAar gan£Ao9it A» . . At half past four. 
^-ibU. ^j;iJ->- 1-^ t^ kya kya chizeA chahVe . . What things do you wish ? 
{^JJ^^\J\i^,£,'^^yiL^ yak dost ka hjAab yak ran A shoulder of mutton roast- 
vJV e$f?* J^^ U^J ^^^ machchhi ubalT. hul ed, a leg^and some fish 

l/ rj^ i:^?^ ->^ H^V ^ ^'^ teroA ifce salne boiled, two or three kinds 

J3^ *A^j^ lT^^ torAari aur ptndS/ii'aT},^: " of curry, vegetables and 

i:^k>'y S^J^ oV ^^ thofipuriyanaUrachchhe " yams, some sweet cakes 

4/^ i„5i?"' J^^ wieirc, and good fruit, 

l^^ vj:.^^ \i c^T^G ftaire A:a g5«A^ acAcAAS If good mutton cannot be 
U ^y^ y 2Lo ^^^ nahtn mila to ga'e ka got, 'shall I take beef? 

^^*^»:>J^f gosht le'M, 

* In these infltances, the construction is not inverted by the use of ^ ncy as it would 
have been in -Hind ustani^. though y\«> dalna is a transitive verb in a past tense. 

f In Hiodostani, this word would be ^y^ ghan^* 

X In Dakhni, the plural of ^\XiJ pindalu: see Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, 
par. 87. 


456 Dialogue. 

^■-^^J^^ fj^ ^--^^ c;^ naAtn SA uttiryA amr ek No, send fw a fowl and 
Ulf^ ^jj badakh mangana,* dack. 

L^ (^^ ^J aikJ (^ fttf A:»fn he mewe mile • • What kinds of fruit have 

• •• • 

you got ? 
J^^ ^jf^jy^ (^ (*^ J^^ ^^ mau^r cAaXrotore Guavus, mangos, plantains, 
U^^\ jjf^ i^jiji^ anar kharbuze attr an- shaddocks, pomegranates, 

annas, muskmelons and pine- 

^Sl i^ jju ff^^ j^ charpanchrozUe agearabie- Did not any almonds or fii- 
y* fc/ t ^ v:;^^^/^ ^^^ ^^ ^7 sojahazoA men berts or dates or raisins or 

i*bb ^^ ^j^ ^b V^ itf^cAA badam ya JinduJk currants come in the ships 

\l jy^ ^ J«^ \i ya khajur ya muna^icaya which arrived, four or five 

^^^ ^jt4JlS li ^^2:^^ kishmish naJUn a% days ago, from Arabia? 

^2;CJ c,.>^r>"U ^ 4^ I 0*6 the§afiiblekinjaldbikne Some came, Sir, but were so 

L5fr* ^ ^^^ii^ oJl>* «S mii;7ie naAtfi mtZZ, quickly sold that I could 

^^ ^^ not get any. 

Uu; J[^ j^\ U- ^ |*U» «Aam-X:o cAa aur AraAtoa bar Make tea and coffee ia the 

nana, evening. 

JH^ h \,J^J 1(1J^ ^ %^ tumarech-^ was^ ya aur What, for yourself, or will 

L^3^ ub^^ S^ J^ ^'^ ^O'Tdiran awenge, any other officers come? 

^! j'0;-> ^ y^J^^ ^^ ^*"" ^ '*^ sardar aie Yes, two or three other offi- 

^^ hain, cers are coming. 

^ *Xc\^ jS? C7,.^>»U foliib fajr kawffid hai ap There is drill in the morning, 

{j^^y^^ ^J1p^ (^T /pa-totn ii^e gonMon Aa Sir ; at what o'clock shall 

^j \^\ ^ uiKSun, I waken you ? 

* In Dakhni, the infinitive form is very often used imperatively to denote the 
absolute necessity of doing the action intended: see Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, 
par. 72. 

f See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par. 156. 

Dialogue. 467 

j^ij{9^^4^ ly^ pounepanch gantKon ko . At a quarter before five 

L^ uJU ^lj3 d5'an ;af iiyS* • • . • Have you cleaned my belt ? 
l^^jlj^yj taboar taiyarrakha* • . Have you got my sword 

^j js\) ^^j^\ iJji kurta aur patka bahar rakh Put out my jacket and sash. 
jlJ (j^j^ ^ *^^ guluband kt chapras taiyar Is the buckle of the stock 

L^ «^V ***** *^*' '^^"^y ^ 


^jji^j^ ^)o j^ ^p topt aur turra niez-par rakh Put my hat and feather on 

the table, 
^y^ \Sj\j ^;UL» c^,.^ «aft tfoman taiyar kiyS/^ hun I have prepared every thing, 

• • • ^ 

^j^ ^ j^i^jf ^^^ achchha baft fajr jo maiil Well, if I do not get up 
M>> y c!^' ctjV nahm utkun to fAubtara^ early, you must waken me 

UUc^ ^ -^ sejagana. properly. 

^^1j- m j^ ^ My^ momrbatti aur manHian nir Take away the candle and 
i^^^ ^jf^^^j^^ kalkar fajr mujhZ uthane candlestick and light (it 

ImL» ^ CaSj ^ ke wd^trpar silga, again) when you waken 

me in the morning. 
^JL^mJ^j ^^ Lij.'^U foftib paune panch ghanie Sir, it wants a quarter of 
^\ 1^ yb hffe uthOf five, get up. 

^ \af:jjf,iK» !L^ pahla tambur beg a hai • • Has the first drum beaten? 
^^>^ ^f i.;^«»>U y^ ho §a/iib aJhlch bajne laga • Yes, Sir, it has just begun 

\d to beat. 

4^0 ^J^ \^>^ achchha kapre de . . . Well, give me my clothes. 
_ih IjT aLb^ ^qjjamayahai .... Is the barber come? 
c^i^f^U ^^yb (:^«3 dekhta hun §ahib .... I will see. Sir. 

* The verb) though transitive and in the past tense^ agrees with the nominative 
case understood ; the construction not being inverted^ as in Hindustani, by the use 
of the particle ^ ne. 

3 N 


458 Dialogue. 

H (JU tSjtbJ ^y ^\sb hath mun dhohe pant la • Bring me water to wash my 

hands and face. 

i^O ^y t« ^un de Give me the soap. 

^j Jl^j rumdl rakh Hold the towel. 

i^j ^^fsxtj^ CJ\y>*^ miswak aur manjan de . . Give me the tooth-brush and 


^ ^ T^ tongu't la Bring the comb. 

\^j ^j0^ i^.^w^' J^[J rumaljelnneA rakha . . . Have yon put my handker- 
chief in my pocket ? 
u^ U^ U^^P"^ dastiyan kahan hain • . Where are my gloves ? 
1/ u!r^ CL^\^ i^U safe sat ghanton ke wakt Make the horse be got ready, 
J\^ j\j \^yp fjL^^ ghora taiyar karakar ka- and send it to the place of 

^^ if ,^^ ^. jbcly wfftd kljagah'ko bhej de, exercise at half past sevea 

4^v3 o'clock. 

^J^^' X ^ (...^^^U fohib salatnat Sir, safety* (to you). 

jIjjjmi c^^U j j^ khairo afiyat subadar fo^ib Good and health^t Mr.'Sa- 
^}iJ ^ 7' ^■r^'^U qj kya rapofX hai, badar, what is the report 

j<A to day? 

<-r^^ U^ 'ir J^ ^^'^ kuchh nahtn fo^ib sab Nothing extraordinary. Sir, 

i/hi ^ ^T^ ihalt bhala%% all is right. 

vJ^ iifi"^ \Jt^ t} y kumpani-mhlX kite kahile How many sick are tbere 
^^ ^^Jfi^ hain, to day in the com- 

%^.^^ ^^^ L5^W 3^ ^ sipaht yak tamhur-wala Two sepoys, one drummer 
y^t^^ ^^^J3^ (^^r yak chhokra, and one boy. 

^ J^ ^^ kis dardrse Of what illness? 

* A respectful mode of address from a Musalman. 

f A benediction much used as a respectful return U> an address. 

X An English word as introduced into military use at Madras. 

§ A phrase, meaning that ail is right or going on well. 

Dialogue* 459 

(Jb k^ ^ l/^^ ^^^ ^^ sipahi'ko tap hat dturh' One sepoy has a fever, the 
Cfjd ^ 1^^ ^ «^r9^ ^ ^^^ ^ ciarJ tambur' other has the rheumatism, 

^Jij is^ji i^]}jjT^ '^aH-ko sltala nikR hcd the drummer has got the 

j^^ L^^y^j^ yj^ aur chkokre ka sir dukhta smallpox, and the boy's 

_ft \&^J hai, head aches. 

^1 ^ c,^twU jS^b daktar* §ahib kuchh unki Has the doctor ordered them 

cT^ ^ ^;^ 1^^ ^tra farmffe hain, any medicine ? 

^IjTT ^t u,.»i^lig^ Ao ^oAtfi op^ aiar uis-Ae Yes, Sir, he came himself, 
^jS i^^\}jj yj^j^ maraxan daryaft karkar enquired into their com- 

^ Ut3 \jj dawa diya hai, plaints, and gave them 

'Y^ v^^ c)^ ^J^t^ ^^Vatfi'^^men «9t-A:i jagah Is their place in the hospital 

^ uJU fa/ Aat, clean ? 

!JW" Ja;^ H^^^^y^ ho§a^ibharrozjharajkuri% Yes, Sir, they sweep it out 

^ lJ[/ 4/JJf^ *«^^c Aaiii, every day. 

\S^J3J/^J^*^^3^ CL>^ A5< hawaldar har roz kete How many times each day 
L5^ jfC^ ^^1 ^«> <2a/'a ufirlA Jdiahar tene does the kSt-liawaldar go 

^ \j\s^ jatd hai, to enquire after them ? 

«>M ^ Ac\^ ^ jS? fqjr-ke kawa*ld kB bad do After morning's drill, at 
^ aL& }^ ^ j^^ y^ pahar fto aur gham^ke midday, and before even- 

i/' l/ i<VJ warse-ke age, ing's parade. 

db^iL^ L<f* i<^ 't'' 4/ ^^^^ i^'^ mSngof * cAarS How many men have mount- 

cTS^ Sr[/?" AadI, ed the main guard to day? 

j\ji\^^t^j\djfA,9^ C^\ ekjamdar do fiawaldar Gn One jamadar, two hawal- 

)1j ^JlJU vlioU ^ naVft ian«n-4raZ5 aur tin dars, three na'iks, the 

_ibLd yj^ j^ sipahS, fifer and three sepoys. 

^;«^ ^^ l19^^ CU^ /cot Api gaf *-9nen iete Aam . How many are on the 

^^ barrack guard ? 

* Borrowed from the English. 

+ A Dakhni form corresponding to the Hindustani L^\ ap, 

X A reiterative formfjhararjhuri kama, to sweep out. 

460 Dialogue. 

L^ S^V {J^ {J^'^j^ ardairan^-men kol ga*e Have any gone as orderlies? 

^ hain, 

ij^ Ljr* u^ ^ ^ ^^ kamdn:f'men hai • • • Are any on command? 
^ ^yC lA^ lJ^^ pakhoR Kite ghanV&Arko At what o'clock does tbe 

^ \ii cili paru lata hai, pakhaR bring water ? 

^ f^^j^\ -^ iS y^ f^j^'^ c^^^ ^"^ fham-ke At six o'clock in the mom- 
4 \jj^ tf^ punch ghaniSthko, ing and five in the ereo- 

^ti^Jcj^A«^^;:«^^<:>^ kumpant'men ketz bancBi^aid How many firelocks are 

^mtb hain, there in the company ? 

^jjb ^^^\ ff^y i<-*^ am-'par panch achchht hain There are eighty fi?e good 

4-j|^ 2f)jjj jj\ our pandrah Jduarab, ones and fifteen bad. 

^b ^ i<^ V^ ^^}j^ ^^ ^^ sipaht'ke pas kSie How many cartridges has 
^ jJy ^^ tof « AaW, each sepoy ? 

2r;lj 2r^b bartzh barah Twelve each. 

^^UU l^ ^Lri uiol jib Aar ek sipaht ka saman Are the aoooutrements of 

^ (c^ J durust hai, each sepoy good ? 

L^ ui^^^ c^.'O-U Jb ^ sa/iib har ek ke pas ek Yes, Sir; each has a fiie- 
j^\ J[^4^2J vl^f (^b bandulc avr ek sanin ek lock, a bayonet, a pouch, 

4^0 uiot ,.r*:M> (^jol da&fta ii marts/ e£ marort a hammer, a worm, a 

\LS^\ J^^ ul^f ik kanta aur do phatre pricker and two flints, a 

j^ lS}l^ CSA t^j^j^ ^A savin Ai dS'aR ek bayonet belt, a pouch belt, 

U^ cl^f g^ J J dabbe-ki do'ali ek banduf: a sling, a bayonet sheath, 

i^<i ilio\ ^\jj ^ kt4o'aliektamn4iimiyan a turband, a red jatkA 

jUjtXu ^1^1 iJV^ i/ ^^ I^St* ^^ ^ kurta aur and a breastplate. 

ePf^ tlij^ Jjl^ ^V *»^ *«»> 

* Plural ofardaliy the duty of an orderly, 
f Borrowed from the £nglish. 

Dialogue. 461 

S^i^ l/ L^t^ kumpanl-ke kapre sab achr Are, all the clothes of the 
^jb yJ^\ ckke kain, company good ? 

cr^ lJ i^V^ *^^^ j^ ^^'^ ^* sipalu he pas char Each sepoy has four good 
-jb ^jf>-^ ^J^J^ J^'^ achchJie haHj suits. 

^Xj$ i^jj^il^lil^l achchha na'ik subadar-ko Very well, na'ik, call the 

bulffoj subadar. 

^j^ t__ '^^ jWj<^ subadar fahib men gat-men How many men^ Subadar, 
L^W L5^ iJ^ ^ ketejawan Aaifif are there in my guard ? 

c^ ««^ \S^ ^^^ IMxAre Aat^ • • . • How many sentries are 

vJ^J Sf5^ U^ e>V *^*^^ kahan kharl rahtZ so Shew me where they stand. 
J^SJ j<fj^ y^ mujhZ bata*d, 


^ jS^ \J ^ u;^ Vi/Vi P^^^^^^^'^ %^ (iukm hoi Tell me the orders which the 

^y) i«fst«^ ^ intf;A« ioKy sentries have. 

LS^ SrLili^*^ l5^ Ly*^ ^ar« ftc darwaze kete ghan-- At what o'clock do they 
^jb t^^y^ my^ toflrko muchte hain, shut the gates of the 

^^ ^ ijy^ ^T ^^ ^^ ^^^ ghanton-kd ek ath One at six, one at eight, and 
Jb jy\ ^ yjy'CV^ ghantonrkoaur ba^ barah the rest at twelve o'clock. 

/ ur^ 'Ji ghan^nrko, 

S ^gj^SbfT ^L^ ^^y^ bandu^Sn keie ghanKn^ko At what o'clock did they 
^^ j^ j^l d^'^ «tt2a'S aur pAtr Ae^S ^Aan- ground arms, and at what 

^jb ^J\^\ f {:)jr^ ^'ko uthate hain, o'clock will they take 

them up again ? 
^;^ ^m^ ^ J CJiA ek dafa-mZtk kite sipahiyan How many soldiers are 
^jj^^t^^U^^ ^^^^^ chhorie hain, allowed at one time to go 

^^ to dinner ? 

viU- S i^j^^Ai^ i^^j ^o«* *^^^ ghanton-ko jafi . At what o'clock do the 

rounds go ? 

* Borrowed from the Engliah. 

462 Dialogue. 

L5^ i<^ U^^i/r^^ duarigatati/^'SeKteghanfoA' At what o'clock do ihey 
^r.^» ^y^j^^j^ "^ Tapof^ bhejte hail, send the reports from the 

^^ other guards ? 

^ ^jii^ j^^ ^g;^ jwiAre Ae<c ghanton-ko bad- At what o'clock do fliey 

^jj^ dUtX) late hain, relieve the sentries? 

\J^ f ^^^ i^^ ^^'"'^^ ghanfoiUko mujhc Send a na'ik to wak^ me 
CJ^\ y^^o^^ yS fS^ jagane-ke was^ ek nffik at twelve o'clock, and 
j^j^\ jj J «^v^ il^^ hhej de'd aur phir barair again at four. 

j^^U- ^ sjj 'ke char-ko, 

>___ '^^ i3j^ c^y ^p chhufi sa^ib jawanaA The gun has fired. Sir, shall 

^j^ \j^ ^Jj^^ khara karM, I fall in the men ? 

^ i/ ^"^ J^ c;^V^ ^ipahij/aii'ko lAabar karo Tell the sepoys that we 
^^ lJ i>^ ^ ^^h ^^ rat'ko barahrke do march to night at two 

Jb ^S f ^^^ ghan^firko kuch hat, o'clock. 

J1Jl>. (j^4jA^^^ 8abM keie kos chaUnge • • How many coss shall we 

march to morrow ? 
15^ U\fl^ yj^ kahasijdna hai • • • • Whither are we to go? 
(j\sj isi^\j ^ji^ L^ ^^ dher-ko rasta batane ke Have some village codey 

Jl/ j\? sJ^^ l/ waste taiyar karo, ready to shew the road. 

L^j^ u V C'^ U^ fdban mu^am kahan karenge Where shall we halt to mor- 
.^ j^\ <^4^ ^i^-^^ ^^ na'tft aur cA^ sipaht Send a na'ik and six se* 
ij\Sj\J ^ULj ^U^ saman taiyar karanc poys on before to prepare 

^flci^ Sr^)>^ aghafi bh^o, things. 

(«Jf^ l/ u>^i Li;^^»-li0 fofiibyahan Kt tog bareshor The people about here, Sir, 
j^jtS\^^^jj^ 4^ fir haiii ftawaJdar lei gat are very riotous; you 

!jb\^ l^v^ lSj^^ bheja cAahi'e, should send a havaldai^a 

^Jb ^U- U;^%yj «a& ^a*ir hain Are all present ? 

* Borrowed from the English. 

Dialogue, 463 

^jbJJb f!i Cy>if».U ^ ho §akib lanfi bandhkar Yes, Sir, they are fellen in, 

(^ (^^ ftAafe Aain^ in line. 

^j j\-^y^ y-!^ fl^ fiukm guno hoshyar raho Hear the word, attention, to 
cJ^ ^^t J b ^<>^ fli^AS ya daujen tarafphir- wheel or turn to the right 

_ih U^ na Aai, or left* 

jl^^ i»Ji ^)l«i^^ ^ S>^ hukm-par ekrsan kadam Raise your feet at once upon 

ntha'Of the word* 

^JLc JJ failf milkar chalo . . • March with close files. 
ls^} L5^b «^*^^^ uhde-toale apne dUtafur\' Officers, keep your distance. 
^j (jJlSLo rakho, 

Jtj aJj L«] 2am&a kadam daJS . . • Step out. 
Jtj i%43i ^^f^ cAAota Icadam dato . • . Step short. 
aJ^ lf>y c^t j^J^ Mutbar^r ah tirchha ^Or Attention now, the oblique 

dam, step. 

^ \^^ *— i^ (^A**^ n<f A« £a^^ samnc barko • Forward, on the right. 

^ i^g^ khare raho Halt, stand still. 

\ij\3\ ^\S^J^ bandu^an ntama • • . • To order arms. 
J Uh^ 4:;^r*^ «aninan charka^ • . • • Fix bayonets. 
LJ j^ i/«^^ i:>^^«^ Aancfttian khande^ar Una • To shoulder arms. 

UjJb ^^f^ ^ISjJCJ bandukan ^encht bandna • To pile arms. 
^ U^ iJ^ ij'l^s&ti I'^^^'S^^/e kaluin kahan Where shall I post the sen- 

^jl^ khara karun . • • • tries ? 

LT^ «vLr^*^j^^ . >^J^ ^'^ bazu-par dere Ke age On both flanks, before and 
j^\ i«fs^ jj^ ^J^T aur pichhe atar bandukan- behind the tents, and near 

(IJot fjm\j _dS^4X:j "kepoB ekek pahra khara the arms, one each. 

iTyb j^ {^jr^ L^ ^j trar<a AS^S gAanloii-Ao kota At what o'clock is parade ? 

* f^ lanty or ^ /atn, from the English military term, line, 
i The English word, here adopted* 

464 Dialogue. 

^ {j^r^ '^t \^A P^"^^^ ^^^ ghanton'ko . . At a quarter before six. 
^l^iLjT v-jp? ^«^ stdhe taraf mkhan phira^o, Turn the eyes to the right 

^ I L<^ cij^^"?*^ frlcA-men age a'o • • . • Dress up the centre. 

yj ifj'^ji^ lS I ^-^^^ ^^^ ^'^ l'^^^ xarra cfa&o . Too much ; dress back i^ain 

a little. 

y J ^^ uJl laf*-men daho Dress back on the left. 

^ja^'^'^ ^ cJS ^x^ santar* laf*'ke Jiich'mcA Dress up between the centre 

j ! ^JT age 5*0, and the left. 

jlib (juw« ^^^ ^-^j raii^-men mat hito ... Do not move on the right 

uW {:fi^ J*^ L5^ >"^ $aniar^-ke do tin jawan Dress back two or three 

^ J ifjti zarra daho, files in the centre. 

cs^-vo ^ (^ has hiJo mat Enough ; do not move 


j^lft {^^^ bandukan utaro .... Order arms. 

J Ubjj>- (^^f^ «an?nan ckarfiffo .... Fix bayonets. 

<^U ^r^cLi salami hath Present arms. 

j|\^ v:)^^»««» samnan nikato Unfix bayonets. 

^U ^Jju baghli hath Secure arms. 

-J ^/?*^ J^^j J^j^ ghorado kal-par charKa'd . Cock (your firelock). 

y^Jji ^ ^--^^ Ijt^ gAora ek kal-par rakho . . Half cock. 

jyj^ J$ AaZ iAamcAo Draw the trigger. 

J ^ j^ e;b ^^ ^^^^ ran-AS lagyd . . . Keep your hands flat to the 


/hb uu^ ^1^ siran mat hila'o . . . . Do not stir your heads. 

J V^ u\r* ^^^^ uthffo Raise your heads. 

ybj ,^J^ ^*h^ stdhe khare raho .... Stand erect. 

^!L ^^^>Ji ij3^ '^ y^^ ga*on kis-ke alalce men Who does this village belong 

^^^ hai, to? 

* English military terms, adopted in Dakhni. 

Dialogue. 465 

^Vu^H^*^^^^ u chau-haddz-mtn kol za- Isthereany zemindar in this 

^ j^jCm^ mtndar hau neighbourhood ? 

\J^ l/*^)j l5^ u>V^ ja65»-A5 ros^e-wicn XrucAA Are there any rivers or ri- 
^^ ^li i^jJ .fs^ 9iaddi ndle hain. vulets on to morrow's 

Jb J>^ s^jW jhafi jangal hai .... Is there thicket and jmigle? 

cT?* ulj^vi l^«A5rari Aain Are there hills (or momi- 

^^ ^^ talawan hain • . • • . Are there tanks ? 
CJ^^i \i i^\JA ^^^\ U-ke atraf'ka mulk hanjar Is the country about here 
'^y^^ ^ L5^ y?^' ^^^ y^ ^^g'^^^'n ^^^ ^^* waste or cultivated ? 

i£^ U^^ c;:^^ Cr^ i«-men dkan boht pikt^ They sow much rice here 
]rD^ J^ (iH^ \J^ ^^^^ ^^'* clii^a aiAj kam. and other grains less. 

y c^ v/^b l/ c^^ saban-ke raste-men to boht There will then be much 
^^ 4^b jC>> eL^ chikkar pant koga. mud and water on to mor- 

row's road. 
iS,&(^j^^j ^..^l^^ A5 ^a^ift do Iws^tag dhan Yes, Sir, two coss we have 
^\ju« ^ 1^^ ^Uj mafi kl medanf'par chair to march along the banks 

kl^f j\ djtf \A>' j) na bad-az ek kos tala'o of paddy fields ; after- 

j> ^^ ^ ji3 ^jm^ ke kattc-par pailur suka wards, for one coss, on 

^ ii^aSj \^yaj^ rasta hai. the borders of a tank ; 

but beyond that the road 
is dry. 
4^Jj jMi ^ ^^s^^'^^H blch-meAhai sonaddipayab Is the river, on the way, 
_ib c->l[U hai. fordable ? 

* \uLjptknay explained in Persian by ^^Jui ^<:>^)jj zira*at shudan, To be 
sown (?)• 

i From Ju« me^Z or JCmw« meTii/, Bank. 

3 O 

466 Diahgue. 

^^ ^ (»\S^ ^ ^J^ fdboA he muiam K ga^ he Are there any trees (grofeB) 

*rf\^^ s/i^ C^^ l/ P^ ^^ amral hau near the village where we 

Jb shall'halt to morrowl 

lb j^ J|^ ^ ^,/€ gffoA-ke kuiwalrko huJa Send for the Cutwal of the 

y^^, hhejo. village. 

^u^ ^j^ijii ^ ^J^ yahSd (or yhoA) sc falana How far is such a Tillage 

\J^J3^ S^^^^ ^^^ ^^'' ^^' ^^ this? 

T^ L^ J>^ L^^y^ j^''^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^ santan Have the men paid (or the 

ij ^LmJ \^ (^UU ftS paisa dt*6. things that they f^ 


^2^ (VV 'ir y J3^ ^^^ ^^ X:ttcAA io^i noAiit . Nothing morei then, remaiDs. 


cyUa inalcliyat), SHORT STORIES, 

In the Peraan and Nagari characters, with translations and gram- 
matical analysis of some parts. 

Of / 



/n Nagari characters. 
It* U^IT^m^^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^^ '^^ ^^ 


Short Stories. 

\ (X) for tk, one, or pahti, first, nakl, story. 

ilk, one, a, 
shakhs, person, 
badshah, king, 
he, of. 

Sin, eye (the very), 
kcd'e, castle, palace. 

mujhe, me, to me, 
kazzakon, robbers, 
huzur, presence, 
dtwar, wall. 

jharokKCf window, 
musdjir, trayeller, tra- 
lute, plundered. 

lut, having plundered, jate, going, being, 

liya, took. hain, are. 

niche, under, beneath, i^armaya,commanded, Kaha, said, 

luta, plundered, tu, thou, kya, what? 

hushyar, careful, turvZ, thee-by, thou, 

kyun, why ? yih, this, 

norTaha, not remained, masal, proverb, 

Bola, (he) spoke, na-Ai^,not-indeed,not, 

ghuUm, (your) slave, sum, heard, 

ko, to, chiragh, lamp, 

medium, known, andhera, dark, dark- 

northa, (it) was not, ness. 
hazrat, presence, 
zer, under. 

gaya, went, was. 
Us'Tie, he, 
kl, of, 

kMdmat, service, 
tnen, m, 

arz, representation 
kl, made, 
ki, that, 
jahan, world, 
panah, protection. 

A person was plundered beneath the very castle of the king. He 
made representation in the service of the king,* (saying) that, world- 
protection If robbers took (and) plundered me under the wall of the 
castle of the (royal) presence. The king commanded, j: (saying) that, 
why didst thou not remain careful ? (He) spoke (saying) that, it was 
not known to (your) slave, that travellers are being plundered under 
the window of the (royal) presence. The king said, what? by thee 
(has) not indeed this proverb (been) heard, " under the lamp (is) 

* He represented submissively to the king. f Your Majesty ! 

X Implying said/' when spoken of a sovereign. 

Short Stories. 469 

Grammatical Analysis. 

Ekf a noun of number^ (frequently used as an indefinite article) : 
pahR, an ordinal of number^ feminine, singular, agreeing with na^l, 
s. f.'^ nominative case singular. 

£k (as before) : shakhf^ s. m. nom. case, governing the verb : 
badshah, 8. m7 gen. case, governed by he, a simple postposition^ (or 
particle placed after a noun) governing the preceding word, and in the 
masculine inflected state^ to agree with the substantive following : 
aiuj 8. m. here used adjectively ^ to iaPe, s. m. gen. case, smg. 
inflected from kaVa^^ and governed by A;2, a postposition governing 
the genitive case preceding, and itself in the mas. inflected state (from 
haf^ to agree (like the termination of an adjective) with the following 
mche^ s. m. sing, inflected from mchSL^ abl. case, governed by a 
postpos. understood, or used absolutely as a postposition or 
adverb •}^ luta, v. a. past participle,^^ mas. sing, (root luf), agreeing 
with shakhs before described : gaya, v. n. past tense indefinite, mas. 
sing, (root Ja) governed by shakhf : lUtd gayd, however, may be 
accounted the passive voice, past tense indefinite, mas. sing, from 
the root lut. Us, pronoun of the third person, or the remote demon- 
strative, sing. fix)m wuh, inflected by reason of the attached or sub- 

See Ist Part, Gram. par. 38. Gram. par. S9« 

^ Gram. par. 3. ^ Declined like C^b (bat) Gram. par. 0. 

Declined like \>'\j (raja)^ Gram. par. 9. Gram. par. 53. 

Declined like rya^ Gram. par. 9. Gram. par. 6. 

^ Gram. par. 6. ^^ Gram. par. 11. 

^^ Declined like arJ^ (banda) G. par. 9. ^^ G. par. 6. 

*^ Declined like \jj^ (shora) G. par. 9. ^* G. par. 57. 

^^ G. par. 34. ^^ G. par. 35. ^^ G. par. 20. 

^® G. par. 23 and 20. ^^ G. par. 31. ^ G. par. 15. 

470 Short Stories. 

sequent particle ne :^ badshah, s. m. gen. case, governed by In, a 
postpos. fern, governing the preceding word and agreeing with the 
noun next subsequent : khidmat. s. f. abL case, sing, governed by 
wien^ a simple postposition : arx^ s. f. nom. case sing, governing £?/ 
V. a. past tense indef. sing. fern, (root kar) : Ki, a conjunction of ex- 
planation 'J jahaUf s. forming, with the subsequent panah, a compound 
attributive (used like the English, '^ Your Majesty") voc. case sing. : 
mujke, pron. of the first pers. accus. or dat. case sing, (nonu sing. 
main)^ governed by the following verb : Ifiazzal^tiy 9. m. plur. inflected 
(firom i^axxo^) by reason of the following neP fiuxur, s. m. g^n. case 
sing, governed by AS, a simple postpos. governing the noun which 
precedes and agreeing with the subsequent ian, s. m. gen. case sing, 
as before : kt, postpos. governing the gen. case, and fem.^^ to agree 
with the following dtwar, s. f. gen. case sing, governed by he, postpos* 
mas. inflected to agree with niche as before explained : luf, v. a. the 
root^^ or the past cdnjuncUve participle :^^ liya, v. a. past part^^ cnt 
past indef. tense^ third pers. mas. smg.^^ (root R), the object of the 
sentence (mffte) being in an oblique case.^^ Badshah as before : ne, 
particle followii^ the subject of the sentence before a transitive verb 
in a past tense : farmaya, v. a. past tense indef.^^ third pers. mas. 

1 2 

G* par. 23) note. 6. par. 6. 

Nouns ending in (JL> are frequently feminine : 6* par. 2. 

^ 6. par. 6. ^ Declined like C^b (bSt) : 6. par. 9. 

The feminine of kiya: G. par. 90^ a. and par. 23, with the note : 

also par. 72; the verb being made to agree with the object of the sentence. 

7 8 9 

G. par. 36. G. par. 15. 6. note to par. 23. 

*^ G. par. 6. ^^ G. par. 6. ^* G. par. 18. 

" G. par. 22. ^^ G. par. 20, c ^* G. par. 23. 

G. par. 23, note. Lit Hya may be considered a compound 


verb: G. par. 28, Intensives. G* par. 23 and 20. 

Short Stories. 471 

singk (root farma), tbe object bemg the following sentence:^ ki, conj* 
as before: tu, pron. second pen. nom. case sing, governing the 
verb ; hushyar, adj. nom. case, agreeing with the person to which tu 
refers: A^yfin, adv. of method, derived from the interrogative pron,:^ 
na-raha, a compound of na, the simple adverb of negation,"^ and raha, 
V. n. past tense indef. third pers. mas. sing, (root rah), governed by 
tu* BoHy V. n. past tense indef. third pers. mas. sing, governed by 
shakh^ understood : ki, conj. as before : ghtdam. s* m.^ dat. case sing., 
governed by ko,^ a simple postpos. governing the dat. or accus. case: 
ma^lum, an Arabic passive participle, which may here be considered 
as an adj. agreeing with the subject of the sentence or the nom. case 
understood to jui^tha, verb, subst. past tense^ mas. sing, having the 
simple adverb of negation^^ prefixed, and governed by the following 
sentence as the subject: ki, conj.: haxrat, s. f. gen. case sing.: Kc, 
postpos. mas.^^ governing the foregoing noun in the gen. case, and 
inflected to agree with the compound following : zer, prepos. : jharokhe, 
s. m. sing, inflected from jharokha by reason of a postpos. under- 
stood :^^ musafir, s. m.^^ plur. nom. case, governing the following verb : 
Itfis, past part. mas. plur.^^ (root Bit) agreeing with musafir : jate, 
pres. part mas. plur.^ (root ja) agreeing with musufir : hain, verb 
subst. pres. tense third pers. plur. (root ho), governed by musafir. 

6. par. 23, note. G. par. 15. G. par. 50. 

^ G. par. 36. ^ G. par. 23 and 20. 

^ G. par. 23 and 20. ^ Declined like U-); (ra;a), G. par. 9. 

® G. par. 6. ^ G. par. 32. ^^ G. par. 35. 

6. par. 6. Zir jharokhe may be regarded as a 

compound, and inflected by some postpos. understood : G. par. 57- 

^ Declined like Ulj (raja\ G. par. 9. ^* G. par. 20. 

^* G. par. 21. ^^ G. par. 32: and, iutejate ham may be 

considered as the passive voice, see G. par. 31, and the conjugation of 
the passive voice. 

472 Short Stories. 

Badshah as before : ncy particle following the subject of a sentence 
before a transitive verb in a past tense :^ kaha^ v. a. past tense indef.^ 
third pers. sing. mas. (root hali)^ tiie object being the following sen- 
tence : hyoLf pron. interrogative^ nom. case, here used absolutely as 
an interjection : tu^ pron. of the second pers.^ nom. case sing, unin* 
fleeted though followed by ncj a particle following the subject before 
a transitive verb in a past tense : yihj pron. proximate demonstrative^^ 
nom. case sing, agreeing with mofnaly s. f. nom. case, sing, governing 
the verb : sum, v. a. past part.^ or past tense indef.^ sing, (root sun)^ 
governed by ma^al:^^ chiragh. s. m.^^ gen. case, sing, governed by ke^ 
a simple postpos.^^ as before : tiichej s. m. sing, inflected, or adv. as 
before : andkera^ s. m. nom. case, sing, governing the subsL verb^ 
half understood* 

or O^ / O o* o 

fjjji U ^^\ ^^iLLi jyitfc* j^\ \2j \Ji^ ^Li cuSj ^y^j ^ \:»M/* 

/o . / % 

G. note to par. 23. G. par. 23 and 20. 

G. note to par. 23, and par. 72. G. par. 15. 

G. par. 15. G. par. 15. 

^ Declined like C^b (bat) : G. par. 9. ^ G. pan 20. 

^ G. par. 23. ^^ G. par. 72. 

Declined like U-|^ (rq/a), G. par. 9. G. par. 6* 
Declined like ^^jp(£hora\ G. par. 9. 

SAart Stories, 


sath, with, in (his) \fatfi, victory, 

In Nagari characters. 

^^■^[^ ^J^Tf ^ffift ^fV^ ^ 'IT? ^^[% i^A\W f^^ 

^nfr ^^hc ^^i^ «3(*< i^ 41^1 <T ^ ^^h^ ^ ^ro 

r (\) for do, two, or dusrij second, nakl^ story. 

Ahmad (proper name), 
sultan, king, sultan, 
4qnu, own, his own, 
/a«;, army, 
ko, to, 
tnah, month^ 
ba^mah, by month, 
darmaha, monthlypay, 
diya, given, 
karta, makes, 
aur, and, 

apTie, own, his own, 
Ioshkar, army, 
Ac, of, 

sardaron, chiefs, offi- 
ko, to, 

donon, the two, both, 
traA:^, time, times, 

khilaya, given to eat, 

karta, makes, 
aur, and, 

ma^mud (propername) 
sultan, king, sultan, 
us-ke, of that, 
hiVaks, on the conr 

Aar^a, does, practises. 
J^A, one, 
din, day, 
VTt, them, 
men, in, between, 
laral,' fight, battle, 
Au7, became; 
ahmad kJ, of Ahmad, 
3 p 

mafimud kt, of Mah- 

shikast, defeat. 

I^gon-ne, people, 

puchha, asked, in- 

is-ka, of this, 

kya, what? . 

sabah, cause, reason. 

Kisi, some one, 

ne (particle), 

jawab, answer, 

diya, gave, given, 

ki, that, 

jis-kt, of whom, 

degh, caldron, pot, 

us'kiy his, of him, 

te g hf sword. 

474 Short Stories. 

Ahmad Sultan makes given (makes a practice of giving) to his 
army, month by month, (its) monthly pay ; and, to the officers of his 
army, at both times (of eating in the day), he makes given to eat 
(makes a practice of giving to eat) : and, Mahmud Sultan practises 
the contrary of that. One day, a battle became (took place) between 
them ; the victory became Ahmad 's, the defeat Mahmud's. People 
asked, (saying) what is the cause of this ? Some one gave answer, 
(saying) that, ** of whom is the caldron, of him is the sword." 

^ Grammatical analysis. 

Do, a noun of number^: dusrt, an ordinal of number,^ fem. ang. 
agreeing with nakl, s. f. nom. case sing. 

Ahmady n. prop. mas. nom. case, sing. : sultan^ s. m. nom. case 
sing, governing the verb: apnt, pron. common or reflective, gen. 
case fem. agreeing with fauj, s. f. dat. case sing, governed by Ao,^ 
a simple postposition : mak, s. m. followed by ba-^mah, a prepos. with 
the foregoing noun repeated in the Persian construction :^ darmaha, 
s. m. nom. case sing, though the object of the verb : diya, past 
participle^ of the transitive verb (root de), uninflected mas. sing. : 
karta, pres. participle or pres. indef. tense,^ third pers. mas. sing, 
(root kar), forming with the preceding part, a compound frequentative 
verb: aur, conj.: aprie, pron. common or reflective,^^ gen. case 
mas. inflected to agree with Ioshkar, s. m. gen. case sing, governed 
by ke, a simple postpos. mas. agreeing with sardaron, s. m. dat. case 
plur. governed by ko, a simple postpos. : donon, a numeral, do with 

^ G. par. 38. ^ G. par. 39. 

Declined like \>Aj (rqfa\ G. par. 9. G. par. 15. 

^ Declined like iZ^\i (bat\ G. par. 9. ^ G. par. 6. 

^ G. par. 8. ^ G. par. 20, c. ^ G. par. t4. 

^ G. par. 28, Frequentatives. G. par. 15. 

Siart Stories. 475 

the plural affix ;< wa^t, 8« m. sing, governed by some postpos. un- 
derstood : tdthf s. m. governed by a postpos. understood, and here 
used as an adverb : khilaya, past part.^ mas. uninflected sing, (root 
khila vehich is a causal of kha) : karta, v. a. pres. indef. tense,^ 
third pers. mas. sing, (root kar), forming with the preceding part, a 
compound frequentative verb : aur, conj.: ma^mud^ n. prop. mas. 
nom. case sing. ; suUin, s. m. nom. case sing, governing the verb : 
fis4ie, pron. of the third pers. gen. case sing.^ the affixed postpos. ke 
being mas. inflected to agree ivith bi-l^aks, an Arabic preposition followed 
by the article with a noun,^ used here adverbially : karta, v. a. pres. 
indef. tense third pers. mas.sing. (root kar\ governed by makmud sultan. 
Ek, noun of number : din, s. m. sing, governed by a postpos. un- 
derstood:^^ «n, pron. third pers. or remote demonstrative, abl. case 
plur. governed by mefi/^ a simple postpos. governing the abl. case : 
larSl, s. f. nom. case sing, governing hiA% v. n. past indef. tense 
fem. sing, (root ho) : ahmad and mahmud, n. prop. gen. case, governed 
by kl, a simple postpos. fem. to agree with the subsequent noun : 
fatft, s. f.^^ nom. case sing, governing hu% v. n. past indef. tense 
fem. sing, (root ho) : shikast, s. f.^ nom. case sing, governing hul 
understood. Logon, s. m. plur. (from log) inflected by reason of 
the following fic,^^ a particle : puchha, v. a. past indef. tense, third 

G. par. 10. 6. par. 57. G. par. 35, 34. 

^ G. par. 20. ^ G. par. 27. ^ G. par. 24, 21. 

^ G. par. 28. ® G. par. 15. ^ G. par. 8. 

G. par. 57. ^ G. par. 15. G. par. 6. 

Formed from the verb lara^na ; see G. par. 43 : and declined like 

ghofiy G. par. 9. G. par. 23, and 20, c. ; hu*i being the 

fem. of Af?a. ^^ Declined like d^b (^^O? (^* P^^- 0- 

Declined like \sf-|; (rdja)y G. par. 9. G. par. 72. 
^° G. par. 23, 20. 

476 Short Stories. 

pers. mas. sing, (root puchh), preceded by ne aad governed by the 
subsequent sentence: U-ka, pron« proximate demonstrative/ gen* 
case sing, governed by the affixed ka, simple postpos. mas. un- 
inflected; and agreeing with the following noun : kya, pron. interrog. 
nom. case : sabab, s. m. nom. sing, governing the verb substantive, 
hai,^ pres. tense third person sing, understood. KuS'-ne, pron. in- 
definite, (nom. ko'tf inflected by reason of the affixed particle nc:^ 
jawaby s. m. nom. sing, following ne, and therefore, though the 
object of the sentence, governing the verb : diya^ y. a. past inde • 
tense,^ third pers. mas. smg. (root de) : Hf conj.: jis-kl, pron. 
relative,^ gen. case sing, with the governing postpos. kS^ fem. to agree 
with degh, s. f.^^ governing the verb subst. hai, pres. tense third pers. 
sing, understood : ns-Kt, pron. third pers.^^ gen. case sing, with the 
affixed postpos. kJ, fem. to agree with iegh. s. f.^^ nom. sing, govern- 
ing the verb subst. hai understood, as before explained. 


o / *» ^ o • cc 

^ G. par. 16. ^ G. par. 6. ^ G. par, 15. 

G. par. 32. G. par. 16. G. par. 23, note, and par. 72. 

G. par. 23 and 20. ^ G. par. 15. ^ G. par. 6. 

Declined like C^U {bat\ G. par. 9. " G. par. 15. 



Short Stories. 


In Nc^ari Characters. 

Jt^m w^ wtif fl*ii5i ^nt it ^ ^tz ^wnr 

^mr I 

r (^) for fin^ tbree^ or iisri, thirds nai{:Z^ story. 

Do, two, 

npaht, soldier, soldiers, 

apae-men, among them- 

kui, some, a, 
ehahr, city, 
JS, oi^ 

kuche, lane, street, 
iii?», in, among, 
^^fia^'angt, quarrel, 

/rar, having made, 
rahe, remained, 
the J were. 
JEk, one, a, 
jtdaha, weaver, 
yih, this, 

JAabar, news, report, 
5tm^S, hearing (on). 

Ai, very, exactly, 
opne, his own, 
kargah, work-place, 

se, from, 
uth, rising, 
ftar, having made, 
US, that, 
aya, came, 
aur, and, 

tamaeha, sight, sport, 
dekhiie, to see, look at, 
2aga, was applied, 

i^axaAar, by chance, 
talwar, sword, 
jo, which, when, 
dusre ke, of the other, 
sir se, from the head. 

uchti, sUpped, glanced, 
to, then, 

julahe is, of the weaver, 
a, having come, 
lagi, was applied, 

Ma^al, proverb : 
kargah, work-shop, 
chhor, having left, 
tamashe, (to) the sight, 

ja% may go, (if) goes, 
na, not, un-, in-, 
^a^ij:, right, just, 
chot, blow, hurt,wound, 
kha*e, may suffer, 

(then) gets. 

476 Short Stories. 

Two soldiers had remained making a rout (or quarrelling) in the 
street of some city. A weaver, immediately on hearing this report, 
having risen from his workHshop, came into that street, and began to 
look at the sight By chance, a sword, which glanced from the head 
of the other (soldier), reached the weaver's (head). Proverb: having 
left the work-shop, the weaver goes (to) the sport, unjustly (without 
deserving it) a blow he suffers (or gets). 

Grammatical analysis. 

Tin, noun of number :^ tisri, ordinal of number,^ fem. agreeing 
with na^l, s. f. nom. sing. 

Do, noun of number : sipdhi, s. m. nom. sing, or plur. derived 
from sipah by affixing t,^ and governing the verb : apas-men, pron. 
common or reflective, abl. case : kuS, pron. indef. (nom. kol),^ 
inflected to agree with shahr, s. m. gen. case sing, governed by Ke, 
a simple postpos. mas. inflected to agree with AficAe, s. m. abl. case 
sing. (nom. kuchi) governed by men, a simple postpos. : khana, 
8. m. nom. case sing. : jang-i derived from jang (battle, fight), 
khanorjang't being an abstract noun, formed in the Persian way, by 
adding i^ to khanajang (house-quarreller), fem, nom. sing. : kar, 
V. a. root^ or past conjunctive participle:^ rake, past partidple,^^ 
mas. plur. (root rah\ agreeing with sipahi : the, verb, subst.^^ past 
tense mas. plur. governed by sipahi : rake the, moreover, may be 
regarded as the pluperfect or past past tense^^ of rah, v. n. JEk, 
noun of number used as an indefinite article zjulaha, s. m. nom. sing.^ 

^ G. par. 38. * G. par. 39« 

Declined like \^\j (raja)y G. par. 9. G. par. 44. 

, G. par. 15 and 6. G. par. 15. 


G. par. 43. ® G. par. 18. ^ G. par. 22. 

<J. par. 20. ^^ G. par. 32. *^ G. par. 23, a. 

Declined like \j^ {ghora), G. par. 9. 

Short Stories. 479 

governing the verb: yihj pron. prox* demonstrative^ nom. sing, 
agreeing with khahat^ s. f. nom. sing.^ though the object to mmtlf 
pres. part. mas. sing.^ inflected^ (root sun) : Ai, adv. of pecnliarity :^ 
apncy pron. com. or reflective, gen. sing. mas. inflected to agree with 
kargahy s. m. abl. case sing, governed by se, postpos. : uthrkar, past 
conjunctive part.^ (root uih): us, pron. remote demonstrative sing. 
inflected (from touh) to agree with Idichl-men, s. m. abl. sing, (nom* 
kucha), governed by tnen, postpos. : aya, v. n. past indef. tense, 
third pers. mas. sing, (root a), governed by julaha : aur, conj. : 
tamasha, s. m. nom. smg. though denoting the object of the sentence: 
dekhne, v. a* infin.^ mas. (root dekh), inflected before laga, v. n. past 
indef.^ (root lag), third pers. mas. sing, forming, with dekhne pre- 
ceding, a compound inceptive verb : l^akar, adv. : talwar, s. f. 
nom. sing, governing the verb: jo, pron. relative, nom. case, or 
adv.^^ dusre-ke, ordinal of number^^ or adj. used substantively, gen. 
mas. sing, governed by ke, postpos. : sir-se, s. m. abl. sing. : uchp, 
V. n. past indef.^^ fein. sing, (root uchaf), governed by talwar: to, 
adv.^^ correlative to jo preceding : julahe ke, s. m. gen. sing, some 
postpos. or noun being understood after it: a, v. n. root or past 
conjunct, participle : lagt, v. n. past indef. third pers. fem. sing, 
(root lag) governed by talwar. Magal, s. f. nom. sing, used ab- 
solutely : chhor, v. a. root or past conjunct, participle : tamashe, s. m. 
sing, inflected by reason of some postpos. understood : ja% v. n. 
iut. indef. or aorist^^ (yoot ja), third person sing, governed hj julaha 

^ Declined like **^ (j^8^)y ^ • P*"^* ^* * ^* P*""* *^' 

^ G. par. 74. * G. par. 36. ^ G. par. M. 

^ G. par. 23. '^ G. par. 19. ® G. par. 23. 

^ G. par. 28. ^^ G. par. 35. *^ G. par. 39. 

^^ G. par. 23. ^^ G. par. 18, 22. " G. par. 23. 

^ G. par. 57. ^^ G. par. 25. 



Short Stories. 

understood : na, adv. fonning, with Aal^f^f 3. m. following, a Pensian 
compound adjective:^ chot, &. (. nonu smg. though the object of 
kha% ▼• a. fut* indef. or aoriat^ (root kha) third pers. aing. governed 

JSj f 


O O # i^ CO %» ^ 


In Nagari charaetert. 
« If 

i^ 'T?! ^TfPr Wf 'IIR: '^V^ ^TfT fV ^ wV ^^^^ 

^rnc ^(TT WW 'irra ^iiq i 

^ C^) for cA5r, four, or chautkt, fourth, nail, story. 

Akbar ne, Akbar, 

Birbalse, from Birbal, 

puchha, asked, 

ii, that, 

laral ke, of battle. 

wafct, (at) the time, 
/^a, what ? 
ftom, action, use (to), 
ata haij coming is. 
Birbalnef Birbal, 

arz, representaticM], 
kiya, made, 
jahan, world, 
panah, protection, 

6. par. 48. 

6. par. 95. 

Short Stories. 


Badshah ne, the king, 
kahuy said^ 
iathyoTf armSy 
mar, and, 
xoTf strength, 
hfun, why? how? 

nahtn, not, 

kahta, (art thou) say- 
Agar, if, 
khata* error, fault 


/io jatcS, should be* 

to, then, 
/rw, what? 

/(am, action, use (to), 
awe, would come. 

Akbar asked of BTrbal, (saying) that, at the time of battle what 
comes (of most) use ? BTrbal (humbly) made representation (saying) 
that, world-protection! (your Majesty!) presence of mind (or cou- 
rage). The king said, why sayest (thou) not, arms and strength? 
BTrbal replied, your Majesty ! if presence of mind (or courage) should 
become wanting, then of what use would come (or be) arms and 

Grammatical analysis. 

Char, noun of number :^ chautht, ordinal of number^ fern, agreeing 
with nakly^. f. nom. sing. 

Akbar, n. prop, denoting the agent or subject of the sentence, and 
followed by ne, a particle : btrbal, n. prop. abl. case sing, governed 
by se, a postposition : pUchha, v. a. past indef. tense,^ third pers. 
sing. mas. (root puchh)^ the following sentence being the object : ki, 
conj. : laral, s. f. being an abstract noun derived from the root lar 
(fight) or lara (cause to fight),^ gen. case sing, governed by ke, a 
postpos. mas. inflected to agree with wakt, s. m. sing, governed 
by a postpos. understood : kya, pron. interrogative, nom. case 
governing the verb: kam^ s. m. sing, governed by some postpos. 
understood : ata hat, v. n. present definite tense, thii*d pers. sing. 

^ G. par. 38. 

G. par. 23, note, and par. 72. . 
G. par. 43. 
'^ G. par. 24, b. 

* G. par, 39. 
G.par. 23. 
G. par. 57. 

3 Q 

482 Short Starie$. 

mas. (root a). Birhal ne, n. prop, denoting the agent or subject of 
the sentence, and followed by ne, a particle :^ art, s. f. nom. sing., 
but here it is used as forming, with the subsequent yerb, a nominal 
compound verb^ (arz kcarna) : kiya^ y. a. past indef. third pers. mas. 
sing, {jooi Jcar)f the following sentence being the object: jahSn, s. 
forming, with panah, s., a Persian compound in the yoc. case : aumn, 
s. m. nom. sing, answering to the previous interrogation, and govern- 
ing the verb ata hai understood. Badshak nS, s. m. sing, denoting 
the agent or subject, with ne, a particle :^ kaha, y, a. past indefl^ 
third pers. mas. sing, (root kah), the following sentence being the 
object : hatkyar, s. m. nom. sing. : zor^ s. m. nom. sing. : kyun, adv. 
of interrogation, formed from the interrogative pronoun: naktn^ 
emphatic adverb of negation : kahta, v. a. pres. indef. tense, second 
pers. mas. sing, (root kah), agreeing with btrbal understood. Agar, 
conj. conditional : khata^ s. f. nom. sing, forming, with AS or hi^ja, 
a nominal compound verb '? hojatoe, an intensive compound verb 
neuter, future indef. or aorist,^^ third pers. sing, governed by ausan : 

to, adv. consequential to agar or jo :^ his, pron. interrog. inflected 

11 ^ 

from kaun to agree with ham, s. m. sing, governed by some postpos. 

understood : aibe, v. n. fut. indef. or aorist,^^ third pers. sing, (root 

a), governed by hathyar aur zor. 

1 2 

6. par. 23, note, and par. 72. G. par. 28. 

6. par. 23, and 20, c. 6. par. 23. G. par. 35. 

^ G. par. 35. '^ G. par. 24. ® G. par. 36 and 79. 

^ G. par. 28. *® G. par. 25. ^^ G. par. 15. 

12 r^ 

G. par. 57. 

SAort Stories. 


Jii 6 

u ^ ^ 

yTft /'ry rv^iXi ; 

AMsly *i^ ^/^ ^^^ ,js* fjM^ ^^ ^^T ^^,Jy\ ^^ C^\ 

In Nagari characters. 
(^) for pancAy five, ox panckwiiij fifth, nai^/, story. 

iTamtnZ, low-bred, 
hhaUf, good, well-bred, 
odtn? 9 man, 
ifloi, poyerty, 
ciof^, fiiaidphip, 
M/lf became. 
DavlaUmand^ rich, 
Ao^S, (on) becoming, 
ht^ very, exactly. 

najib^ noble, 
;2radS, bom, 
ani/ten, eyes, 
lagiy was applied, 
cAuranS, to steal. 
Tabf then, 

K^ttA, he, that (per- 

Kokarf having become, 
hoUj spoke, said, 
iCLchf tme, 
haiy is, (it) is, 
jawj what-like, as, 
balu, sand, 
Ai, of, 
bhtt, wall. 

kl\afaf angry, offended. 

With a low-bred and a well-bred man in poverty fiiendship became 
(took place). (On) becoming rich exactly (immediately), the low- 
bred (man) began to steal (torn away his) eyes firom the noble-bom 
(man). Then he, havii^ become offended, spoke (saying) this is trae, 
'' the friendship of the low-bred (the base man) is like a wall of 

484 Short Stories. 

Grammatical Analysis. 

Panch, nouQ of number : panchmn,^ ordinal of numb. fern. 
JEk, noun of number, used as the indefinite article : kamhif adj. 
mas. sing. abl. case^ (nom. kamtna)y agreeing with admt understood : 
aur. conj. : bhale, adj. mas. sing. abl. case (nom. hhala), agreeing 
ivith admt, s. m. abl. sing.^ governed by se, postpos. : iflas, s. m. 
abl. sing., governed by meA, postpos. : dostt, s. f. nom. smg. (being 
an abstract noun formed from dost, friend, by subjoining i), govern- 
ing hu% V. n. past indef. tense, third pers. fern. sing, (root Ao), 
governed by dostu Kamtnag adj. mas. nom. sing., used substan- 
tively, governing the verb : daulat-mand, adj. (formed from daulat, 
riches, by affixing mand)J nom. sing, mas., agreeing with kamtiia, or 
the vsubstantive understood : hotej v. n. pres. part.^ mas. ^ng. (root 
Ao), inflected and followed by At, adv. of peculiarity or identity :^ 
najibf adj. used substantively, and compounded with the following 


zade, adj. mas. sing. abl. case, here used substantively, and governed 
by se, postpos. : ankhen, s. f. nom. plur. (from dnkh), the object to 
the verb churane: laga, v. n. past indef. tense ^^ (root lag), third 
pers. mas. sing., governed by kamtna: churane, v. a. (being a 
derivative from chbr, thief),^* infin. mas. (root chura), forming, 
with the preceding word, the compound inceptive, laga churane}^ 
Tab, adv. : wuh, pron. third pers. nom. sing., governing the verb : 
Idiflfa, adj. nom. mas. sing., agreeing with hhali admt understood: 

6. par. 39. Declined like erJu; {bandfi)^ G. par. 0. 

Declined like \sAj (rqfa\ G. par. 9. Declined like i^jjp 

(ghori)^ G. par. ^. ^ G, par. 43. ^ G. par. 23 and 20. 

'^ G. par. 48. ® G. par. 21. ^ G. par. 35 and 74. 

/^ Declined like C^b (bat), G. par. 9. ^^ G. par. 23 and 20. 

^^ G. par. 30. *^ G. par. 28. ^* G. par. 35. 

G. par. 15. Not admitting of inflection : see G. par. 4, a. 

Short Stories. 485 

KokoTy v. n. past conjunctive part.^ (root Ao) : bolij y. n. past 
indef. tense ^ (root ftoZ), third pers. mas. sing, governed by vmh^ and 
agreeing with bhata adnu understood : yih, pron. proximate demon- 
strative/ nom. sing, governing the verb : sack, adj. nom. sing, agree- 
ing with yih : hat, verb subst. pres. tense, third pers. sing. : kamtne, 
adj. gen. sing. mas. used substantively, and governed by kl, postpos* 
fern, agreeing with dostt, s. f. nom. sing, governing the subst. verb hai 
understood : jaisi, adj. fern. sing, derived from the relative pronoun,^ 
and agreeing with bhit : balu, s. m. gen. sing, governed by ki, postpos. 
fern., agreeing with bhlt, s. f.^ nom. sing, governing hai understood. 

# o 

J«i 1 

y I u»y» ^=4^ US^'V u-5 liT* ^^^ ^ jLjj v/i^ ^^ *^*>V «^^ 

o ^ / 

\S wLj ijJj^ ^y lyfc 

In Nagari characters. 

^"IfnF ^TT 'RIT ^T^HT^ WW?! ^If THT ^Vt wI^* 

^ G. par. 22. * G. par. 23 and 20. ^ G. par. 15. 

G. par. 32. G. par. 14. 

^Declined like C^l {fiai)^ G. par. 9. 


Short Stories. 

1 (4) for chkOf siXy or chhaihtf sixth, nakl, story. 

Wazir, vizifi minister, 


ttn, three, 
baten,^ words, 
kahta, saying, 
kun,^ am, 
A,^ thou, 

Anoii, all three, the 

jawabf answer, 

de, give: 

rofif bread, 

jatt, bamt, 

kyun^ why ? how ? 

ghora, horse, 

afa/ stopped, become 

restiff, stood still. 
pan, betel leaf. 

ffafS,^ rotten, musty. 
Phera,'' tamed, 
na'tkif (it) was not 
JBahut, much, very, 
khushf pleased, de- 
tnartciba, rank, degree, 
ziyada^ more, greater, 
kiya^^ made. 


c / 

• -^ 

k^ }^3^ ^y. «:^^ ^y *^r* j^ '^jf' ^** ^'^ i^ ^ 

o / 

^ J*» 

In Nagari characters. 
tPC 'T'Fl^i? Wr % ^SRITW ^^ ^<fl ^4Vt ^^71 ^Vt ^raf 

G. par. 15. 
G. par. 32. 
^ G. par. 20. 

G. par. 9. 


G. par. 10. 

G. par. 21. 
^ G. par. 26 and 18. 
G. par. 35. 
The adverb of negation, G. par. 35, and the subst. verb, past tente^ 
third pers. sing.^ G. par. 32. G. par. 23, and 20^ c. 

Short Stories. 


^ C^) for »a^y seven, or satwln, seventh, nait/, story. 

jDtn, day, 

aura^, woman, 

saltanat, empire, sove- 

noshtrwan, n. prop.^ 

maut, death (s. f.), 


jahan, world, 

hajat, necessity (s. f.). 

tujhe^^ to thee. 

sab, all. 

KyMkar,^ why ? how ? 

pahunchii,^ arrives. 

c£«2r, thing. 

Na?m%,^ (if) exists 


par, on, over. 


tere,^^ of thee, thy, 

mu^addam, prior, ex- 

^5,'^ then. 

samhne,^^ (in) front, 


kahan,^ where? 


Aai,* is ? 

paida, produced, born, 

khara, standing. 

I>iy^^ given, (he) 

hota,^ becomest; 

rahta,^ remain. 



J» A 

rb ^^ s^ w Uv-y- «:^^*^-Wy (^ ^ J j^^ -fi^ ^J 

erf ^" ^y! ^^^ji^4 uM J^ky^^ji ^Ji y ^.•i !;-^ 

A celebrated king of Persia. 
^ 6. par. 23, and 20^ c. 

G. par. 32. 
par. 23, and 20^ c. * G. par. 35. 

The simple adverb of negation : G. par. 35. 
^ G. par. 24, and 21. 

G. par. 24, and 21. 
The consequential conjunction : 6. par. 36 and 79. 
G. par. 35. ^ G. par. 24 and 21. ^® G. par. 15. 

" G. par. 15 and 16. ^*G. par. 34. 


488 Short Stories. 

j/ fJ ,»\^ tl<i^ ^^ ^^ f\^ yi ^ Qi \^ .^ J ^, »)\jjJ l^j«i 

C/ I o/ • • / 

U, bj ^^\^ )«{ 1^, \^\ Ai^Tl V us-^^jl v^?^W< J>/ 

In Nagari characters. 

!T TTff ^nrr ^ ^ ^ir^ 



^ ^ 'irnT ^^ f%^ IT* ^uj{ Tj^ 'srVfT^ ^^ 5^r^ 

^Vt 5^ ^ ^l(*5|<' ^ ^^ ^^ VfT ^RT^ JTtl T^ • 

'^ (^) for athy eight, or aMtrm, eighth, nal^l, story. 

Kayath, name of a 

ghuUmf slave. 

donoH, the two, both, ' the^ were. 
g£ar, house, LaHf the master, 

«d^^, sleeping, 

- r 5 


^ G. par. 10. * G. par. 21. 

G. par. 32 ; and «o/e <Ai may be regarded as the present pant or 

imperfect tense^ G. par. 24, a. 
CJninflected, though acted upon by ne : see G. par. 5, and 4, a. 
Lit. slave of Ramdy a term used in calling to a slave. 

S;&ar< jSlorie^. 


dekh^ see» look, 

janta^ knowing. 

tatola,^ handled, felt^ 

iot then, indeed, 

Aat,^^art? . 

tha,^^ waa ; 

'pamf water^ 
hara$taf raitung. 

2^ thou,. , 
j7ara, fallen, lymg 

hktgl, wet. . 
Chiraghy kunp. 

hai^ is, 


bujha^^ extinguish, 

ya/ or. 

^ta hai, art sleeping. 

de^ give. 

khul^ havii^ opened, 

jBi//i, the cat, 

Mwnhf face, mouth. 

gftya^ (it) is gone. 


ai, come. 

dhamjhke^^ havbg co- 

?7*%ie,® he. 

tht,^^ was. 



««-io, it, to it, 

^, sleep. 

tdrah, manner (in),^ 

mcuH^'fie,^ I, 

raho^^ remain ; 

^ 6. par. 96, and 18. 

A mas. noun, though terminating 

in f ; 6. par. 2, a. 

^ G. par. «1. 

6. par. 32. 

G< par. 36. 

Root of the verb, compounded with go^a, past tense of ja : 

G. par. 2d ; also, par. U, and 90, e. 


G. par. 15. 
G. par« 57. 

G» par* 33, note, and par. 72* 
Janta^haij pres. def. tense of ^aii, know, third pers. mas. sing. : 
see G. par. 24, 6. G. par. 20. 

Pres. def. tense (root to), third pers. mas. sing. } see G. par. 24, b. 

Past part. fern. sing, (root a) agreeing with billi* 
A*i lAi, pluperfect tense^ third pers* fem. sing. ; see G. par. 23, a. 
^ 6« par. 20. ^^ G. par. 32 ; tatola iha^ pluperfect 

tense (root iatol\ third pers. mas. sing. : see G. par. 23, a. 

A transitive or causal verb, from bi{fh ; see G . par. 27. 

18 — 

G. par. 20 : btifha dey however^ may be considered a compound 

intensive verb ; see G. par. 28. 
<5. par. 22. ^ G. par. 18. 

G. par. 26 : but $o raho maj be aeebonted a compound intensive 

verb ; see G. par. 28. 
3 R 




Short Stories. 

andhera, dark, 

/to-ja*ega,^ (it) will 

Phir, again, 

flarwazay door, 

band, fastened^ shut, 

kar,^ make, having 

Bhaiya, brother, com- 

jt:^ Hfe, master, Sir, 

do, two, 

kam, thing, business, 

ham*.ni, we, 

kiye, done, have 

turn, you, 
karo,^ do. 
fAara^, in short. 

aisa^ this-like, so, 
hujjaii,^ disputations, 
8U8t, lazy, 
alddr, at last, 
utha, rose, got up, 
para para, continuing, 

laid down, 
de<«," giving, 
raha^ (he) remained. 




y "^ 

ja ^ 

Fut. tense, third pers. mas. sing, of the comp. intensive root^ ho'Ja; 

see G. par. 28, and 25. 
The root, G. par. 18, or the past conjunct, participle, G. par. 22. 
Much used after appellatives, in a benedictive or auspicious sente; 
unless it be from Turkish, or some other language, in the sense of 
G. par. 15 ; the plur. of mahi, often applied, as in thb instance, to 

a single person. 
5 ^ -*- ' --- ^ G. par. 26. "^ G. par. 14. 


G. par. 23, and 20, c. 

Formed from ^tiifat^ by affixing i ; see G. pan 48. 

G. par. 23, and 20. 


G. par. 21 

Short Stories. 


s-1: fSj [^ ^gp «4\i/\ ^<i^\yi^^ Ji^fr ^ Vjf, \J^^ 

»4li/» i^ l^ yi) C:^U Iv^ »^V U »i^ Ulib ^.^- \<Lf ^„ 

^ m 

^^ Ui L^ ^ ^ j\j^ ^\ jsJi \J J^U y ^J ^. 

In Nagari characters, 

* vj^ wnnc ?piT WT ^gr^ ^nrr nm^ ^ft^ ^ ^^«i^ 
"iiic ^ 'Hflf^ ^inrr tr^ w ?r ^r^ 'ir^T ^rt ^wrrni 

^ f^ flnrr fir wl" ^Wt 5^ jv^ ^ ^ ^nnc v|jii<; 
n^ ^ir^ ^ v^ ^^ ^rff %3T w^^ itw *<;«it ^ 
^WTifn' ^inrr ^rf^ ^^^ fimr fir ^jiin: Mjij,^: ^ ^ wt 

^ (^) f(>f '^^^ ^^^f or nautrin, ninth, nait:/, story. 

Musulmany a Mahom- 

Kmar^ sick, ill. 

ya/aite,8uch a, acertain, 
halamf physician, 
pas, to the side, near. 

ghulam. slave, servant, jakar^ having gone, 

dawa, medicine, 
H^ bring. 

Shayad, may be, per- 

^ G. par. M. 

A fein. nouii) ending in a ; G. par. 2) note. 

^ G. par. 18) and 26. 


Short Stories^ 

ji^ life : masteri Sir, 
i^'Walct^ this time (at), 
ghar meUf haosit in, 
na^-JmoeA^ may not be. 

leya^ tafcei 
albatta, certainly, 
£i2iigS,^(tfaey) will give. 
PhiVf again, 

Hongtf (they) will be. \jd, which, when, 

j^ go. 
Tab, then, 
agar, if, 

mulaiat, meeting, 
bii,^ even, also, 
Kowc^ should be, 
CMn, but, yet, 
na-den (they) should 

not gire. 
Tad, then, 
ruKa, note, letter, 
hamara^ of us, 

unASn ^ nS, they, 

rfJ," gave, 
fSida, benefit, 
na-karc,^ (it) should 

not make* 
^i," O ! 

kam-bakhtf wretch, 
yahifi, here, 
iatf Aa, seated, 
tamhiden, preambles, 

bandha, bound. 

karega,^^ wilt (thou) 

ya, or, 
jyega^ wilt (thou} go ? 
Safiib, master. Sir, 
farz, obligation, 
Hya^^ made, done, 
^o^Z, the gain, result, 
alddr, at last, 
eft-iim, (on) one day, 
mama, to die^ dying, 
bar boJchf oi^ ^I^t, on 

(one's) lot, 
jaita^^ what*like, as, 
ab^^ now, 

mart^ (one) should die. 
faisa, thatrUke, so. 

Much used after appellatires, as noticed tinder the eighdi story. 
G« par. 16. Governed by aorae postpos. understood: 

see G. par. 57. 6. par. 25. The adv. even^ also. 

CoDJ unction ; see G. par. 36. 
The plural in the first person substituted for the singular: G« par. 15» & 65. 

A compound intensive verb ; G. par. 28* 
^ G. par. 15) 16, and 65. ^^ G. par. 23, and 20, c. a. 

^^ G. par. 7. " G. par. 48. 


A transitive or causal verb, formed from bandhy be bound ; G. par.279 a. 
Forming, with the preceding past participle, a compound fre* 

quentative verb ; G. par. 28. 
G. par. 20, c. And farz kiya should be regarded as a compound 
nominal verb, G. par. 28, in the sense of ^^ granted," or ^ admitted.'' 


G. par. 14. 


G. par. 35* 

Short Stories, 


J*J \* 

c / 

o# c 


c • -^ - o / / o 

j^ cr^ cr^* ^ ® v/^ -vi v/r* ^ ^V t^fr* ^5'y -^ V" J^ ^^ 

Jn Nagari characters. 

w^ ' ^J^ fir ^ '^ ^ ^ flT^ 3^ '^ 3^ '^ w^|W 
iftwT fir ^BT ^^ v^ fir m ^Tfflw »Tf ^ ^ ?a; 'I 
^^ ^T7f 'T 5^ fim flr^ w^ ^ n T^ fipit if HT fir 

^ ^ TT^ % ^^ finft ^t^ iNT?!T ^ I 

\ * (\^) for dof , ten, or daswin, tenth, naA:/, story. 

Larke, boy, 
nast/iat, instruction^ 
ftt/ made, 
J^oTc/, after, 

fiS'Ke^ that, 

Jo J9, what what, 

sab, all, 

samjha,^ understood ? 
BdH^ (he) spoke, 

Ab-^tak,^ tiU now. 

Past partiqiplej or past indef. tense (root kar\ km* sing, 
by the noon. sing. fern, preceding : G. par. 30, a. c, and par 
the note. G. par. 34. 

the note. 

G. par. 15, note to page 27. 
G. par. 35. 


par. 30, a. c, and par. 28, with 

G. par. 34. 



par. 30, and 33 
^ G. par. 34. 

• / 

: fiiii^f 



kahan, where? 
jo,^ when, 

sum,^ heard, heard- 

Short Stories. 

Kahne laga, began to 

fikr^ thought,' 
me kh^ peg, nail. 

girie^ driving down, 
mild* earth. 
kaun, who? 
Ujata^ taking away. 

Ji} W 

^ t# 

y ^)* ^ y, wj/y ^5"; v^ ^' v^" j^ ni ^^ sc*' H(55; *:^J 


o c c/ 


v/-ijs^' -f's^«^',i>^/u!js^'>» i/i^ ^j^^ jipy'^j^ ^,ij *^^ 

r f* <^l^ 

i^ jiTt* •A^ cr/ JJ^ vist^iyij^ <J^J^ 

o / o 

^^Ui ]^y »^> cyS^ ^*^sj}i -^y^ ^/J^ sj« "yJy 

/n Nagari characters. 

1 rf->« 

G* par. 35. 
Past indef. tense (root tun), fern. sing, governed by bat^ s. f. pre> 
ceding : see G. par. 93, note, and par. 72. 
A compound inceptive verb : see G. par. 98. 


Pres. participle, mas. plur. governed by some such noon as togj 
people, understood. 


Gt par. 15. 
A compound intensive verb, formed by the addition of jata^ going, 

to the root te, take ; see G. par. 98. 

Short Stariei. 


TT ^Iff t TT^ TT^ ¥HT ¥HT ^tw ^fTT TC* Traf ^^ 

gii ^ ii^t 'nr ^nil ^ wr gi^^ ^^Vr ^^ •h*^ 
Tnt ^f^ wni in^ ^ ^tt fn^ i 

n (\^) for igarah, eleven^ or igarawtUf eleventh, na^l, story. 

Bare, great, 
&{iiii, man, 
kKf custom, habit, 
jab, when, 
naukaron, servants, 
par, on, at, over, 
JAafa, angry, offended, 
hota, becomes, 
unheA, them', 
Mt^> good, well, 
marta, strikes, beats. 
PMr, again, then, 

ha^d, after, 

do char^ two (or) four, 

ghttfi^ (a division of 

time so called), 
har, every, each, 
panchpanch, five, five, 
sat sat,^ seven, seven,* 
rupiye, rupees, 
deta, (he) gives. 
Moz, day, 
ttnA, those, 
torn, ye, you. 

jo, who, which, 
haniesha, always, 
khate, eating,suffering, 
tumhM, to you, 
aur, other, else, 
kahln, somewhere, 
naukart, service, 
norhtiH, not, 
miltt, is met with, is 

hoi, having spoken, 
utha, rose. 

In such indefinite expressions of number, it is usual to say, ^ two 
(or) four/' where the English would say two or three." 

A space of twenty four minutes. 
In a distributive sense ; see G. par. 41 : so^ panch panchy each, 

6v6, &c." 
^The pronoun aspirated; see G. par. 16. 


Siart Stories. 

dudhilf milchy 
ga% cow, 
lat^ kick, kicks, 
hhaRf good. 

yc^ne^ that metns, that 

dudh-^ali, milk-hav- 

bura, bad, 

na*man^, should not 

' ' ' ^ ." /C w 

// /t /iM. 

/■ • 


iH / 1^/ »/;:f' v/ ^^ *^^ **^1^ erf* «*^ yr v^ ^ t4J!ji ^r' 

W* iijS 

\ " 

^ ^y^ ^\ ^ uaJy 's^ Vi^ *^'*V. «>Jy V i^ »j^ c^ \j^ 

/n iVagart characters, 

W If 

A feminine noun, which^ though uaed here in a plural seiiBe, does 
not take the plural form^ becauae it is preceded by a numeral : G. par. Gl. 

A ^erby indef. Ait. or aorist, third pars, sing* (root man)^ with the 
simple adv. of negation prefixed ; and, the nom. case understood^ wbicb 
may be such word as kd^tj any one. 

Short Stories. 


lr (\^) for barah, twelve, or barahtn, twelfth, nakl, story. 

Amir Timiirf n. prop. 

hind, India, 

ayOf came, 

iogofi, people, 

j^n, thus, 

jo, which, that, when, 

rag, music, 

khiibf good, fine, 

Kta hai, 18 becoming, 


^t, some, 
gawaiye-'ko, singer, 
buWo, call^ send for, 
main8unun,\mdi^ hear. 

Ajidhi (f.), blind, |7iaiii, name. 
gayan, female singer, Daulat, fortune. 
ban lassan, very good . Bht, even, also, 
voiced, Jawab diya, (she) gave 

badshah, king, empe- 
jdddmat, service, 
an, having come, 
kazir, present, ready, 
^i^a,^ this-like, so, 
gSn, she sang. 

tujh, thee, 
langre, lame, 
razi, satisfied, pleased, 
in* am, present, favour, ^v4iA. fii<i 
chahta, wishing, 'm^O'^i^'^'^ 


J* ** 


sunkar, having heard, uj-sS, from that, 

i 3 

bahut kkfishf much chand, what quantity, 
pleased, as much. 

The past conjunctive participle (root a), instead of the regular forinj 

a: O. par. 23. 
From the demonstrative pron. yihj this, with the adjunct, la, like : 

G. par. 14, a. 

G. par. 41* 


498 Short Storiei. 


c c 


o/ <»/ . *<^ 

O/ I -^ oc 

i/ J** i/^ s&ir* ^ j^yUs U^U jB. L^ U ^ jj tt>s->l'» 

» O >'^ oc 

/ .« / ^ o 

/n Nagari eharaetert. 

^^t^ ^ ^wt5^ ^r^ ^ir?T f^ ^f^^ if^ ^ t^ iir^f W 

^ TT* ?T^ ^ Tit ^'T^ 5^ ^3^ giipf TRf ^ "^SVt 

*1mi« ^ ^r^t ^ ^ fW % ^ t^ IT?: qnrr f% n 
^rw TVT ^ 'WT ^ ?wr ?Tt ihcT ft^ ipsr ^^ T^rft ^ 

Short Stories. 


\f (\^) for iSrah, thirteen, pr ieramn, thirteenth, naX:l, story. 

Sarraf, money- lag, being applied, Unhon^'fie, they, 

changer, near, mushkhi landh^^ hav- 

ashrafiyJm, ashrafees, chalij moved, went« ing tied his arms be- 

torif a bag, 
Uye^ having taken, 
jata tha, was going. 
Use, him, it, that, 
dekh-kaVf having seen, 
rahmar, footpad, 
Ji, life, soul, 
lalcKaya^ was tanta- 
lized : 
plchhe, in the rear, 

Tkofi, little, 
dur, distance, 
jake^ having gone, 
chaha, wished, at- 
tempted, . 
&,^ he might take, 
ma^bain,^ interval, 
ka% some, 
kal ek, some few, 


arga% came suddenly. 

fffi,^^ took, 
kotwalf magistrate, 
yahan^^ to the abode, 
S, having taken (him), 
chaU, moved, went. 
Idhar^^ here, thither, 
gaya tha, wast gone, 
fialf state, condition, 
itnt, this-much, so 


^ Plural of athraft^ a large gold coin so called. 

' G. par. 2^, note. 

Accus. or dat sing, from wuh : G. par. 15. 

^ Past indef. teniie of the neuter verb, root lalchSj apparently derived 

from lalachy avarice : G* par. 30. 
Root of a verb, forming, with the next following, a compound 
intensive ; G. par* 28 : or, it may be regarded at an adv.; G. par. 35 
and 34. G. par. 25, a. 

^ A compound of two Arabic words, meaning '^ that which (is) between '' 

A compound intensive verb : G. par. 28. 
^ G. par. 15 and 16. 
Mushken bandhnSy to fasten the elbows of a man behind him^ to pinion. 
Fast indef. fern. plur. (root /e), governed by tnushkeny s. f. nom. plur. 


G. par. 34« 


G. par. 35. 


Fern, of Una; G. par. 50; and agreeing with der^ s. f. 


Short Stories. 

der, delay, space 


baithi, seated, sat, 

sir, bead, 


shahd'pary honey-on,^ 

dhune^ (it) may beat. 

kiya, done, hast done? 

pankh, (its) wings, 


handha gaya,^ bound 

ga% went, continued, 

VSdajchy avance. 


lipta% clinging : 

burif bad. 

Wah't^ that very. 

hath (its) hands. 

balffc (for halcL), evil. 

Makkhl, a fly, 

male, (it)mayrub,rubs, 


f f i* t '.' > 

4 tiT* J f^ jH ^^-^ -^r 4 us- v/ ^'j^ 4'y /^^^4 

.jj\ ^ bJ U\y^ v/-' jv/ ^ e2>:^ u^i y *^^ V ^^ V 

• "v 

^ c 

lUin^ *:ir* ttTf- ^y '■i^ y* y *^ kj» -ti 

In Nagari characters. 

f^ ^^ ?ift m" ^ TRT?:^ ^i^f *i*^l ^[f^ tV^ Hlf< 

G. par. 20, c. and 23. Passive voice, been bound; G. par. 31. 


Or svuA-f, the demonstrative pron. with the adv. of peculiarity, t, affixed. 

Past part. plur. mas. of the neuter verb, Upta^ cling, stick. 

Fot. indef. or aorist, third pers. sing. 

The e seems here added, for the sake merely of rhyming with Upiffe. 

Short Stories* 


^iw a; ^rrr ^^^ % ^^ ^^rw ^^t fr ^t^^^ t%^ 

tP (\ii) for ckawtahf fourteen, or chaudawin, foarteenth, mj^l, storj. 
iSAa'tr, poet, 

kisif some, 

tawangaTf rich (man), 

to*r7/*, praise, 

Ai, made; 

kuchh, any (thing), 

norpaya, fomid (or got) 

Hajo, satire; 

tau, then, 
&At, also, even. 
DiUre, the second, 

roar, day (on), 
danoaze, door, 
jaA6, having gone, 
baitha, sat: 
at, O! 

na^diya, gave not, . 
ab, now, 
yahan, here* 
^raru (f.), desire, wish, 
mar, having died, 
jawe, mayest go, 
marf^ya, elogy, 
kahunf may say (or) 

Ji; U 

// ^' /•/ 

^" s^> r^'^ ^-T^\^f j^ H^^>^ f ^^'^v jj^ ^j ;',v;,'/;! 


y, y^^ J s£;*-* t^J / s^'»y ^ri^ ^ri' ^j^ "^^ jj' '^•^V 

Ja Nagari charaetert. 


^ Mar^jawcj a com|)ound iDtensive verb ; see G. par. 28. 
Fut. indef. or aorist, first pers. sing. : G. par. 25. 


Short Stories. 

*V Tpir *i^4q<; i^ flnp^ ^T VT ^^ 1^ ^3^ 41^1111 
wnif 5^ ^ *iH^^ ^ ^pnrw t^vt ^ w^vt ^nrni irwr 


\C (VK) (or pandrah, fifteen, or pandrakwin, fifteenth, na^l, story. 

Jtfa*/ with, along 

shahzadi, prince, 
shikavj hunting. 
Hawa, (s. f.) air, 
garm, warm, hot, 
dano, l)oth, the two, 
opnS apnS, eaich his. 

lubade, outer coat, 
maskharif buffoon, 
kandhe, shoulder, 
dhoTf having placed, 
diye, gave. 
Sc^d uske, after that, 
hanskar, having 


upar, over, upon, 

gadke, ass, 

bdjA, load. 

Jahan-panah, world- 
protection ! 

balki, but, moreover. 

^ An Arabic preposition, causing the following noun to be inflected. 

' G. par. 10. 
By the repetition here individuality is denoted : G. par. 83. 
^ Used respectfully instead of AraAa, as applied to a king. 
Addressed to a sovereign, like as your Majesty " is often applied in 


Short Storiet. 


^^ J^} y ^r^ y i/ ^ V ^J '^'k J^)/^ <f ! k^ m!>*->^ »^ 

In Nagari characters. 
Iff ^^ t^f^ ^^tW ^ ^[^ <^^l ^ TT* fV^ ^f^ 

f%^ vwvR w^Nr '^ ^^*< wm f^m fir vtt jg^ ^ 

n (\') for joIoAi sixteen, or wlahwtn, sixteenth, nalkl, story. 

sathf (in) company, | sunhoTj having heard. 

Shakhs^ person, 
bakhtlf miser, 
dosti, friendsliip, 
Ab, now, 
safar, journey, 
apnt, thy own, thy, 
angutht, ring, 
mujhi, to me, me. 


roAASn, may hold, 

yo^f, memory, 

yad karuii, may re- 

JTalSm, speech. 

raXpAa chuhta^ wish- 
ing to keep, 
ttugn, finger, 
IMUj empty, bare^ 
dSstf friend, 
mSngi, asked, 
nordi, gaye not. 


^ A compound deiiderative verb, rakha ckShnSy to wish kept, or to 

wish to keep : 6* par. 38. 
G. 30, a. c, and par. 33. 


Short Siaries. 

JSj \v 


% ^ 

c ^^ «* oc 

c«>» 'i'l u^^, J^ ^ *^ J ^^^ *^>< s^y '*i-^ s^ ifj? ^^ 

/n Nagari Characters. 

It* i^^flw if^JT ^ T^ 'T^ imw ^ wnn v 
^•n ^twT ^ ^^^*i«< wi€t ^P5^J ir?r iiT fir ^ ^ 

1 V (^'^y for satrah, seventeen, or satrahtoin, seventeen, nakl, story. 

Masjid^ mosque, 
taraf^ side, towards, 
wosVb,^ for the sake. 

itama^r, prayer. 
Asenori,^ in the midst of, 
rahj road, way, 

yod, memory (in), 
yad ayiy came in me- 

1 #-i 
G. par. 34. 


G* par. 8. 
A compound nomitral verb: G. par. 28* 

Short Stcriei, 


tkir^g^ lamp, 
htjhiakar^ bavkig put 
. out; 

wahak^ there, 
phirit (he) tDrned 

darwaztj door, 
ij having come, 
landi, Blave girl. 

pukarkar^ having 

cried out, 
gulkar, extinguish, 
mat, not, do not, 
khol, open, 
kif^ because, 
ghisegaty (it) will wear. 

UmJ this much, so 

juta, shoes. 
Alfbnand^ wise, 

andtsha, thought, care, 
nangCf naked, bare, 

■ . • ♦ 

At fokib, O master, ^pa*5n, feel? (on). 



haghal. armpit, 
Jdya, brought, carried. 

^ G. par. 92. 

G. par. 35. 


A conipouiid nominal verb : 6. par. 28. 
Adverb of prohibition : 6* par. 35^ and 77. 


G. par. 36* 
G. par. 48. 

^ G. par. U* 
G. par. 5, a. note. 

^ 6. par. 50. 

G. par. 57. 



Short Storiet. 

^T ^ ^5^ ^ ^ T^ ^mft ^IVt wx<ft % ^ ^T^ ^3T 
w^Jdi % f^ f^ ^ww ftrft ^ T^ 'jft ^rNr ^pnft %^ 

^^ ^jrn?t % ^T ^Vt TTn: wr ^^ ^ ^i^ w^ ^bt^ 

or: ^1^ atharah, eighteen, or atharatdiii, eighteenth, nakl, story. 

Manush, man. 
surblt, hero. 
kayar, coward. 
hyjawaTiy modest 
nikfjja, shameless. 
£Aor, dawn of day. 
randz, woman. 
sanhlnf before. 
upasthit, present. 
samhnS, before. 
abe, holla ! 
jana, person. 
bulwajfe^ ordered to be 

qjna, (f.) command. 

bakhan, explanation. 

kal, time. 

susral, father-in-law's 

mare, stricken, by 

Iqj, modesty. 
bhanti, manner. 
gala, throat. 
biriyan, time. 
byah, wedding. 
galiyan, indecent songs 

sung at weddings. 
swamt, lord, husband, 
sasiar^ father-in-law. 

kutunif tribe, family. 
kan, shame. 
akeli, (f.) alone. 
kothe, apartment 
satnai, time. 
andhert, darkness. 
hathiyar, arms. 
jar, paramour. 
nidharak, fearless. 
ghabar, dust (?). 
bhut, ghost. 
pret, goblin. . 
prasann, pleased, 
paritoshik, a compli- 
mentary present 

Short Stories. 507 

^^ ^ 

^flTT ^[5^ ^f^ '^ % f%^ "wnpr TT^j^j' ^P'I^'^SVt 

^ ^ ^ f^ T^ ^ '^^ T^ ^ ^ w^ f^r^ ^i(^€i 
^ii ^m ^m if Tnr ^^ ^3^ ^ iire w <i^ij<i*i ^nc wt^n 
fir ^ ^ "'iT'^Pi ^^Ki ^ <iq!iyi wt *iPi^i ^_^i^^ 
?ftf 'lyr ^ ^rr^ ^9t^ ^ <?V fiwr 'rtf >raT t' ^fit; ^ 
WT 4141^$ ^^ ^ "fT^ ^TWT T'^ ^ ^p^ ?rnr ir^ ^t^ 

^ gni*(i*< fiF*TW f^m fincfirerf fli^ ^prr fir ii'tV 

*^ ^ TJil ^^ T' * ^Pft ^ ^^5^ ^ <fl' ^WT V^ ^TSIT 

^ ggr» ?gt^ jyn t^ wtti *V ^ ^ ^ ^pp t ^V% crt ^fV 
yft ^ ^H 5^ T'C ''ITS *V f'rtrTwr ^hc ^rsn ^ini v^prr 

WT ^B^ % fir ^pc ^ ^ IT* ^w'rinrer t% ^^ 5^ ^sft 
^r^ W(T TTcT % ^ ^5[i^3Pfe *iiV ^^ 5^ ^"i ^ ^rrhr ^rf 
^•n«ii <R ^^ ^ fii^^ iO ^\¥^^ wr csii ^ ^i^ ^nfRTi 
'Hff 5^ ^ T^ ^iT^ V** Ti" fi» ^ ;'|^ ^V^ ^ 


Short Stories. 

\^ for urns, nineteen^ or umswrny nmeteentb, naljfl, stoiy* 

Jam, persoD. 
ganw, yillage, town. 
baniya, trader* 
ganne, sugar-canes. 
nkhar, having plucked 

phandiyan, bundles^ 
cAume, to suck. 
khet'WaS, field-owner. 
thonke, having beaten. 
jugatj contrivance. 
than, having settled. 
rantram, words used 

as a salutation. 
ji, Sir ! master ! 
guru, spiritual guide. 

moA^/on, banker, trust- 
worthy person. 

gande, sugar-canes. 

nyaWfjuBiice, decision. 

chhtn Uye, took away. 

jutiyakar, having beat 
with a slipper. 

dravyay property,thing. 

ftfi/AASyhaving thought, 

ujara, has wasted. 

byy, interest. 

dhauliyake, having 

bhantJ, manner, mode. 

bachaya, saved, pre- 

aehry, wonder. 

andJier, darkness, in- 
comprehensible thing. 

prabal, predominant. 

brittanty circum-. 


jug phuta our nard 
mart ga*t, the pair 
(at the game of 
chausar^ is sepa- 
rated and the piece 
is stricken (taken. 
A proverb, inculcat- 
ing the value of 

1« ^ 
wftTIT ^^ X^. ^SIT ^ % ^Wt «STf^ ^ TOT ^Tf^ fP^ 

vj - - - 

^ fT^ ^ ^ «m ^l|^ ?I^ ^imi % *Tf^ «ITf^ ^ I 

Short Stories. 


^^ for bis, twentyi or btswin, twentieth, nal^l, story. 

Kayath, name of a 

gane, singing (v. noan). 

bcgavSf playing on 

sansarg, meetmg, as- 

gawaiye, singer. 

kabita, poetry, verse. 

shai, thing. 

luimil, learned (man). 
tab'hJ, that very time. 
siddh^ accomplished 

dhundh dhandhf^eaxch. 

• • • • ' 

^salA, a devotee so 

iscn, to this. (The 

nasal added, like as 

dandawat, obeisance. 
vastu or bastUj thing. 
day a, kindness, favour. 
baba, Sir! 

dev, a god, a divinity. 
jhalak, refulgence. 
dhup, glare, shine. 
tpadirf mighty. 
nadir, wonderful. 
rup, fond, figure. 

in tumheA)^ 
ishk ttf*-t ki jhalak haijon suraj IS dhup: 
jahantshk tahan ap hcu iadir nadir rup. 
Love is the refulgence of that very (Being), like as sunshine (is) 
of the sun: wherever (is) love, there is He Himself; the almighty, 
all-wonderful Form ! 

Love ? Tis a ray, from Him it streams. 
Like as the sun darts forth its beams : 
Love ? Where is love, there Him you see. ; 
Almighty and altwondrous He. 

* This usy like the Arabic hu'a (he\ refers to Godp as He wbo really 

and nniversally is. * • 




Of the house* 

To the boy. 

From the horse. 

From the cat. 

By deceit. 



At the door. 

On the mouth. 

On the road. 

In the heart. 

In the hand. 

In the road. 

Up to the house. 

With sand. « 

With (in company with) 

Cases of Nouris.* 

^^^^/tilouse+^J (Aa, ke or Ai), 
^^i Boy-to (/» or ke tain). 
/^fi Horse^om (««).. 
^U4: CBirJrom {se). 
fm^tU- Deceit-fty (««)• 
'^^ O (at) friend ! 
^^-»' O {at) boy ! 
Door-a^ ipar). 
^ Mouth-on (j^ar). 
Road-on (mev). 
^^* Heart-in (men). 
ksiHi Hand-i» (men)* 
**^i^ Road-tn (men)* 
oA^a/LB,o\iBerup'to (tak or talak)*. 
^04- Sand-trttA (st). 
the dog. Dog-tm'M (AS satK). 



* See Ist Part^ Gram. par. 4^ 5) 6, 7^ 8, 9* 
f The Substautives^ Adjectives, and Verbs, will generally be found 

under the particular heads in the Vocabulary. 
\ The Hindvlstani words are to be placed according to tha order of 

the English) observed on this column. 

SintUiutant Composition.^ 



/*^*f*^ Door-near {ke pas). 
^^in*4^ VillageHR^or (Ac fuizdik). 
-^my^ Boye-ahng tnth (jce sath). 
^ People among (men) from. 

-*^ Head- orcr (45 upar). 
"^^^^^^^^iGround'-beneath (Jce niche). 
^ivaJi^ City-o/' midst-in (ke IncJi). 
^^ Sky towards (Jfi taraf). 
^6*^^'^ God for the sake of (Jce wasfs). 
This (isyfor the reason (waste). 
Destitute for the sake of (kt 
For the sake of a friend. -^^ Friend for the sake of (ke Ce). 

Like (in the maimer of) every man. Every (har ek) mwa4ike or -in 

Near the door. 

Near the viUage. 

Along with the boys. 

From among the people. 

Over Jthe head. 

Beneath the ground. 

In the midst of the city. 

Towards the sky. 

For God's sake. 

For this reason. 

For the sake of the destitute. 




Before the horse. 

Behind the house. 

In the presence of the ju<]^e. 

In front of the house. 

Within the city. 

According to that. 

With respect to him. 

the manner of (kJ tarah), 
^XM^OTseiefore (ke age). 
oA^uHouse-behind (ki ptchhe). 
A^ Judge-in presence of (ke samhne). 
«^<J9ouse in front of(ke age). 
.^jtA^City'^ithin (ke andar or ke bich). 
That (us) 'according to (ke 

Him (us) -with respect to (kl 

Boy-of &ther-of horse. 
Girl*of mother-of maid. 
Merchant-of brotherH)f daughter. 
Horse-of back-on (;Mzr). 
Friend-of house-of door-near (A5 

The boy's father's horse. 

The girl's mother's maid. 

The merchant's brother's daughter. 

On the back of the horse- 

Near the fiiend's house door. 


Under the wall of the house. j[^HouseK)f wall-tenc&r (Kt tale). 
Betwixt the leaves of the book. Book-of leaves betwixt (kg dor- 




Hindistini Con^Hmiian. 

Among the houses of the village. 
^f For the sake of leeraing science. 

Towards the door of the mosque. 
Instead of the book. 
Instead of the bread. 
In exchange for gold. 
Thus far (hitherto). 


^f hgases-asumgCAi Kek), 

the sake of. 
Mi^ueof doop>towardfl. 
'Bo^'instead of {iSjagcLhy 
' BteaAAjutead of(ki tiMur). 
Gpld-in exchange of (l£ badC). 
Hitherto (jfohai^takX 





Elder brother. 
Younger (little) sister. 
A very rich man. 
Good men. 
So much space* 
All the chamber, 
A little book. 
Such a gentleman. 
Of all the people. 
In great calamity. 
With much happiness. 
By a bad busines84 
At midnight. 
A very virtuous lady. 
A very good boy, 
A very wise person. 
To such people. 
A few days ago. 
On last Tuesday. 
The least part 

with Adjectives.* 

Elder (bajra) brother. 
Younger (fittk, chhoti) sister. 
Very (fiofa) rich man. 
Good (jbhala) men. 
So much (itna) space. 
All (sab) chamber. 
Little (cAASfi) book. 
Such a (jaUna) gentleman. 
AH people (logon) -of. 
Great (baft) calamity-in. 
Much (bahut) happiness-with. 
Bad (bura) businesa-by. 
Mid (adhS) night-a< (ko). 
Very (bahut) virtuous (nek) lady. 
Very good (bahutjachchka) boy. 
Very wise (bofa dania) person. 
Such (aisSf plur. mas.) peopIe4a 
Few (t^re) days>'fix>m. 
Last (guire) Tuesday-<m (Ao). 
Least (sab-sc chhoti) part. 

* See l8t Part, Gram. par. 11, 1% 13, 14. 

Hindustatu Composition, 



A very low price. 
Very high rooms. 
In the highest rooms. 
The greatest power. 
Of eveiy moment. 
On the right foot of the maie. 
From low rooms. 
In muddy water. 
Several times. 
^ On the subject of the new book. 

Very large eyes. 
What sort of flowers ? 
T(^tber with a littleish dog. 

Hundreds of thousands of cities. 

jsr In the first chapter. 

The second woman. 

Twenty fourth year. 

In the twentieth year. 

Fairer than the girl. 
*^ The fairest boy. 

In very hot water. 

Along with blackish d<^s. 

To a poor man like me. 
^ Along with both the boys. 

Very (bahut) low (thSft) price. 
Very high rooms. 
Highest (sab sc uncKi) rooms-in. 
Greatest (sab se bara) power. 
Every (har-har^ moment-of. 
Mare of right (dahne) foot on. 
Low (nlcht) rooms-firom. 
Muddy (gande) water4n. 
Several (kal) times (bar). 
New (nal) book on the subject 

of (ki babai). 
Very large (Jbari barf) eyes. 
What sort of (kaise) flowers. 
Littleish (chhote-se) Aog-together 

with (ke sath). 
Hundreds of thousands (lakhm*) 

First (pahle) chapter-in. 
Second (dusrt) woman. 
TSoenty fourth (chaubiswaH) year. 
Twentieth (btsweri) year-in. 
Girl^am ($e) fair. 
Fairest (sab se gora) boy. 
Very hot (bahut garm) water-in. 
Slackish(kale'Se) dogs-with(^aif A). 
Medike (mujh^st) poor-to. 
Both (dom^) boys along with 

(ke satJt). 

Nouns and Pronouns,'\ 
I and my brother. I and (aur) my brother. 

* See Gram. par. 10. 

f See Ist Part^ Gram. par. 15, 16. 


Mindustani Campontion. 

My d(^*s name. 

My sister's house. 

I, thou and he together. 
-f We .all three. 

In our books. 

With us both. 

To thy father's servant. 

On your mare^s foot. 
^» They and their three dogs. 

That horse near my mare. 
This maid servant of your mother. 
This boy's mother. 
Near these fragrant flowers. 
'^ To these but not to those. 

He himself and they themselves. 

Those soldiers' turbans. 
Who Is that stranger ? 
Whose book is this ? 
«« Where is your honour's house ? 

Whose clothes are those ? 
What is the name of that village ? 

What is ihat for ? 

Whatdoyouy Sir^ command (say) ? 


What you wish that do. 

Whatever officer or soldier. 

My dog-of name. 

My sister-of house, 

I, thou and he together (ikaftK€)4 

We all three (^tiriofi). 

Our {hamari) bpoks-in. 

Us (Aam) both-ti;tM (jce satli). 

Thy father-of servant-to. 

Your mare-of foot-on. 

They and them-of (uni ke) three 

That horse my mare-^i^ar. 

This your mother-of maid servant. 

This (is) boy-of mother. 

These fragrant flowers-near. 

These-to but (par) those-to riot 

He himself (ap) and they them- 
selves (ap). 

Those (un) soldiers-of turbans. 

That stranger who (kaun) is (hoi). 

This whom-qf (kis4a) book is. 

Your honour (ap) -of house ithere 
(kahail) is. 

Those whom-of clothes care (Ziaut). 

That village of name what (^o) 

That what for (kahi ko) as. 

You Sir (ap) what commandimr 

What (jo) you wish (chaho) that 

(so) do (kard)m 
Whatever (jo kol) soldier <yr (yi) 


Hindustani Componti€n. 


Wlioever this may be. 

With whomsoever he met. 

<f On the back of some one. 

Whoever (Ja kSH) this may be 

Whamsaever^rith (jis kisise) met 

Some one (kisi) -of back-on. 

Pronouns, Nouns, Verbs, ^c* 

' Beat that dog. 

Open the door. 

Bring the palanquin. 

Give this book to him. 
J- 1 am here. 

We are standing* 

Thou art going. 

Ye are coming. 

He is my friend. 
/« She is my sister. 

They are my father's servants. 

Where are your horses I 

This is my book. 

That is in our books. 
/r Are those your horses ? 

What is the name of that village ? 

Who is that person ? 

Whose hat is this ? 

What has been that has been. 

^ Why do you do so ? 

That dog-to beat (maro). 

Door (jdarwaza) open (kholo)* 

Palanquin bring (jffo). 

This book him-to give (do). 

I here (yahan) am (fitai)* 

We standing are. 

Thou going (jata) art (^hai). . 

Ye coming (ate) are (ho). 

He my friend is. 

She (vmh) my sister is. 

They my father-of servants are. 

Your (tumhare) horses where are. 

This my book is. 

That our books-in is. 

Those your horses are ? 

That (us) village-of name what is. 

That person who (kaun) is. 

This whose (kis-ki) hat is. 

What (jo) been (hVa) that (so} 

You why (kahe-ko) so (aisa) doing^ 


* Besides the paragraphs before referred to, see 1st Party Gram, 
par. 17 to 33, as well as the Syntax, par. 59 to 83. 


Hindustant Contrition. 


Of what is ibis the key ? 
Whatever he says is true* 

He is abusing himself. 

The soldier went with his officer. 

He beat his brother. 

They (respectfully for he) are 

They were talking amongst them- 

Of what place are they people? 

I called him. 
J* But he came not.' 
I know nothing. 
But what I have said. 

He minds not my word. 
But abuses me. 

u If he go then he will see. 

I indeed was not present. 
What care mdeed has he ? 

At the time of beating him. 

This what-of (jcahi4S) key is? 
Whatever (jo kuchh) he says that 

(so) true is. 
He self 'to (apne tain) abuse (goS) 

giving is. 
Soldier his own {apne) officer- 

with went (gaya). 
He (us-n^) his (apne) brother-to 

I%ey (dp) sleeping (sSte) are* 

They themselves-^mongst (apas^ 

men) talking (bat karte) were. 
They whereof (kahan-ki) people 

l(maiA^e) him-to eaUed(hu1Sya). 
But (lekin) he not (nahln) came. 
I any thing (kuchh) knowing not 
But (magar) what I (mai»-ne) 

said have. 
He my word minds (manta) not 
But (balki) me^to (jnujhe) abuse 

(gaU) gives. 
If (agar) he go (jawe) then (to) 

he will see. 
I indeed (to) present not was. 
Him-to (uS'kd) indeed (to) what 

care is. 
Him-to beating (mamBf) -of the 


* See Grammar, par. 23, note, and par. 72. 
i Infinitive used as a gerund or verbal noun : see Gram. par. 10. 

JSRntSutmi Composition* 


An eatable thing. 
** Never do so- 


Having 8een this she went away. 

They are gone to him. 

That woman had been beaten. 

I have done eating. 

♦^ I had wished to teach him. 

They were in the habit of coming 

to me every day. 
I could not find how to get across. 

He wished to come with me. 

I have bought this horse. 

/• Ten men were killed with him. 

If you had remuned here, you 
would have seen him. 

Eating {kKavS^^ -of thing. 

So (aisa) ever not to do (Acarnot)* 

This having seen she tcent away 

(^chaR ga*lX)» 
They him-near gone (ga^) are* 
That woman beaten (mart) gone 

(ga*t) was. 
I having eaten (kha) have done 

I^main-ne) him-to taught(jnkh5ya) 

wished (chaha) had {thSS^. 
They every day (jkar roz) me- 

near come {aya) making were.§ 
I across (par) going (jane) not 

Jlnd (pa) could (saka). 
He me-with (mere sath) to come 

(ane) wished. 
I (maiii-ne) this horse-to have 

bought (mdl liya Aai§). 
Ten men (jawan) him-with killed 

If (agar) you here remain (rahte\\\ 

then (to) him-to see (dekht^). 

* Infinitive used as a gerund or verbal noun : see Gram. par. 19. 
-f The infinitive used in an imperative or prohibitive sense : see Gram. 

par. 73. 
X A compound verb : see Gram. par. 98, lOtb. 
§ A compound verb : see Gram. par. 38, 4tb, 8th, 9th, 1st. 
H.The indef. present used in the sense of the past conditional : see 

Gram. par. 34| note. 


Hindustani Composition. 


I saw that woman coming. 

In going along^ I saw. 

Immediately on hearing this. 
Immediately on hearing so much 

After it became evening. 

I used to converse with him. 

(If) I go, then what? 
Pray be seated. 
^o Be pleased. Sir, to say. 

What should we wish ? (What is 

You must get away hence. 

It is necessary to obey the orders 
of government. 

I cannot (shall not) go there. 
ir This is not a thing that can be. 

Your coming here is of no use. 

I that woman*to coming (jatej^ 

saw (jdekha). 
In going along (chalte hu^) I 


This hearing exactly («ttnfc*-Att). 
So much {jitni) speech hearing 

(sunte) exactly Aif). 
Evening become (AS*?)* after 

I himrwith (us-se) converse used 

(fiat karta tha). 
(If I) go (Ja'un) then {tof) what? 
Sit (you) (baithiyo^. 
You Sir (ap) say (kahiy^. 
What should we wish (chahiy^. 

We(pT they) should wish (chahiye) 

that (ki) you here-from having 

issued (nikal) may go. 
Government (sarkar) -of order 

performed (fia-ja 2aya||) it is 

requisite (chahiye^). 
I there not going-of (jane-ka/^). 
This being-of (A5nc-i5**) thing 

Your here coming (ana) any use 

(kuchh kam) -of not. 

* See Gram. par. 75. + See Gram. par. 35, page 61. 

X Gram. par. 70. § Eespectful imperative : see G. par. 26, a. 

II See Gram. par. 28, 8th. f See Gram. par. 26^ a. 

♦* See Gram. par. 73. 

Hindustani Composition. 


IThere is no use of your coming 

That gentleman has departed 

What do you, Sir, say (command)? 

7* I (the devoted servant) have (has) 
a representation (to make). 
Give to each one. 
Divide and place them by fours. 

The three (all three) came toge- 
ther to me. 
That person had taken up the 
?r Those people bought the books. 

Allow me to go with you. 

Their parents are dead. 

This house is unfurnished. 

He has the toothach. 
M This doth is very coarse. 
This will be the best. 

Is your knife sharp ? 

Your here coming (jumhare yahan 

ane) -from any benefit not. 
That gentleman ifo^ib) here-from 
going (rawana) become {Affe).*^ 
The presence (fiazrat) what com^ 

manding (^ formate) are ? 
Devoted servant (^fidwt) -of one 

r^esefitation (arz) is. 
One one+-to give. 
Four four-i>y (se) having divided 

(bantkar) place. 
The three (jUnon) having met to- 

gether (milkar) me-near came. 
That person-by (t^ shakh^-ne) 

book taken-up (uthal) was. 
Those people-by (un 25gon-iie) 

books bought (mol lin). 
Self-unth {aprie satK) us-to to go 

(jane) give-J 
Mother fatlier (ma bap) them-of 

having died (mar) gone§ are. 
This house-of furniture (fatra- 

zima) not. II 
His tooth-in pain is. 
This cloth very (bara) coarse is. 
This all-from better (bihtar) will 

Your knife sharp is. 

* See Gram. par. 65. 
i Gram. par. %, 6lh. 

+ See Gram. par. 41. 
§ Gram. par. 28} 3nd. 

II Gram. par. 77< 


Hindustani Camposition. 

Does this knife belong to you ? 
Can you speak English 7 

fr We know all. 

They are dead asleep. 

Are you the owner of this house ? 

Do you know this man ? 
Will you go to the auction ? 
90 Do you know the cause of this ? 

Take a chair and sit down. 
What chapter shall I read ? 

This is the end of the chapter. 

What is the cost of these things ? 
f^ This is my native country. 

This house is very damp. 

What time of day is it ? 

Tell me the name of this dis- 

There is much delay in this affair. 
/*« Do you know that gentleman ? 

Have the goodness^ Sir, to inform 

Take hold of his hand. 

What (jcya) this knife yours is. 

You English (angrejzrf) speak able 

We every thing (sab huchK) know- 
ing are. 

They senseless (ie»yiabar) sleep- 
ing are. 

You this house-of owner (malik) 

This man-to you knowing are. 

Auction (fuGm) -in you will go. 

You this-of cause (sahab) know- 
ing are. 

Chair take (jo) sit (baitho). 

What (kaun) chapter I shall read 

This chapter-of end is. 

What price is these things-of. 

This my native country (watanyis. 

This house much moist is. 

Now how much (kitna) time is. 

You this distemper-of name say. 

This affair (kam) -in great delay is. 
You that gentleman-to knowing 

You Sir (op) kindness having done 

information make (jajiySf),. 
Him-of hand having seized take 


* Gram. par. 28, 3rd. 

+ Gram. par. U^ a. 

Jfuufiatom Compotitiom. 



What 18 the height of this wall ? 

He gave a bint to this effect 

Make a hole in the ground here. 
Do you know what hour it is ? 

Whence comes this idea ? 

The sky is overcast 

Is- this the sort you wanted ? 
He wears spectacles. 

I (or we) have bought a score of 

• sheep. 

What did you give for that seal ? 

Sow this seed in the garden. 
Send a savant 
/r Give me a sheet of paper. 

Where can we get straw ? 

He committed suicide. 

Where shall we get timber ? 

Who brought this intelligence ? 

'« They smoke tobacco. 

How much (kiini) height this 

wall-of is. 
He (ttf-nS*) hint made this in- 

Here ground«in hole make. 
You knowing are what sounded 

(by a) is. 
This idea wher&irom produced be- 
Sky (asman)^n cloudiness be- 
come is. 
You this sort-of wishing afe. 
He (they) spectacles applying is 

We (ham-ne*) twenty sheep 

bought are. 
You (fttHMiS*) that seal^of what 

This seed-to garden-in sow (fio^o). 
One servant-to send (Jbhejo). 
One sheet (takhia) paper us*to 

Dry grass (ghas) where shall tve 

get (jmberige). 
He (uMie*) self'to self kUled 

We tindfer (shahdr) where . shall 

Who this intelligence (khabar) 

They ftuk^a drinkitug (jnic) are. 

* Gram. par. 23, aote. 
3 X 


Hvidustant Campositian, 

He gave me a tract. 
Please to give me a wafer. 

On hearing the news he was much 

The bill will amount to five hun- 
dred rupees. 

'^ I was amazed at the amount 

His goods will be appraised and 

He was apprehended and put in 

Do you think what be says is 

YeS| I am certain of it. 
je I feel very cold. 

It is doubtful whether he will 

come or not 
Give this book to your elder 

Which of you two is the elder? 

He (t»n^) us-io little book gone 

Us-to one wafer (wefar) please 

give {dijiye). 
This inteUigence (jAflbar) having 

heard (sunkarf) much fear (he) 

Account having made (Aorifcrt*) 

five hundred (pansau) rupees 

will be. 
Account-of amotcft^ (jam^, f.) hav- 
ing seen*)- us-to wonder became. 
Him-of things price having been 

aecertained {tajwiz AoAarf) 

sold (jbeeKi) will go. 
He seized {pakra) wenty§ and tm- 

prisaned became {kaid hvfa). 
What he saying is you true think- 

Yes, we it>to certain knowing are. 
Us-to cold (Java) much applying 


Him-of comitig (aiiS)|| not coming- 
in doubt (jBhakk) is. 

Ottn {apne)% great brother-to this 
book to give.** 

You both4rom great which is. 

* Gram. par. 23, note. 
X Giam. par. ^S^^nd. 
II Gram. par. 19. 

+ Gram. par. 29. 
§ Gram. par. 31. 
1 Gram, page 26 and par. 65. * 
** Gram. par. 73. 

Hindustani Composition. 


They ai;^ gonCi every one of them. 
jt Do you wish for thick paper or 

Do you accede to what I propose 

or not ? 

I was not able to accomplish my 

To day's meeting was adjourned 

to Monday next 

I cannot afford to give so much 
*^ Pray afford me your assistance. 

On appearing in court he was 
much agitated. 

I caught a large fish yesterday. 

I saw him last Tuesday. 

This writing is not legible. 

^ How long shdl yon remain there ? 

The price he asks is very low. 

They fdlrof (sab-ke) all gone are. 
You thick paper wishing ai*e or 

What (jo) we saybg are you this- 

to acceptance making are or 

I oum (apni*) ynsiicompkte(bhar» 

pur) not make could. 
To day (jaj) meeting stopped 

(maufcuf) is Monday^/ day {(R 

shambe ke roz) a%ain (it) will 

So much (itna) pay we not give 

Kindness fiaving done {karkafljl) 

our help make. 
Court (adalat)'\n standing be- 
coming (on) exactly to tremble 

We§ yesterday one great fish 

seized {pakft). 
Past Tuesday-on (mangal-ko) I 

(main-ne^ him-to sawi 
This written (likha) read not 

You how many (jcitne) days shall 

He very little price asking (mang- 

to) is. 

* Gram. par. 60. 
X Gram. par. 22. 

+ Gram, par^ 289 3rd. 
§ G. par. ^3y note, and par. 7% 
II Gram. par. 31. 


Hindustam CompoHtion. 

It is immaterial whether you go 

or not 
Enclose my letter in yours. 

Had it not been for his assistance, 
I should have failed in my pur- 
^^ I should have fallen into the river 
but for him. 

I do not know how to express 
this in English. 


I had no suspicion that he had 
done this. 

Sarkar, are a^l my things ready ? 

Sir, the sarkar has taken money 
for them ; no doubt they will 
be here by two o'clock. 

When the things come, send them 
immediately to Nya Ghaut. 

It is now high water ; I cannot 
wait longer. 

The goods you, Sir, have pur- 
chased, are, I think, dear. 

Thereyour going (jana*) n«t going 

alike is. 
Our letter (your) own letter-in 

place (rakh) give. 
Him-of assistance if not becomes, 

then(td)oxkT business cu:compUfthr 

ment (jMf^injam) not finds, f 
If he not 8eizes,t 'then I river-in 

fall igirparta).f 
This word English-in what nuamer 

(jcis tarfi) spoken going is, we 

not know. 
Us-to (Aametl) iuspicion (guman) 

not thai {ki) he (u&^e) so done 

O sarkar our all things ready are. 
O Hr {at fa/iib) sarkar rupe^ 

taken (le-gaya) is ; and things 

two watch two-in certainly (at- 

batta) here will arrive* 
When things may came (^atven) 

then that very (usi) moment 

{dam) new quay-in having sent 

to give. 
Now'exactly (ab^ht) ebb-tide near 

is, we more (atir) patience not 

make able are (Jkar sakte hava). 
What goods (asbab) yoUf Sir (5p- 

ne) purchased me near (mere 

nazdik) great dear (giran) aie. 

* Gram. par. 19. 

-i- See Gram. par. 24} note. 

HinduitavS CompoAHon. 525 

House rent is very dear in Cat Calcutta4n boose-of hire great 

cutta. dear is. 

I would have gone there, but was We there going were, hiU (jiHn) 

fearful it would be late before this fear-from that (Jci) there 

I arrived. amving'-tiUijpahunchnetdl^ de- 
lay will be {der hogi) not went. 

/«« I know not if many or few were We not knowing are, that (ki) 

there* iherefew {thore) were or many. 

* State of Hindustan in the time of Sultan MahmQd GhaznawT and 

of his house (jMndan\ 

A thousand years after the (cammeneement of the) Christian era (sana 
fsawi), Mahmud GhaznawT, having made invasion on Hmdustan twelve 
times, brought Multan, Lahaur, Dihli, Mathura, and Canauj into sub- 
jection {taht-men). Afterwards {bc^d us-ke) he demolished (kha rab 
hiya) the idol-houses of Somnat and Nagarkot and of wheresoever he 
went ; and spoiled the idols. Fifty thousand Hindus were killed in the 
defence of the temple (mandir) of Somnat. At length (a^iru-l-amr), 
when (their) power availed not (bas na^chala), then all the Hindus, 
having agreed together (muttafi^ hokar), said that we mil give (deti 
hain) eight crores (of) rupees on this condition (bain shar() that they 
(or you) should not destroy (mismar na^ktjiye) the image. He not 
assenting {kabikl norkarke)^ commanded that that image should be sawn 
asunder {jara-w ehtrljawe) ; so that from its interior {chunanchi uske 
plei-se) precious jewels, that in worth and value were more than those 
rupees, issued. In the house of Sultin Mahmud Ohaznawi the sove^ 
reignty (saltanat) remained (Jffffm rahf) during {tak) one hundred 
(and) eighty-five years : afterwards, it became annihilated (nest o na- 

bud ho^gal) by Sultan Shihabu-<l-dTn Ghauri. 

" ■ —^^— ■ ■■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ — ■ — ~" — — ■ — ■ — _ -■ ■ ■ 

^ Here, the position of the HinduMinT wordi is not always pointed oat. 

I _ 

626 Hindustani Composition. 

State pf the Afghan sway {tcuattuf) in Hindustan after the extineiUm 
(nest o na-bud hone he ba\t) of the GAazncnot family (ghaznawi 

In the first place (pahte) Shihaba-d-din Muhammad GhaurT, having 
ravaged (takht o taraj karke) the GhaznawT empire, became absolute 
in sway (mutasallit) over Hindustan. Afterwards, during three hun- 
dred (and) forty two years, several (Jkal ek) different families exercised 


the sway : among them, Kutbu-d-din, a Turkish slave ( Titrkl ghulam\ 
that by the revolution of fortune bad become the adapted son (muta- 
banna) of Muhammad GhaurT, is of all most celebrated (salhse mash*- 
hur). He gave great extension (wus*at) to the provinces of the people 
of Islam (ahl'irislam Ke mamalik) ; to wit (j/a^ne), havbg become vic- 
torious over the HindQ Rajas, he made Dihli the royal residence 
ipa'e taldkt). 

Account (bayan) of the TimiHr dynasty (saltaiiat'-uiimuri). 

In the year one thousand three hundred and ninety seven of Christ 
(fsawi) TImiir Shah, having made invasion on Hindustan, arrived in 
DihII. There, having put to the sword (tah'irtegh karke) two hundred 
thousand men, he desolated the country {mulk-ko wlran kar dala\ but 
kept it not in his possession ; yet, a hundred and twenty seven yean ^ «. 
after, his great grandson's grandson, Babar Shah, becoming {kokar) 
victorious over the princes of DihlT, seized (S Zi) the empire. 

Akbar his grandson was just and wise. He made Candahar (l^and^ 
har), Cashmir, Gujarat, Sindh, Bengal and Orissa (ufesa) comprised 
in one same (ek hi) empire. After him Jahangir and Shahjahan en- 
joyed the sovereignty (badshahat H), and, Aurangzeb, that is Aalamgir, 
who reduced all the fub{is of Hindustan under his rule. From his time, 
however (magar), the Moghal power became weak ; and, Bahadur Shah, 
after him, enjoyed the sovereignty, and Jahandar Shah and Farrukh- 
siyar and Rafi'u-d-darjat {rafVu-d-darjat) and Muhammad Shah, hi 

HindSutani Composition. 527 

whose time Nadir Shah, emperor of Persia, having made invoHon (ya^ 
ghar) on the empire of Hindustan, overthrew {tah o bata kar data) the 
Moghal dominion. After him, Ahmad Shah and Aalamgir (alamgtr) 
Sani and Shah Aalam (alam) exercised the sovereignty (fiadsMhat ii). 

The cause of Nadir Shah's coming into Hindustan. 

Among the nobles of Dihli was great discord* He who possessed 
the rank of wazir, in the year 1722 of Christ (f^atdF) torote (^likh bkeja) 
to Nadir Shah (saying)* that, noia^is the opportunity (wa^t IjcabU ka 
hoi) ; remove {utha do) Muhammad Shah from the throne. Accord- 
ingly (chunanchi), he came into Hindustan, and was victorious. He 
slew two hundred thousand people. Having discovered (daryaft 
karkt) the design of the nobles, he removed not Muhammad Shah from 
the throne ; but, having taken from him eighteen crores {karof) fifty 
lacs (Jakh of) rupees, and having seized {Jkahxa karke) on \he provinces 
(mamalik) of the west side of the Sindh river, in the year of Christ 
1741, be (Nadir Shah) went to his own country. He was a great 
tyrant ; so that, in the stopping of some riot at the time of a fair, sud- 
denly a person discharged a ball, which went near him (Nadir Shah) 
and did not hit ; nevertheless, having become enraged, he gave com- 
mand to the soldiers that a general massacre should take place (/iS). 
This command he gave at the second watch of the night (do pahar 
rat kOf twelve o'clock) ; and, by the second watch two gharis (do pahar 
do bqje ke amal tak, forty-eight minutes after twelve) of the next day, 
more than a hundred thousand people were slaughtered. From his 
time, the Moghal sovereignty became void of a reality (be fia^^at 
/id ga^f that is to say (ya^ne) every commander and governor (amir 
umara), becoming (ban) each himself a master, sat, and were (ho ga*e) 
rulers with absolute sway (bi-l-istillflai). 

* See lat Pari GrammRr^ par. 78. 

628 Hindustam CampoHtion. 

How and when the people of England obtained entrance (daU^) into 


In the year 1600 of Christ, they first began to come in the teay 
Qaur par) of commerce. Before them, the Portuguese and Dutch 
and French were possessing factories (kotht) in Hindustan. After 
some length of time (ba^d chand muddat ke\ the English, for 
(JA IVe) the protection of their factor and merchandise, by permission 
of the Nauwabj sent for (bulaya) their soldiers, and prepared a 
Ibrt (j^Va), Afterwards, the J^'«« of Hindiistan, having become 
weak from the oppression of the Nauwab Siraju)Kl*-daula, Nabob of 
Murshidabady gave advice to the English, (saying) that do yon expd 
(J^rij karo) him from his provinces, and we are your assistants : 
so that, in the year 1757 of Christ, the English defeated {skikaet di) 
the ajrmy of the Nabob, and received from Shah Aalam (alam) 
the office of the dtuATi^hip (diwwu) ; that, by means of it, (tie-te 
b(Hnijtb) they brought Benares and the suba of Bihar and Uresa into 
their subfectian (ta^t). In that very time, Asafu-d-dada, the Nabob 
4)[ Oude (awedh) gave t^ to them {unrkS sipurd kiya) the city of 
Benares : and, in the year 1793 of Christ, the kingdom of Tipoo 
Sultan in Camatic {kamatak) came to (their) hand. In short 
(j^rax) by some means {kui §urat #e) the English people by degrees 
(rafta raftct) acquired the entire dominion. 


Some one said to a wise man, that such a person {falan admi ne) 
has reviled you* Having made a little consideration, he said, hev 
(me) friend : who (jisne) reviled me, as it were (goya) he threw an 
arrow in the rear {plchhe), that (jio) touched me not; but, thou, 
having taken up (uthake) the arrow, Aast thrust it into me (nngK 
chubhaya) : well, what advantage is there to thee in that ? 

Hindustani Composition. 629 


There was extreme (nihayat) friendship between a camel and an 
ass. By chance a journey became necessary (dar pesk hffa) for the 
two. In the midst of the way, a river occurred. The camel entered 
into the water : the water was up to his belly. He began to say, 
O friend, come hither, the water is little. The ass said, it is true, it 
is up'to (jak) thy belly, it seems little to thee ; but, it will be up to 
my back ; / shall be drowned (dubjffunga). 


A thief went to steal a horse at the abode of some one (kisl ke 
yahan). By chance he was caught. The owner of the horse (ghort' 
wale ne) said to him, if thou wilt teach me to steal a horse, then I 
will set thee at liberty {tujhe chhor dun). The thief consented. 
Having gone he loosened the foot-rope {pa-band) of the horsel 
Having given the bridle, he mounted (sawar hVa) ; and, immediately 
on mounting (charhte ht) said, see, (in) this manner they steal. On 
the very saying this (yiA kahte hi), he made the horse run. Riders 
made much pursuit {ptchha) of him, but overtook {paya) not. 

3 Y 



Taken from the " Taleem Namuh," lithographed at Bombay in 1835. 

Letter from one friend to another, if u:»v>>}t) <jj^yi ^ ^ji-^-^ iljol LsS^ 
^ j^ \wW- <Ae;> ^ 1{T j^^i ^^^ ^Asr v^ cr'i »/ v^ <-:-9*» ni 

tt^ cji^ cB«*rf -f^ tl^^ I/- \^^^^ u^ ^'^ (*> (^ ^ *£^ 

^^> tf-ili ^ ^ 1,l/^< yi^^ ^cyU JiTj- ^ ^>- 
oU cu^ Jj J^^ ^\ lyk Itrf/ jijy ^ vf ^\ ^^ ^jj U/ 

Mufiahbat wa dbsd Kt guhar, the rose-bowers^ of love and friend- 
ship, rifa^t aur ashna't ke chaman ke bahoTy the vernal pride of the 
parterre of sociality and kindness, yar^ijant dost gam^f^BpSr, the 

The plural is adopted by way of shewing greater respect* 

Forms of Letter s, ^"c. 63 1 

dear, grief-dispemng fiiend, fulSAj Mallamahu'T-rapman, such a one, 
whom Grod preserve ! 

Ddst-i ikhlasmandf fidan, the sincere friend, such a one, salSm o 
muftabbat ka hadiya, ^kair-khnpaht aur dU-kt ckah ka ttifffa age 
rakhke, having placed before (you) the gift of salutation and love, 
the offering of good wishes, and of the desire of his heart, zamtr-i 
yaganiyat ta^ir par roshan karta hai, is representing to (your) 
unisonrimpressed mind, kijis din se, that from what day, yih dost ap 
K pas sejuda hoUe, this friend having become separated from you. 
Sir, yahan aya hai, is come here, khudajanta hat, God is knowing, 
ki har ghari firal^ ka dard uthata hai, that every hour he is suffer- 
ing the pain of absence. fchuda*e ta*ala apne fazl o karam se aisa 
sabab kare, may God the most high of his goodness and gracious- 
ness make such a cause, ki turn ham jaMi miSti, that you and we 
may soon meet, aur khusht se ek sath baithen phiren chalen, and with 
happiness together may sit, walk and ramble. Ab arz yih hai ki in 
dinbn men is mukhlis ke farzand ki skadi kt taiyari hai, now the 
petition is this, that in these days is the preparation for the wedding 
of your sincere friend's son, so ap-kl s^t he ba-ghair Jdmsh aur 
gawSra nahtn lagtt, (and) that proves not pleasant and agreeable 
without the being (there) of you. Sir, shafakat farmakey having 
granted the indulgence, do haftoA k% Jurfat karke, having made the 
leisure of two weeks, zarur tashrtf lake skadi kt majli^n ho raunai- 
bakhsh hJoniy (it is) a matter of necessity, having done us the honour 
of coming, (for you) to be the ornament of the assemblies of the 
wedding. Agarchi tofdi^ hai sach, although it is an inconvenience 
indeed ; Skin doston ki ^S^Jii ke waste J^abul kama lazim hai, 
yet for the sake of the happiness of friends it is indispensable to 
accede. Aur ap ke farzand ko beta hit^a, and a son (is) become 
(born) to your son, us-ki khabar sunke dil bahut shad ho raha hai, 
having heard the news of that, (my) heart has continued much 

532 Appendix. 

delighted. Mubarak howe^ may be be fortunate^ aur khoKk-i hc" 
niyaz us-ki umr ziyadc^ kare, and may tbe all-independent creator 
increase his lifeTi aur ap-ke zer saya parwarish pau>^ and may he 
(the child) find nourishment under the shadow of you. Sir ! ajab 
hai ki is Khmht kt Idwhar is mvMili^ ko likh na bheji, it is wonderful 
that (they) did not write and send intelligence of this happiness to 
this sincere friend. Is^tarah doston ko bhtilna munasib noAtii. to 
forget frieods in this manner is not proper ; ummetid ki obit mukhlif 
ko dil se faramoih najanlu, (his) hope (is) that now not consideriog 
this sincere (friend) forgotten from the heart, yih Idutt pahunchte hi, 
(on) the very arriving (oi) this letter, tashrif lane ka fcofd kama, to 
form the design of doing the honour to come; ki yih mufMis 
hamesha ap-kd ipsanmand rahS, that this sincere friend may remain 
fat ever obliged to you, Sir. Ziyada kya tofdi*, (to say) more what 
irksomeness (to you) : toort'talam, and the salutation ! 

The friend's answer. t—J^^ ^ u:. 
*i^\ji) \i2\ jiP- JJ \^ CLtlj yflJLi-l Cj\ilU jLaAl JU t;Jje* 

-v. J3^ ^^ ^FV, J J} r^ 3^ ^^ i^ ^^ ^^ '^'^ 
Dosi'Tiaicaz, the friend-comforter, tnuhibb-i sadik, faithful attached. 

Forms of Letters^ ^c. 633 

y5r-i dUdoTj ally possessing (my) hearty raftk muwafikf fellow 
traveller (in all things) accordant^ fulariy sqch a one ; BaUamahu4^ 
lah ta'ala, whom may God, the most high^ preserve ! 

MujMi§ fulan, the sincere (friend) sach a one, ishtiyaljp-i muBkat 
ikUof-ayat ka dil men Una bhara^ hat, the desire of a meeting with 
the model of sincerity has so filled (his) heart, ki zaban ko fakat 
nahlAf that ability is not to the tongue, ki bayan kare, that (it) 
should explain (it), aur Icalam ko kudrat naKn ki likhe, and power 
is not to the pen that it should write (it), khair salamy well, saluta- 
tion (?). Sunnatn-l'islam ke maratib ada karke apm ^aklfcat sAMr 
karta hat, having performed the ceremonies of the law of Islam, he 
sets forth his narration, ki tumhara khatt kkuski aur Miurramt 
Ix wa^t warid hioke, that your letter having arrived at a time of joy 
and happiness, dil ojdn par bahut A tazagi lay a, brought much 
refreshing to (his) heart and soul, aur us^ke mutala*a se, and from 
the perusal of it, farhat o shadmanl ki rdshncn ka surma ankkoti ko 
lagij the collyrium of the brightness of joy and gladness was applied 
to (his) eyes, aur farzand-i atjamand kt shadi ki khabar medium 
karke, and having learned the intelligence of the marriage of the 
worthy son, ap-kt marzi mujib, by reason of your pleasure. Sir, 
mukhlif fie shadi ke tajammul kl mtylison m^n sar-afraz Iione-ka 
irada kiyd hai, the sincere (friend) has formed the intention of 
becoming honoured in the assemblies for completing the marriage. 
InshVa-Ulah ta'dla, if God the most high wills, jitm jaMi Ko sake 
so karke an pahunchta hai, as much haste as he can, that having 
made, he is (about) arriving. Aur yih mu^i^ dpkt yad dil se 
faramosh nahln karta, and this sincere (friend) makes not the 
remembrance of you. Sir, forgotten from (his) heart, ga'e athware 
meA farzand paida hone In tahniyat ka khatt rawana kiyd hai, in the 
week passed he sent a letter of the joyful event of a son being bom, 
«o aJhatta pahunchd hogd yd dj kal tum-ko pahunchegd, that must 

634 Appendix. 

certainly have arrived or will in a day or two arrive to you^ tca-^-mfiin 
ln4-ikram, and the salutation with honour ! 

Method of writing notes. *-r^J yS ig^ uW'^ 

A V^ c^ V" ^V. cr!^ «-•'»**' i/i^ x-^J r^ ^ 
^^ c^^ y^ ^^ / kJ^.j ^jy ^ jV c;?'" "^ J^ <^ \^ 

Hazratj the presence, murablHj patron, 5a/li&, lord, master, 

saldmat, safety, health! 
Kal sham ko banda ap-kl khidmat nieft pahuncha tka, yesterday in 
the evening (your) servant had arrived to wait on you. Sir, lekin ap 
bahar tcuhrtf te-ga'e the, hut you were gone out ; aur aj tin chur 
k^ tt surat o bangaR ko likhne the, and to day there were three or 
four letters to write to Surat and Bengal ; is liye fur^at na hu% for 
this reason leisure was not : kkuda karta hai, (if) God is doing (if 
God grants), to ba^d maghrab khidmat men (lazir hunga, then after 
sun-eet I will be present in (your) service. Ziyada kya arz, mfore 
why the representation ? (what need to represent more ?). 

Bhal fofiib, Mr. (my) brother, bnhut mihrban, extremely kind, 

salamat, safety or health ! 

Niyaz^mand ne gulistan lu kitab ap*kefarmune iS shcdkh adorn kS 
dt tht, (this) indigent (person) at your commanding had given the 
book of the gulistan to Shaikh Adam, so chha mahtne hu*e ah tak 

Farms of Letters, ^e. 635 

tmASfi fiZ ptchli nahtn hhljt, that (book) six months past till now they 
(he) has not sent back, mihrbam karke un-ko takld dena ki jaldi 
rawana kareit, having done (me) the &70ur (it is necessary) to give 
injunction to them (him) that they forward it immediately* WorS'Salam 
Inrl-ikram, and the salutation with honour ! 

Baradar-i azizuA-kadr salamat, brother honourable in rank, safety ! 

Shaikh da*ud tumMri kitalhi gulistan par tS na^l karte haiA, 
Shaikh Da'ud is making a copy from your book of the gulistan, aur 
Ij^rih tatnam hone ke 51 Iiai, and it has come near to being finished ; 
insha*arl;^ldh ta^ala, if God the most high wills, is haftl meA tum-ko 
wapas bhejetige, in this week they will send (it) back to you : wa^ 
salanif and the salutation ! 

JaJ^ yJf^^^j^U^ ^J^ V CJj^ ^ Iff U J^^ li^ ^ 

Dost'i karam-baJO^h salamat, liberality-imparting friend, health ! 

Kalarabistan sejahaz a% yesterday ships came from Arabia, un 
menjudde ke ftakim ne makke sharif ka kuchh hadiya marsul kiya, 
in them the governor of Judda had sent some present of the honoured 
Mecca, <o tabarruk janke us men se ap Ke waste bKeja half having 
thought that a blessing (l) have sent some of it for you. Sir, ziyada 
wa-s-scdam, more (what need ?) and the salutation ! 

636 Appendix- 

Mihrban-i Icaram-bakhsh salamatf liberality-imparting friend, health ! 

Yih gharlb sha^ nasir khan ki ram das ke yahan naukar hoi, 
this poor person, Nasir KhaOi who is a servant at the residence of 
Ram Das, us-kopanch rupa'e tnahtne kt milte fiain, he gets five rupees 
a month ; so iyHrdarl ke sabab bas naJuii hote, they are not enough 
for the purpose of house-keeping ; ab wakdn hawaldar kt jagah hai^ 
now there is the place of liawaldary us-ka mahtna sat rupa% its 
month (pay) seven rupees, agar sifarish karen to wuh jagah is-kb 
milegt, if they will make recommendation then that place will come to 
this (person), aur apne bal bachclion samet ap ke hakt: men du*a 
karta rahega, and along with his children he will (ever) continue 
making prayer on behalf of you, Sir, tis par yih mukhli^ bht ap-ka 
ifisanmand hoga, moreover this sincere (firiend) also will be grateful 
to you. Wa-S'Salam, and the salutation ! ^ 



Borrowed from the Arabic, and generally applied to the Hindustani 
by the Munshis or Muhanunadan native teachers in India. 

Words admit of three principal divisions : namely, 

^1 itm, Xoun. i^f^lt Verb. <— ^ bofff Particle. 
The Nomi may be of various kinds: namely, 

^U- mJ^ ism-irjdw^ff Noun proper; as, cJ^ yusuf, ^s^ 


i%U ^ wm-i>am,Noun common; as, ]jf^gAorS,<-^l2^ftt/aft. 

cu>Atf wf um-vfifat^'Sovxi adjective ; as, \^>\ achchhuy |^ hur(L 

jj^ ^ isni'i'Zamir, Pronoun personal ; as, ^^ fnain, y tu, 

z^ wuh. 
ijji^\ ffJi ism-irishara^ Pronoun demonstrative ; as, ^ yii, 
9j wuh ; the first of which is called ^ifj\J^\ mJ\ 
CSi*^^ ism-^rishara-irtuizdik ; and, the latter, 
Jcju *9j\J^\ f^\ istni'ishdrorirba^. 
fX^G^\ MtJ {5m-i-»^i/7ia»}, Pronoun interrogative; BS,^i^kaunf 

iij^yo A^t Um-i^nau^l, Pronoun relative, ^y^jo, ^j>'jaun. 
^y^yo ^->)/^ (t^\ um-t^'atroi-i-maiiniZ, Pronoun correlative; BB^y^so, 

^yi taun. 
a M^\ ismri-zamr-iFrntuhtarikf Pronoun reflective ; as, 
<^T ap. 
ff^^ M>a] wn-irtnuhham, Pronoun indefinite; ss, ^^if hoi, 

yjmS kUi, ifp kuchh* 
JcU w1 igm'irfa% Name of the Agent; as,)!^ ^^^CS likhne 
toaZa, ]j^^S karne-hara. 

638 Appendix. 

Jydu ft»A ism-i'maf^tU, Participle Past ; as, |^l« marif or 

\^ ^U mora hu*a* 
^U- w^ ism-i'/ialiya, Participle Present ; aa, \7^U mSrta, 
or lyb U;U maria hu*a. 
^U^ uJ^ >m9\ ism-irMffArzamany Adverb of Time ; as, 4mmj\ ab, 

%^^ kah. 
^\C« ii-J^ mJ^ ism-i-»arf-irmakan, Adverb of Place ; as, ^l^ 

yahaii,ybS\ udhar. 
J J^ MmA ism-i'adad, Noun of Number ; as, iJlSA ek, yi do, 
For Gender^ a Noun common, Noun Adjective, Participle or Verb 
may be — 

^(X« mu^kkar, Masculine ; as ULj betif l^^J dulha ; or, 
(J^j^ mu*anna9f Feminine ; as, ^Aj heR, ^ J dulhan. 
For Number, Nouns of various descriptions, as well as Verbs, may be 
iXfr-lj wahidf Singular ; as, \si iJlJA ek kuttij i^j^{lSS\ ek ghori ; or, 
^4^ jam^y Plural ; as, ^ j J do kutte, J^^^^ us^ bahut 
A Noun common, moreover, may be ^^^ju^ mu'aiyan, Definite, or 
^jji^jj, ghair mu*aiyan, Indefinite ; the first being often distinguished 
by the use of some demonstrative pronoun, and the latter by that of 
the indefinite pronoun : yet, this circumstance can frequently be ascer- 
tained from the context only. And, such Nouns masculine as admit 
of change of termination in the singular may be termed i^j»ai>^ mtcn- 
^ariff Inflected ; so, ^ i^j^ gf^fi ko, from \jyp ghora. 
As to Case ((^U- State), a Noun may be in the — 
Jl^Ij c>IU- kalat-i-fatti, Nominative case; as \^jl larka, C^b bat. 
^^aLcu^J^ halaUirfnafuRy Accusative case ; ^f^^j^j^ larkon ko. 
^^ c:Jl>- halat-i'jarriy Dative or Ablative case ; as, ff lij^ mard 

*5, ^. J^^ piyale se. 
oiUl v:ui!!l>» /lalat'i'izafat^ Genitive case ; as, U ^ ^^ hrke lei ma. 

Grammatical Terms. 639 

f Jj 4i£Jl>- fuilaUirnida, Vocative case ; as, t^\> ^\ ai bha% ^jij\ 
o larko.. 
An Adjective in the Comparative degree is termed — 

J«>^ i^\ ismrirtafzil ; as, \sfi^ d jbj ziyada uncM : and^ 
A^L« ^\ ismFi^nubalqgha, in the Superlative degree ; as, W;^^ 

]ji i<^ ^^^ ^ bara. 
A Pronoun personal, admitting variation for number and case, 
may be — 

First personal, ^Sz^^j^ zamtr-i-mutakallim ; as, ^^ mat'A, fib ham* 
Second personal, u^Ur«^:*4M^ MniirArmujAatab ; BB,y tu, J tum^ 
Third personal, {^^\ij^^ zamtr-irgha'ib ; as, Hj umh, gr^ wi* 
The Verb may be — 

i<^ i}*i fi^lrirlazim, Verb Intransitive; completing in itself the 
action intended, without reference to any other object ; as, 
tT ^^ maifi aya, \jy} s^ wuh daufa. 
c^Jms^ Jjo f^lri-muta^addi. Verb Transitive, requiring something addi- 
tional to which the action passes; as, ^ l7;UyjJ^ l^ 
larka ghofS-ko marta hoi, l[V[^ J ^J}rtS {^^^ main lie ghora 
davraya, ^^^ji^ 4^«X&« ^ ^«^ ^ \^ ^jii^\ us^ne kaha 
ki main yih mu^addama tqjmz karOitga, He said (I will) 
he would consider the subject. 
i^^yi^Jjfi f^l-i-ma^iif, Verb Active ; as, ^^ ^0 ^^^ maiA likhta 

Jyf^ J*i f^lrirmaflM^eth Passive ; as, ,^k^j^ 4^^ w5 fMre ga*e. 
^^VV ^'^'"^^ Jms ^Irumuta'addi buUtcasita, Causal Verb ; as, \i\ifl 

likhana, li^J dilwana. 
i^^j^ Jxi Ji^l-i^murakkab, Compound Verb; as, UjJ JU dal dena, 

ULi ^ likh eakna, \jJ CDh bat kama. 
^\*« Jju f^limu^amn, Auxiliary Verb ; as, Uyh Aona. 
A Verb, too, may be — 

vj.^ muebit. Affirmative ; as, U^O Ukhna ; or» 
^Jc^ munfi. Negative ; as, V^fl ij na Ukhna. 

640 Appendix* 

The Form of a Verb is termed 4m figha. 

The Infinitive of a Verb,^«Xid^ tnafdar or j*iita^ ^Jl^ nghorimafdar. 

The Tense, ^U| zaman^ of aVerb may be — 

Past Indefinite, ^jlk« ^U maxi mutlak; as in \dc^ ^(J^jm^nudi 

nc khatt bKga, 

Past Proximate, c^^ l<^^ ^^i^ Jjearih ; as in^^^ L»- ,^f ij J 

^ ^ turn ne apne I^M pat muhr kt hai. 

Past Remote or Pluperfect, Juu ^^ maxz ba'id ; as in ^^j ^IcL Jb 

t ^ I <<^ y kam khSU zamln par baiihe the. 

Past Continuative or Imperfect, 4/;)/4c^^ l<^^ ''■^^ w/tmrori ; as in 

^ L<^ y^ ^-'•^ 4/9 toe M& Aasfr-Ad <aA^« <Ai. 

Past Conditional, ^J?^ i<*^^ maxi shartiyay orl 1 -^ /^ 

-^ _ . " ^ • ' >as in ^-^ Jul uS\ 

Past Optative, j^y-cu ^U mas i matamaam J «/- -^ ^^ 

IsjJ 4«i^ls^ jL»t Agar tffttA a/a <5 siam %mA& Idtab deta. 
Past Dubious or Past Future, ^(^a^ l^^ "*^ iii«/c»AaMf ; as in 

(^ ^^ y^t >>< V^V|i Lck (J ^j^ mabi ne khaiibiefi A meJoo 

pahmncha koga. 
Past Conjunctive, i^jiatuo ^U mau wu^&fi or iitfiafLc ^U mofi 

nunufa or dJ^ i^J^bt^ l<^^ "'^^ ^"'^^'^^f ^^^oiki ; as in jC»t 

us'kajatoab tike mtgKe kdhHo, 
Present Indefinite, jd^ J^ hal-irmuila^; as in^W g^toSjaftle: 

firequently , however, this form of the verb, with a conditional coor 

junction or adverb of wishing expressed or understood in the same 

sentence, is termed Past Conditional or Past Optative, asbefiare 

Present Definite or Present Present, uXS» i; JW ^Uj zamanr-i-^ 

bUa ehakk ; as in ^ytb \j^j ^l^j ^^ nudn yakik raJUa hSoL 
Present Dubious or Present Future, ^t^ < JU. ^Uf zamiMf-i4^ 

mutaskakki ; as in ^yb ^1 ir^ wuh ail iogi. 
Future, JJr,,,* ^\^j zamanri'-mMetakbU ; as in ^Uk^^T 4^ toe 

Grammaiieal Terms. 541 

Id the Subjmictive or Aorist toniif a verb is tenned f^l^ jMif^l- 
irnntzari^ (so named, because sometiiiies imparting a future and some- 
times a present sense) ; as in ^jW ^^ y «^jiT 9^ wuh awe ^5 main 
jSun (if he shall come then I shall go), or %^^ y^ (^V ^"^ M&ida 
chahc ^ kare (what Ood wills, that He does). 

The Imperative is called ^\ amty oTj^S ^iiu^ nghari-amr : as in 
Jy hoi, jSy bold: the Respectful ImperatiTe may be termed j^\ 
^^^M^ffJ amr'4''to^unn ; as in ^y boliye, ,^Jfi^ c^T ap dtjiye : and, 
when strict injunction is intended, 4^Ju^ j»«1 amri-takidi; as in 
^U l^ 1^ mira kaha mauiyOf ^^ (j^-^ c::,^U _C»\ ««*£i io^ ma^ 

The Persons in Verbs, like as in ibe personal pronouns, are — 

First person, Jicuo mut€ikallim. 

Second person, u^Us* mu^Aaloi. 
Third person, ^-^^ ghSib. 
' A Particle, i.jr^ ^f/> i>^y he — 

Preposition or Postposition, j>-ui;^ fuarfirjarr ; and this may 

be simple, i^Ju^ mufrid; as 1^ ia, j^ ibS, ^ », ^^ men, 

jy par, \L^ tak ; or compound, w«^ murakkab ; as, 

^^ ^ke tain, ^/-U ^ kepas,j»j^\ ^ ke upar, ^]^^ 

ke fcasfs, J^ ^ kelTe, tJjt ^ IS taraf, JAi^ ^ ki t^ir, 

Conjunctbn, used to conjoin sentences, Au^ ^^-^f borf-if^ 
jumla, and this is of various descriptions; so, 
t^ (.J^ parf'i'shari (conditional) ; as,^ (^gor, y^jo. 
\js^ ^^ borf'i'jaza (retributive) ; as, j! to (then). 
IjomiI *-ir^ ^ff'UisHsna (exceptive) ; as, ^JJ tckin, ^ par, ^ 

ft\^aJi i-J;>- ^ff-uistifham (of interrogation) ; as, 4^^ AySii, 

^L.»|^ kiswasK. 
^j;^ <— ^ bO'ff'i-^ababt (of cause or reason) ; as, ^y^ kyunki. 

542 Appendix, 

\j\j ^j>' harf-uhayan (of explanation); as, ^ H^ ^SL^^ jaisakij 

4cs:^i>- chunanchi, h^ ma§ialan. 
Conjunctiooy used to link together sentences or words, and this 
may be-— 
cflUr ^j>' ^rf-i-a// (copulative) ; as^^f aur^ ^wa: or, 
^Oy <— ^ fuLrfirtardid (distinctive) ; as, b ya, ir\^ MsP^y ^ ^• 
Adverb, and this may be — 
^Ua;U uJ^ )iar/^»-^iuAitA (of comparison); as, L*^ jaua, ^ygoya, 

h^ masalan. 
JyJ ^j^ fuirf-i-lcabul (of assent) ; as, ^U Aan, ^^yb Afin, ^ haU. 
^ uJ;»- harf'Unafi {pi dic(sent or negation) ; as, ^^^^ noAiit, 

^ na, ^U) aAofl, ^^j^ tiiiAun. 
^^ <— ^/^ borf-i-naht (of prohibition) ; as, cs*^ mat. 
{ja<i»a^ ^j^- barf'irtakh^^ (of peculiarity) ; as, ^ At, or 4^ 7. 
Interjection, and this may be — 
1 JJ ^^ fuirf-i-nida (of addressing or calling) ; as, ^\ ai, j\ o, 

^^< a/?, i^j\ are, ^^ oie. 
ttarfi'ta^ajjvb (of wonder ' or applause) ; as, i\^ took, 
if\j A^ fDoA^oah, \^\ achchha, Mj^ fchub. 
iJj ii-J^ ftarf'irta^aaiufQyi grief or sorrow) ; as, i\ ah, ^J^Jb ha% 

4^ ij wa*c. 
The particle ^ ne, used after the name of an agent before a tran- 
sitive verb in a past tenae is sometimes termed ^J^\i u. "^f SUmat-i' 


English and Hindustani, in Nagari and Roman Characters.* 

X^^t^f ^nrar ^ stand at ease. ^ ^ ^5% T^ chain se khafe raho. 

^Id^SlM Attention. lli^^i^ ^ ^l^ husky or Koja'd. 

Eyes right. ^T^ ^^\ dahm nazar. 

m;^ f%^ Eyes left. TIT'npC balnnazar. 

^'TCf (nj^^ii Eyes front. ¥P^n f|T satnhne namr* 

Z ^ \€ ^W To the right face. 4^*^ fVhO dahnc phiro. 

ST ^ ftr^ ^IW To the left face. ¥nt f^O ft5'e>i phiro. 

^ift ^ "^rV^ "5^^ To the right about ^^ ^ IBTVT ^^K se adha 

^^^' f^rrV chakkar phiro. 

\^ f^^ "wV^To the left about ^TTC ^ ^HVT ^^RC ba*en se adha chak- 
^m fece- fijhO kar phiro. 

^ VJ ftf^ THIJ Right ya (or) left ^nUT ^Ip^ VJ ^Vladhadakneyaba*efi 
^m half face. fifc^ phiro. 

Front. m^vi) samhtie. 

^^f^'lW^Right ya (or) left ^ ^ ^ ^ ?fN '^*!^ jl *«'^, " 

^ u X *i. -* ^ •. ^ ^f « fnsse chakkar 

* Extracted from the Ungr^zee Lushkuree Kawaed/* translated into the Urdu 
language by Lieutenant Arthur Hogg, and published by Tt Astell, at the British Library, 
Calcutta, 1837 ; to which work the reader is referred for explicit information on the 
Exercises of the English Army. 






age barho. 

Halt dress up. J WHVt 

Step out. wn iRpr icwV 

Step short. 

Halt dress, (or) ] T1pQ*T *l<l^< tV thabarkar barabar 


flamba ffodam 
\ rakkho. 
TT^ ^B^ ^ Vjmn angutJu 1£ pi$ 

<^*< ift^qppR rakhrkar diSri 

^ ^* ^ hokar Jjpadam 
^\^.^n^i^<i\ pitterahd. 

Right close, quick ^^•it ^<^ 4|^*| <2aAnt lan^ jorAo 

march. ^V^^ft "TOV i^*^ ^^**^- 

Step back, march, "^fw TSt ^^Wt pichhe hafi ckaB. 

Change feet *?[ir ^t^wV kadambadJo. 

^ftftr^^^irtW To the left oblique, ^t^^Jil^refV*^'^'*^*^*^'" 

Mark time. 


Quick march. 
Double march. 
Slow march. 


jaldi chaJZ. 
daurkar chalo. 

ahista Ikadam. 
barabar ho Jffo. 

n ^ ^ M||^^^>1 By the right for- 
ward dress. 

^n^ ^ ^T'^ ^'dahnc dekk age 


qr^ 'HCTT^ Tt barkkar barabar 

q ^ T^ VJ f^f^ % *^® right ya (or) ^^ ^ ^HT^ ^^dahneya ba'H dekk 
^€|^^^^qj ^ipt;^ left backwards ^ ^^ ^^m^ pichhe hat bari- 

if ^[TVt barhojffo. 



Military Wards of Command. 545 

h" 'ftW Right wheel. Tf^ 4? ^ ^T^ '^^^ ^^^ ^ 

^ ^ samhni se chakkar 

t ^WT ^T^ khffo. 

fif i jIiA ftW Left wheel. WTTJ ^ ^ ¥nf5| *«*^» Mfi«^ l?ar 

^ ^ samhnese chakkar 

f«l^^^>t[a| On the right back- ?r^ ^ 

^tW waids wheel. '^WT ^T^ pichKe te chakkar 

^ ^ kha'o. 

TT ^ f%^ ^. Right ya (or) left ^^^ ^ WPrf ^. ^^ ^5 j^^^^ 

Tf^^l l||<4^<f shoulders forward. IJT «|4||^ kandha ghumao. 

T? ^f,<0« Right oblique. ^^ f?hfT 'S^ (2aAiie rfrcAAa /j»- 

^1^ dam ckaR. 

THI^ f^ncar Halt front. 41l^«< ^T^ TI" thaharkar samhnc 

^ ^ f%^ ^FJ? Right ya (or) left ^TVT if^ ^ ^adhadahneyaba'hi 

7n half turn. V^ muro, 

ftjTZ' ^ Front turn. tnf^«) ^¥t «am/inS mirf^. 

%,H}ti SI^*J5« Support arms. 

I^^^H ^rn[^ Slope arms. 

^i\^ ^>T\^ Carry arms. 

jTi^K ^1^*1^ Shoulder arms. 

^^Tt*5Nf^3tpr Rear rank take open ft^l T? ^^ pichhR ^f khuB. 
^irf^ order. 

R*l< Tt* ^ Rear rank take close Jm^^ ^ f^Rrr^ pichhli faf mila'o. 

^m\n ^I^< order. 

V2r c\«l Right turn. T^ ^^ dahnZ muro. 

^ ^f^f^ ^rV? Right ya (or) left T^ ^ ^TTt ^ ^. cfaAnc ya baTn se 
^nf about turn. m ^IK^ M>^ oifAa chakkar muro. 

Xy^Wl^ Squad. 

4 a 

546 Appendix. 

X^ ^1W Right wheeL ^[^ ^iu dahne ghumo. 

^ft^m f%^ % *e rigbtya (or) ^[^^^^ ^ dahne ya hfft 

^^^^ :^'':^7^ ii^m^ »j.«* 

^49 irnf quick march. ^WT •' 

^f)^ irTt%^Totherightya(or)^^^^^^^*«2^ ya 

WWf^ left close. 

4,t:dM q^qi ^ir^ Step back march, ^ii^ ^^T ^'Wt pichliZ hatkan 
^5^ ^fV^ ^ft^ Form four deep. ^TT ^ *«1K ^'I cAor JS ^ji 

K^ ^K^ ^^TT Rear form fourdeep. ^« ^TT *T *<|K picAAc cAor Ai ilafir 
ifW WT W^ banja*o. 

^ ^^\if ^5^^ ift^ Right form four ^^^ ^H: *t 'IRITT d«A«« cA5r JB iflfir 

deep. ^pif ^arnvV banja'o. 

f%^ ^^^ ^fK Left form four deep. ^ ^TT ^^?ITT*«'2*cAarAi 

f%T|i7^ Left face. ^ ftPCV ba'cAphiro. 

W ^TTJPJ^ T^By subdivisions ^VPft V^T^V iPl^a^Ui kampam K 
^ right wheel. «ry ,,^ ^p^ ^ daAnS AAu«< /wr 

^WT ^^ har kha'o. 

% ^^^^injf ^iPT By subdivisions on ^inft **l4t if ^TTTJadAi kampani tui 
t\ f^nifZ' ^^». the left backwards ^ ITT ^ ^ *"'*" **^ ^ 


T^ ^ wbed into line. ^ ^ ^T^ ^ ^^''^ 

^ .^ -. »amAn 

'9^^^1T^T^ chakki 

■ f%^ ^ Right ya (or) left ^^ W WXt fW" da*«e 

face. pkiro. 

Military Words of Command. 547 

tTl[? fti^^pC^ Halt front dress. ^^^^* < ** I ^n TO^- thaharkar samhnc 
V^ f^ TK^.. . >') . ^ ITT^ ^ P^^'^'' ^'^ 

^iryf^T^^ Right and left face. ^^^ttr^fW" 

Halt front dress up. «,^ i^s ja'd. 

dahne aur ba^n 

\S *^^i^*ll^ Right counter- T^ ^^^ ^*^ 

march. f^ ^''''^' 

^^^ y. r^^ j^ kampam blch par 

*^n\ "Vm ^ W^T Company on the ^^vJ Vi^ ^ TT* dahne pa'd chak- 

^ ^f^ centre right wheeL m^ ^ <B< 4<lO karmard. 

V^^ ^ ft WZT Company on the qnq4t ^ ^ ^^^iaZ\fffchZ 
ftr^ %r ^^"^^ ^^^ ^^^' ViT^ ^9WT 'rrft kar mard. 

^ ^ ^ centre right about 2^ dahni adha chak- 

^ Tiffed ^heel. ^'BTVT ^^WT 'ITTT karmaro. 

V^^ ^Wr ^ fMA< Company on the qnv^ ^fN ^ ^mt kampam hick par 

fN .. . jv ,sv— centre left about _-.— — — - „.r\ io:en adha chak- 
ftr^^wVz^ wheel. '^ITVT 'flWT mrt ^^^.^. 

MjiJH W^f^ Form company. ^fTlt 'PI WT^ kampant ban ja'o. 

ft^ 'If'JT^^r Left subdivision left 1T^* '^"^ ^iq^ Ja7» M Ai Jampani 
f^TOT ^TtR ^ talf face» quick ^nVT^f^T^^ ' " ,Tf^^' 

^^ <lf«4Sl«ia| Form subdivisions. ^^ ^'^ ^'^ «'*« kampam ban 
f^r^ ^^'Wini^ Left subdivision 'TT^* ''inft ^>9f^ bain adlu kampam 

f^rft ^^. "g'** *^"* *'*'®® TT^ ^ jftft^i 

^ • quick march. ^ «^ jaldi chaB. 

f^^d W^l^lff Left subdivision left TTT ^I^ft «*H^ J57i adht kampant 
ftrej ^|n5 71^ t«Jf t"™* double. ^ igr^ ^nt <l^4i^ adhabffH mvrkar 

i|J^ Quick. ''I^^ JaWi. 

648 Appendix. 

f^T^ ^^t^TJI^ Left subdivisions ^lif ^fT^ Wrft balA adht kampiou 
W^Zlf^TT^ mark time, right ^^^ ^pj^ ;^^ apvi jc^ah khan 
Z^ half turn. ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^5 iudam utm, 

* ^ _ adKi dahnt mm. 

f^rfJ ^^ ""^R ^Three files on the ^l| «<)| < 4|| fwRC <<" bo&a- hSH ka- 

<W,,ft- leftwheeL ^. _X ^ ""^*°' *^''" 

^^'TTf^ ftl^One, two jfa (or) Tt* ^ ^ ^ ^ek ya do ya 6m 
\f{^i^ three files to the ,j,jp^ ,p^ ^ *alar «5«a« K 

front. V ftaj.;i5. 

f^'^W^ fTT f^lfh Sections ya (or) f^ 11^^ ifH iftWfoii ya <i» fi» » 

(or ) left shoulders ^ ^^i-= - n-ju 

^t»»lNtipr,rC¥ march, forward. flftVT^^^Wft j^jji^j^j^^ 

^^ ^T^ ^ iu barko. 
ft^ini^ ^ Wt^ Sections ya (or) j^ ^ ?ft^ ^foli ya Ok fiaa- 
^Pr <t ^ ^ threes on the right ^jfjf^ ^ ^ . poAiyfti IS fifi 

j.^ _»>_ , \ ^^^ ^^^' A^^__^_^ l«cAAe«ec*attff 
nm ^5^ »im quiek march. m*t^^WT^m 4^15.5 j^eWS. 

^ ^ t%^ liV. Right ya (or) left i^^aft ^ ^T^ wf. dahna ya HfU 
^WX^ ^i\ti\^ shoulders forward. ^ ,j^j^ j^j,,^^ j^;^,, 

^ ^ f%^ ^ Right ya (or) left ?[^ ^ ^ ^doAtu ya ttTd 
T^ ^IN wheel into hne. ^^^^^^^^ khUut par timhi 

f^Hij m^ ^tunltFwntformoompanj^^^lT^qnqifJ^rfi^ y« odK *a» 
m ^Tf^^inr ^ y5 (oO subdivision ^^y^ ^ ^ pa«y« I5ff te 
f%^inr . J'- (") section. ^ ^.5^. 

Military Wdrdi of Command* 649 

^R ^ flrf^ ^WW On the leading file mI^^ *ilK ^pahili katar par 
7 ^ ^7 H|XH to the right form 7^^ ^ ^^IH^T^ dahne $e kampanl 

ipr ^ f%^ni ^W On the leading file Mf^fft *?fK ViKpahiH ^atar par 

1|^^Vi<nft form company. ^ ,,j,^ ^ ter«/ ftam|«,»I 

^ banja*o. 

^T^ ftr^ ^tW Halt, left wheel into VT^[^ ^TTt ^ thaharkar bSin 
^Plf Z In ^^^* ^K ^5T^ % ^ khunt par 9amhne 

^ ^WT ^»^* kar kha'd. 

\ ^ X^ ^5^ To the right form <^4t *^?WflnV-da*)w kamar tak 
ifW[[if\ company, if^ ^1| igfT^ kampantbanja'd. 

*n^*i^^ Left shoulders for- linrf flrfVT J*!!^ Jay5» kandha 

ward. gAiijiia*5. 

f^^li^^ ^ Sections right clt^^l ^^5^ toliyoA dahne. 

^f^ ift <lMlli*l Fonn the rallying 'W^ ^^ ^ ^.Jam* /OnS ka chau 

1H9^^ square- ^JT Wl WPiV *Afiiila banjffo. 

^ T^!9^ ^^ The square will ^^l WPl^ VT chaukhunta samhne 
lH 1 ft fine? '""^l^J^^^fi^^^ 4ti ^ ^ ^ y5 ;iicA^e ya 

-rftC^^rW y«W rear ya ^^ ^ AiAne ya Ja'ai 

^ Tr»T ^ T^ (or) right ya (or) ^R ^ cAaB 

i»Tfw^ left- 

17|^^^^ ^H Inwards fece. ^ft^ PiiO hhttarphird. 

^rfft^fV^t^^ Prepare to resist ^^nff *t ^^T^fT^ *««'*'*i *» ««<'«- 
^.T^^^ cavalry. Ready. ^ g,,^^ ^ fa^^l^ musta-^d 

iflf €U| ift l^fHi Reduce the square, ^^i ^W ^n^ chaukhunta khul 

R€|< <I* ^ ^BHIf Rear rank, take ^ ^ •'^"'^' 

^ open order. W^ ^ ^ T^hhU jaf khulo. 


£60 Appendix. 

R€|< Tt* ^ ^Wr. Rear rank, take ftl(Wt ^ ^mpickhttsafmilji' 

^ ^i'Q^ f^ "51^. The battalion will VT^Z^ "^frt ^ palian age barke, 
^ advance. 

^ft'TC^ftW^fmTThe battalion will ^TifSf 1{« paltan hafe. 

^^ . _e '^*"^' f^lJWt^r^^W.Mmfa karne par 

VitmK ^^^<N Prepare to charge. | ^^ ^ ^^^5^ ;i5. 

^I'H Charge. '^•^^J TT ^mla karo. 

Mjil*! ?ft ^ ^ From the right ya "^ ^T* **l^ ^ Aor ? fc Aam/wwT K 

Wz ^ ^. (or) left of com. ^^ ITT ^'v. f*'*^ J^! f,'?* 
^^^ .-^. , ^ kamar te fcalwr 

^% ^ \ pamesbyfilesto ^^,^,j^,^^ ^^^ ^^ 

V^rftf T<r 'ITCk)mpanie8 right ya ^T^ ^ ^TTt ^gpft<iaA'««y«*o'«««w» 
firl j[>^^V^lfi l !i[>A (or) left tum left WHt^ri^^ bffcA ya dakm 
^ ^ ^ yo (or) right wheel. «*" 

IIJTT'I <t ^TT^From the proper ^ Tt* '<nq^ ^Aore* kampani S 
\s^f^(P^^ right y5 (or) left ,,^ ^^ ^ ^gK doM^ 3* 

^ _] ^ of companies pass V ^ oalA kamar h 

WK^m^ 1IT¥ t by files to the irt^W^^^^TT katar kaOr 

^^^^ Rm\ tear. ^^TflT ^ '^*^ pichhechato. 

f^^ ^ ^ Tl^I*ft y« (<"■) ng^t^nt 'IT ^^ ^^ Ja'fl»y«<io*w«wo 

fti. fN r>.- tum, right yo (or) *. „, ♦ , _»v dahne ya ISa 

T^JTf^^ left wheel. TT^'TTint^ ^^5^^ 

^TR ^ W^^ ^ 'ft Pass by files to the '^fTT ^fK ^W fyiOr kaOr ptdili 
f^:^^^^ war, right (ace, ^Ift T|^ ftnC^ chaB daktuplan 
^ right wheel. ^^ _^ dakne gkimS. 

^0 ^HN t^ -^IT^. The battalion will Xf^z^ tj^ j^j^paltan pakB paiB 
W^^ qfF j > /Left wmg- 

march. J ^l^^ J UaR- 





MUitary Words of Command. 
load. •vt *\ 




wa ghaira 



2 {par charhd^, 
"§ shast to, 

tonta bharOf 

^^1#^J ^ ^ [wa ghaira. 



barabar faf ban 

f^ ft The battalion will Vi^Z^ V[^^ ^^^paltan palilu pahlu 

^V f ui *^ division to the front. —---5^ ^^ »ia» «amAn2 bafhe. 

fl^(^ ^rfhl^ Remaining divisions ^T^ IP^ XV^ fta*« ^«»w»» doAna 
^^f^r^lit. right ya (or) left ^ ?rqt l^tW ya bayasi kandha 

VRT:^ In ^>T iftForm line on the ^if^ ^pR ^ W^- 
^KT^ T^tiPr fi^^ ^^'^^' WT ^ ^ ^T^ ^ao. 

^fW?: ^^[^^nro Two centre subdivi.^ *t T^ ^W^K^* « .^/f! 
A -^^ % . ^ Jcampant samhnc 

5" ^ fH;<A wons to the front V^Km ni^n Wt harKSn. 

ifti^fH^ l|^4<49l^^ Remaining subdivi- ITT^ ^fT^ ^•M^ fto/bi a<2/i kampam 

^ ^ left *««We" «>'- ^„„,^ kandhabarha'o. 

^(W^ ^\.'*\^ ward. «T>IT l^T^ 

Xl^^;<H #^ ^WT ^ ^Form line on th« 'fN ^ <f^ 'W^ftfticA kt do adht 

divisions. _— -- ^,^ bar jafhanja'o. 


552 Appendix. 

X^ iaW (^^* iT^^. Right and lea IT^ ^mft '^^rft *a^ adK ftonpaw 
7T^ l^^if^V shouldere forward, ^pfin* ^V^ ^Hlt <^<>^"a oto- im/H 

^^^ W'r ^ ^ X^ Form line to the f^^ IfT"? ^ 1^ dahnt tftraffafba 

"«*•*• ^irit ^a^- 

T7 ^f»r (^^« "Ift. Right vnng left T^^ ^^^\ "WPBlf dt^na pakSi Ugai 
li<tJ a i ifcj jjj >f shoulders forward. qrhiT ^f |^ kandka harkSb. 

f^nija: if^^^ Left shoulders fo^ ^Ttrf ^tVT ^fT^ hiyaA Icmdki bar- 
^\i\'9 ^\Ai^'9 warf> forward. m^ ^^ Aa'o, age bi^ki. 

fKJX W ^nqift^ VT Retire by companies "f^ ^ ^I^ft ^"T. *a«ipaf« ya MH 
M^lt^^'m V^KT^ y5 (or) subdivi- ift ^ WT^' ITT ^. *«"!?«" "« 
«ftf%^W^ .ions from the left ^,j^^^-^ i^^viyadM 

5^^^^^ rear of the right ^'^^ ^ daknJ ka^ B 
XZ m f%^ y5 (or) left. W picAAZ Aafo. 

^nrft m ^>|V^inr Company ya (or) "^ ^ ^nft*ampa»i jra m 
^^IWVZ%^ subdivision right WT^ ^^ % ad^^ehal^ 

about face. -^itvT ^WT fW" phiro. 

^^mft't'^ilfVwV*^ *a«ipai 

li;^ ^ 1,^^ flanks by subdi. IVTRT i ^ i^ damhmarim 
imT^ f^ visions in rear of ^^ *e^-cA*.-A««. 

^ -^ the centre. 

^ tIT t%^ ^^. Right ya (or) left ^^ ^ IT? ^nft *»*«J y« *•'« «*' 

HIR H 'IWV^ subdivision right q^qift ^TI ^ **T"" H^f 
^ about face. ,,^,,^1^ ^^^ 

'^^ZWf^nt^Rt^The battalion will H^^«I Hl'H^ ^;Mi2^an kampoiufi 
Xyi ^^reni ^niT ^^v® ^^^ column "Vnft Wrft 'ft ^*' *fl«pfliii B 
ir^t^r^irrfH of divisions yS ,^^,j,j^^ Ifo^ ha^ 

^^ (or) sections from ^^ ^ ^ daJim kamar i 

WH}<l**ftT7 uie right along '"^^ ' ^ * ,a/ ftJ picUi 
^I^tN ^ ^CfK Uie rear. ^ ^ chale. 

Military Words of Command, 553 

fir^ ^ f^^i Left face left wheel. ^11 1( PilO ^^t ^^ ia'U phiro ba'en 
^ ghumo. 

TZ VS9 Right face. ^HT' f^O dakjie phiro. 

\I ^tW Right wheel. ^T^ ^|^ dahne ghumo. 

V^ ^Km^ ^T^Form column at ^ ^ ^T^ ^blch kt dahni ya 

iranC ^^f^ ^Sm quarter distance ^pj; qnqift ^ ^- *^''* hampampar 

-^ ^^ ^^ on the right ya •. ^ ^ rs pa'o khuU katar 

ft t? ^ W^ (^r) left centit. ^ 1^ ^^'^ iane. 

fifer **l41 company. ^ 

1^0^ ^ ''T' Threes right and left •rtf ^?ftf ^ JTIt^ ^in ff n Ai <5ff cfaAni 
f%V7 ifVvVT^ shoulders forward. ^[TfT VJ TRlf y^ 6ay5fi kandha 

1^0^ (^^^ ^^^- Threes left shoulders'^ 'ftf ^ ^^t^ttnttnkiidlihayan 
^Tlf Mi^^H^'l forward • 4|€|i qrfVT 'l^. kandha barha'd. 

^^ 1H*^< Form square. ^^^T ^^ ^TwV 

^T^ ^ '^rVt Halt, right about Tf^?^: ^^ ^ • .^^ . ^^^^^ 
^ fece. ^rrVT ^UT t^rft pMro. 

V^ T^l^ ^"^ Form square on the T^ ^ ^* ^^- <^«* y« *«''" *^" 
^ H m t^n^y right ya (or) left ^t|^^NJp^ i""*' ^'^ <'^''- 

^ ftr^ liV^- (or)leftBhoulders ^^ ^J^ dakna ya UyM 
T^ ^\A\% forward. "^ ^^'"^ AronrfAa fiorAo'o. 

^nf)^^ ifVlt: ^rn. Prepare for cavalry. ^^TTT ^ *J4lHi^1. fowaron kJ mudS, 

y^ f^ Ready. qrt I^^TH: ^ \ /«'«' *^ '«'y«'' 

Ad. Tatyar. 

"Jt^ ^ f^ Kneeling ranks, ™ ^rnt ^ *««5 «i~'J ?«/ <«^ 

ready. Present. V -s "^ yarko. Shastharo. 


554 Appendix. 

^fV Load. ZUTT HTV tonta Ihard. 

<1yj\*l flfWil Reform column. qjqit. f^ 'R WT. i^£5r phir banjSo. 

^Pl ^ ^ fir?: On the two centre ^H ^ ^ ^TT^iicA *? do adia 
M%^4^^91 Vtj\4i subdivisions form «iqi^ ^ if|^ ^ kampatu kepkhU 

^\%i f^fsr Halt front. «^\«»^ ^5T^ ft?, thaltarkar $amhi 

^ phiro. 

^l^4^il(>I (W'JiA Halt, right and left i1li,*< T^ ^^ thaharkar dahu 
x^ &ce. ^fm fqpry ^kt ba*H phm. 

0^^** ^ Reform line. ^ fqj^ ^^ WT^ fafphir bm jffo. 

HTWJ V^ifS. ^JTT^ Halt, front dress. «^ ^ii \ ^Vt ^ i '^•i thaharkar our 

ftf?^ ^TTT^ ^^"^^ P^'^ 
tV vniV harabar hojffb. 

Vpi^ WW9 fliWl? Form double column ^rnft **m4) ^adhl hampam B 
^WJ ^^(4l<J^*i^ of subdivbions. ^^ ^^^ ^^ duhti fcaOr ba 

^IPC Tf^^T ^Form square two WN ^ ^ **M^ blch kt do hmpam 
^ ^>^ ?ft ^f}. ^^V on **^e two tf^ ;f^ ^ ^?[f^ par do a iaOr 
ZK ^nipft^ ft^. centre companies. ^ ,J^^* ^ 45 ckayklm& 

c^ fi. ^_ Remaining com- ^ 1^^ .^ banjao. Bab 

^ " • ^ pames nght and • kampant dam 

TTV f^nii^ irrt|. left shouldera for- ^T^ ^^T ^T^ aurbayaiiMm 

^ fv^tS^i ftwThe square will ^4^| ^Pf^ ^ chaufchunti sSmbi 

m^^ftfi^ march to the ^ ^ ,^j^ ^ ^ ^-^Wjj^ 

^ ^ • ^ front ya [jot) rear ^ ^ ifaA«i ft" Ai?iR fi 

^ f?7IT VJ^ ya (or) right ya ^TTT ^ TTf % ., , ^ 

^ f%^ ^ W left fece. ^ 

JUilUaty Words of Command. 555 

W <I^['MH!|^ ^R By subdivisiims on ip|n ^Vt WHC ^^^ dahne aur 6o'o» 

ft ^ ^ f%^ ^ "g*** "^ '^ ^ ^rnft wm[^ **""•' ^'' «^*' 

n' backwards wheel. 2* rf^ ^ fcw«pa«i mni 

^T*! ^ Fom line. T5 'Hf 'IT^ faf ban ja'd. 

X^'i^ ^^<i jfi^. Right and left ^^ll ''Vt ITTT tfaAiia car iayon 
Vraf H> ' V^^^ shoulders forward. qrhiT W^^TSV kandhabarha'd. 

^ ftr^ \ 4ft Change front to the M^^l ^ ^N ^jpafton Ke htch par 

ft^^T ^rq'l ?ft re" »P<» *e f^l|<Ft ?p^ ^. /"cAAfi tore/ 
<^ centre. _r^ _ji. w»w^ mrnhne hoja'o. 

Wtj^T^TTt^Wr^ Threes right and nil ml *T tTTWRTr ^«» *«» «» tohyan 

▼N[¥^ Mi^,^^^ left shoulders ipUfT ^ ^^t ^'''^ '*'''' ^^^^ 

forwaid. ^^a™ ^tHV *5nrfAa barlia'o. 

^ inr f^r^inr ^fV^. Right and left ^TT^ ^5^ ^Tlt ^ dahne aur ba'hi sc 
ZJ: 'm^ counter march. ^TnT^flTCftjfV kawadekarphiro. 

m^*i ^aWf ¥1RI Form open column ^^^ ^•m^ ^ ^TT?^ dahm kampani ke 

^ MurrfV right company. «twV ^^'^ .^^'^* 

^l^Plfl 4i^4)t^ Remaining compa- ^ff^ **M^ ^f^Mi5riAampa»irfaAn5 

^ ^ nies right face. ftf^ pAtro. 


Tn?[3r f^5T^ i[TW Halt front dress. ^1{^*< ¥T^ ^. {haharkar samhne 

—^ „ ■ I - ■ ^ hokar barabar ho 

^ ftW l^T 7 ^ I^^gh^ ^beel into ^^ ^ ip^ ^9T^ ^^'^^ ^^<^^f P^ 

line. r^ *^ MwAne se chak- 

ijj^ll ^tj«f 4f!ll| jyi Form open column 4*^^ ^ TTT ^f^V. daAnt ya balfi kamr 
ft^'^ft^ ini«iroftheright ^ -^ ^ ^ pa^ JcS pJchU 

ya (or) left com- "*_ khuR katar ban 

^ raykd *«I*II pany. ^^K Wl ^T^ j'a'5. 

556 Appendix. 

<lij(« l <l **M^a i ^ Remaining compa- ^^^ qnq^ ^^ Ja^iila»paiiida4« 

^" «s nies right ya (or) . ^ jv - ,-,. . , . _ 

T^^ til tr ^Form line to the ft^^ ^WT JfWrivan hamar kk 
^^^T^ reverse flank. ^ ^ W^ t^f ba*jc^. 

%H^^H<i "ill 11^^ By successive divir ^ "^ ^ ^RT^ ^P"* ^"^ P^ *■•" 

ft'IT ^ ?, ^ """^ Rearwing (^^^ qn ^. ?«"* « l~*** 
^ ♦ ^ to the front. ^^ ^ pahUi cmufaw to. 

WT^TSr ^^ *^<l^ By double files from ^"rft ^ ^1^ ^ ^ kau^ani ke ISdi $c 
"ft f5l3nC R«« the centre. Rear ^ft^'IK^^^^i ^"*" iaOr aH 
^y^f^ wing to the front |^^^ ,_^ ^ barhkar pkUIi 

\ f'J^T t%^nr^ Two centre sections ^ «ft ^ ft^KehkldSmdahe 
^<'*K\^ ^ outwards wheel. ^«^ ^ ^ aur ba'H kiiMt 

^ ^ par tamhu te 

^5^ IH^^i ^S^ Form square on the ^f»[^ flf^T^ q^<«^ Aaiiipa« r» 
?ft f^ira: ^nipft front company. ^tfV^ ^ i^nft ^5.5. 

^5^ f^^^i ^W Form square on the 'fN ^ ^^^ ^ Inch kl daM ji 
^ ^ m f^r^ "g''* y« W '«ft WrI:* ^nirft ^ ba^kampamfv 

x. f^_. JY-^. R'gl>t ya (oO left *^ ^ ^a-S. DaAniyi 

^^f^^^ wing, right about 'TT'^ ^'^ i^«.ip«Afi^ 

in^ ^WT firfV *arp4»». 
f^^'H*!'! 'Wi^. Sections outwards. i^f^*tf ^[^ ^ttK.t5Uyaik dahu or 

^IR ^T^ kha'd. 

f^ii TTyi f%^. Front turn. Sec- *fr^^ JVhO i^(^*ll samhnepkin. jRfr 
^'^V^^^W^r iions outwards. ^ ^ ^ ^^f..^?'' "" 

^ ^ H\\^< bahir ckakker 

Military Words of Command. 567 

^R" Tfl^ ^W Form square on the ^ ^ ^^'q^ V^htehklkampampar 

-^ ^^ . . t^ , 5v chaukhunta ban 

ft fk^ ««*«• ''^^ ^ '"^ ia'5. * 

^f^ T^^^^ Wings inwards turn. ^HV ^l^ Ht^RTrfSno peAlu bhltar 

WWt mttfo. 

^nr ?ft Square on the 'ft^ 'T "^^> ^t Stehjxo'cAaukhtmta 
ftjT^ centre. ^1^ banji'o. 

^ ^f'T ^ ^R^ Right wing, right ^[X''^ 'T^^V^ ^dakM paUu ddkne 
^^ about turn. ^t^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

-WWm Double. ^Vft m ^1i:*\ daufi ya (or) dour- 

Mfy Aar cAolo. 

•^I^H *^<l ^ Form close ya (or) finft Wrft ^ t^. *«« Aomponl par 
<|^|A< f^'^TfW quarter 4listanoe ift ^ ^iTnit ^^ noRyapSoklmR 

^^ ^ company. Right ^, ^ ^ oa tn kampani 

iftf:zyn^ ya (or) left in ^ *^^ 'T^ samhncKokarhan 
T^ t^t^ front. ^V*T ^T ^tT^ jffo. 

TTfrar fMj<d ipC' Halt front dress. ^^i,*< ^T^ f^. thaharkar samhne 

«pr ^j |4|j ^ phirkar harabar 
^^^ Kojffo. 

1|J^ *WHf ^Pr — Form column on — ^fN ^ finft **l^ KcA AI *mi ibm- 

f^di^ qnifift -centre company. ij^ "^WF^ ^'^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

__2i. khunta ban ja*d. 

^5^ VWm HT^Form oolumn at ^T^ ^T^T^t ^ ^-AtH kampani par 
W^ZJ: f^^lJW ^^*^' distance, ^ ^ Ij^jj^ p^s khuR ^aiar 
H^ftTOTf "g'^^y^Wleft ^^^^^ dahnl kampani 

^ . ^ front on — ^^ samhne kokar ban 

1^^^ ^^ ^^" company. ^^ ^•'vx ^^ .j,-^ 

O^f^^ qmnf^ f^. Remaining compa-^Fft ^H'nft iftf *5^ kampam dn 

ft^^^>W^ nies threes right ^^^^^^ fzn ki ioB bankar 

*N ya (or) left shod- . dahnayabayoA 

£68 Appendix, 

V^Wt^ ? ^ fHi<i Close to the front WP^^^ *lfi|fmi^ samhne U5 mil jffS. 

^ ^fWm f^ilT^The column will ipfTT < '^^fl VT ^T^tsaiar dahntya htTm 
Z^^^ f^ljlA march to the right ^p^ ^ ^^^ tarafchatedaUt 

"^w^ srr^ --f^-t- !L"ir 

^5^ wl ^^9 ilpS face. Quick march. ^ ^fTT 

^ ft^nj^ T? ^ By sections right yS elRi^I ^^ ^ ioliyan dakne j/a 
f%^ (or) left- m^ ba'H. 

^If^TR ^ ^ ^ ^ Column to the right ^'fTT ^TT^ ^ Tit ijrafSr dote^ ji 

t%X5T ^ ya (or) left wheel, wy i^C ^^ ^ ^'^ ***"* ^ 
* * ^ ^ samkne £ chak- 

^mK ^^rWt kar khffo. 

^ ^ f^T^ ^ Right ya (or) left ^V^ W ▼Tit ^ dahncyabaTAkkbd 

wheel* irCVnV^^^nRT 1'^^ tamhi i 

WT^ cAaAAor iAaU 

^fV'JZ^^lH % 11^. Countermarch by ^H ^ f^ "Wnft iicA *? gird «fij 

H^^^ TJfV ^ subdiyisions round qmpf^ $ qnRT *««P«« « *««* 
j^ the centre. r^ *\ dekcarphiro. 

\z WT f^yid iPf. Right ya (or) left TT^ ^ T^f ^T^ft rfoAnt ya Ja'w iUi 
inni^^^'JWV? subdivisions right qn^ ip^ % kampanldakwse 
2^ about fece. t« — ^ fe^A- ^*^ ^^^^'^ 

T3r 4 ^41 4 SI f^^ ^ Right subdivisions ^JTI^ ^»Pft ^ •^^l drxAni odA? kampm 

^rfV^T ^Tf "gJ** '^'^^^^^ turn- ?nn^ % "^rniT <^*»« ^ ^* 

-i..i.^ *S i chakkar mm. 

f^rra: T^ ^. Front tum, forward. ^^ !J1l'*^ ^fT^ samkne wwrkar ip 

?ft *fl*l ftw ^Hf The column will ^T^T ^PjJ^ ^*^?^ ita£ar agli kaatpm 
l ^<14t ^ f^fT^ open from the fiont ^ mr ^J^ «« khuljmL 

^ ITWl? f^ ^a^Tf The column will 4^l< (^^^ ^S?rtt ifca*^ pickkU ifl^- 
^5Tmftft^ open from the rear. ^^^ jniniseAWjici. 


Military Words of Command. 669 

if^Wtr ^W ^Deploy on the front ^Bl![^irwmt^WTT.^S:^ kampam si 
fqj^ ^icrft company. ^ ^ ^^ ^^^ J^ «»• ?«/ &«» 

^ftwtr ^f"! ^Deploy on the rear Pl^^ ^^Ji\ ^VS%pichhR kampam si 

fK^TK ^inirft company. q^:^^ ^TT^ ^^^"^ ^''•^ ^^'^ 


^ftwVr ^^ ^ Deploy on the front ^^ *N^ t^^^ Jfcampant <e 
fqpC? ^rMt company. f<lf< 4i^^ barabarphaitkar 

^ ^^ Wr^ tafbanja'o. 

^WPni ^•^•11'^ Remaining compa-WT^ ^•H'll nl^ bafikampanlSntSn 
f^nftf ^ ''^V^- °*^®* Threes right ^f^ if^ d^f^€|( kt ^liyan hankar 
vm ULJ d4^ shoulders forward, nnrv* a-^wr sf ^^^ kandha 

•V barhffo. 

^ft^^T **M^^ Remaining compa- IfPRt **M4i *tVT JSAi kampam kan- 

nies shoulders for- *\ ./as jl^^il-»- 

t^i^^i^* 4^1 VI dhahafha'o. 

iD^*^^ H|\4<v,* Shoulders forward. VtUT q^l^ AanrfAa bofha'o. 

flrMt^ — ^1| ^Companies — paces q^iq^t *t *T^ kampam ka^iadam 
^^irrftr^ to the right yS ^^^^ dakm yi ba-d 
^ (or) left wheel. ^^^^^^^^ Hfinl|,ar,5mAn5 

J. se chakkar kha'o* 


^tW ^^9 Tf ^Wheel back into ^ if ^ft^ % ^fJT fa/ «« picAAc £ 
^l^ line. ^rniV chakkar kkSo. 

H^ f^jt? "'PI — Change front on — ^pp^ ^ IfHt V^^^dahneyaba'Upahlu 
*iq^ ^ ITT «>°>PW^yrigl^ty5 ^^ ^ ^ ke age barhnc sc 
rL___ „,j:i^ „^ W left thrown ^ j^^ kampam par 

^ ' ^ forward. i^^^ 5^/5. 

'^fwPff ^n^nft^ — Remaining compa- ^[T^ ^in'rtt ^f|j *5Ai kampam kal 
^^ ?^ ^ ^ nies — paces to qp^ ^^ ^ ^adom daAnc ya 

fins? tfhr *® "^'^^ ^* ^^'^ mr w? ur wt *^'^ **""^ ^^^ 

^ left wheel. ^ " samhtie se chak- 

^^ ^m\^\^ kar khffo. 


560 Appendix, 

7[T^ ^n Dress up. ^<lf< ^ WPBt barShar tojffS. 

^ f%i;Z ^R <ft Change front on the ^nj'^^'T^*'^''-***"* J* **'^***^ 
^^f^r^^rnr. rightya(or) left ^ ^ ^ ^ pani par dahi 
^^^f%^ companyri^tya ^ ^^ L'T"'!^ 

^ (or) left thrown __^__^ *"•"* * • 

^^ ^"f* back. ' ''l^ ^^ *o<fl5. 

0«)Pi«i«**l^^ T3^ Remainbg compa-^TTft ^'^'^ ?n^ M^ ^l»«p("H «i<Kbi« 
^V^tV?^^— ^^^ nies t^t about % ^VHIT ^^IRT '^ odia eAottcr 

!^ the right y« (or) __ii-„_-f-^ daA« y« M« 

^^ left wheel. ^T^^IT^nt^ khunf par eiak. 

^ ^IK ^r^ tor kha'o. 
X^ VJ ftlHl* ^1N Right ya (or) left <^*'l •" ^'^ll M^^doAna ya }^ 

^ "^WV^ ^ wing right about ^^^^TT^^IR: ^^ *^' * 
iVUnf)^ _ ^ fece. Compames ^^ ^f,:^ ^^ ^^_ ^^^ 

^"^®*' ^ khunt par chak- 

^^'^^'T^ karkha-o. 
^■""T^t^— '^W ^Companies — on*^M^ ^ ^[^ kan^amkalkadam 

^^ftnirar^^. the right yS (or) ^[^ffTWHt^ dahnc ya bS^ 
^jg[^^ ^ left backwards ^ ^ ^ ^^j^ khunt par jnekkc 

wheel. ^ se ckakkar kkffi. 

^ipf»l #f "VI ?ft Form line on the ^H ^ *^M^ % btch Ki kampaan d 

fiZT ^T'T^ W^. *^^^ company, m^im^ ^ ^^ barabar fof hoM 

0^ ^^^ r> * Sl^ Companies in •v ^ e^ ja*o. Samhne K 

^ ^ front, right about ^ kampam dahne » 

^^^^^ face. **-^^<\^'^- 5dAa chMm 

**-m41«J ^PI ^ T? Companies on the**"M41 ^^ "^kampam 
^^%^\^^ ^tW "8^* backwards ip^ ^^^^ %* ^j^P^ kkSnt par pichK 

wheel. wrr^ '^ chakkar kUi'o. 

Military Words of Command. 561 

If^''^ TW iR^i Advance in direct finff *^M^ ^^*T tirehht kampam 
VtWt^ ^iWy WFq. echellon of com- ;3^^ift VJ ^TT ^^^^^ ^*** V^ 

'^' right yo (or) left. «g« fiof A5. 

V'^nftW ^ 'TT Companies right ya^f'^TT^'IT^.Aam/HmidflA«5y« 

ftr^ lf)^<|^a f (or) left shoulders ^ i*tVT W^^Hh" *"y** ftandAa 

forwaitl. barhffS. 

^f "W 1^1 ^ ft'^. Subdivisions ya (or) ^mft ^t^'rft ^ ^. «^*» Aowipant ya 

(or) left. ^^ »5'a»- 

OHII,** In Reform Une. ^ f^ '^^ m^ ?«/ i»*»»" fto» JO'S- 

Hf^ wW yn ^Form line on the ^R[^ ^inft 'f'P'rft «fg^ *^** Aomponi 
^Ft(¥»r ^'^JhR leading division. m zVwt % ^ ya«fi»e?a/6an 




Page Ifaie 

31, 8 

46, 13 

61, 6 

115, 19 — 

118, 18 

120, 2 

121, 26 

— for ^ read 'f 

— for frvrm read ^I^TWT 

— for laye read /oye 

— for diye read dit/e 

■ for \jib read \^ 

■ for S&« (miglan) read ii-« 

for \:)yt!^ g^y^^'^ '^^^ c*?^ 

- for ntnaya read niTiaya 

- for Hchchu read fttcAcAAu 

- for 1^ chira read h*- cAira. 

127, 14 
138, 8 

142, 5 

143, 3 

166, 9 

for uu.^ read 

— for ftofcA read kokh 

— for ra ska read rc^sha 

— for nakra read nakra 

• • • 

— for moHya read md(tya 

— for yjjs/ gAyatrt read ^^ 

168, 6 — for ^Z read /t/ 

Page line 
174, 21 — 

217, 19 — 

220, last - 
225,17 - 
257, 30 - 
296, 28 - 
314, 14 - 
321, 5- 
331, 24 - 
339, 4- 
352, 21 - 
352, 31 - 
368, 16 - 

362, 16 - 

363, 13 - 
377, 29 - 
380, 16 - 
386, 4- 
386, 6- 
410, 7 
433, 2 

kewar read kewar 
for sa t read se^i 

— for kar read hath 

— for chtknal read chiknal 

— for ^joipyat read l^fiyat 

— for troij;!* read tea^i* 

— for thandi read thandal 

— for rnilana read milana 

— for to n read U^n 

— for liO read \Ji 

— for ^^^T€»A^^ 

— for bora read bara 

— for agmana read agmana 

— for i---ir« read u-.-^* 

— for ba-tadrij read ba-tadrtj 

— for ghaliban read ghaliban 

— for ^^ 

— forj^Jjwb read j^J^l? 

— for bharmila read bharmlla 

— for achchha read achchha 

— for bhata read &Aa^ 

— for hum read Aam 

— for jjfc* read jAfi' 

read ^^ 














1 &, 2 — dele the words after ^ 
1 & 2 — dele the words after Kishna 
6 — foTj\jjtA^ read j^JuMsr- 
lS & 22 — for + substitute § 

28 — for Ub dalna read Sb dala 

• * 

last — for 31 read 30 
26 8c 30 —for 32 read 31 
31 —for 31 read 30 

9 — for inde . read iodef. 
24 — for 32 read 31 

30 — for 32 read 31 

8 — for *^* read *^.* 
30 — for 30 read 29 
26 — for 32 read 31 

19 •— for ^V^rtfnr «ad 'Tt^t^l*! 
23 & 26 — for 32 read 31 
21 — for 32 read 31 

14— for T'H' read ^ 

21 — for 32 resid 31 

16 & 24 — for 32 lejwl 31 

1 — for ^^ read V'Nf 

Fkge line 

499, 20 

506, 6 
607, 9 

607, 10 

507, 23 

608, 24 • 
623, last 

644, 19 ■ 

546, 20 

646, 10 

661, 23 ■ 

662, 26- 
553, 6 

666, 10 - 

667, 28 - 
658, 16 

"* 'srf 

— for' 30 read 29 

— fcr 31 read 30 • 

— for ^3^ read ▼T 

— for f^ read t^ 

— for ^TWT read *I*II 

— for ^ read 

— for 't read ^ 

— for 31 read 30 

— for A&tell read Ostell 

— for ^ x^^ read ^fft* 

— for Hi^^i read ft^P^t 

— for ^I'l read ^ 
-^ for adh read adhi 

for ^^^•i read 
for TT read ^* 
fcff V read V 
for f^^ read t^'^ 

~ for ^[''^ read T*^ 


^ "^ 

Jofrt^n fen* fr^m Ai€tse. 


i:J eun, •n. 

ofm^, / ^a O^ 4-^ "^^^ ^^^^-Jm^ 


^s^ ^^^vnct^mSi^^i ^rfi r o :;; — :;;; 

^1^, / (^^- 1^ j5 ^Cnti:M^.\r;^ fSL^ 

^«i^. / tK- *^- J^ gtu,-ncuc^jy^ /e^ 

lM€elkn^L0n a/n»u rwJ^i^ecH ve. 

ioa^MxJ^kt,-^menfAiA€Q^^^'^^»^SfAjtJ't4.6^,^ ^ „.„ ^„ 
CbmAari:x^^fAi^ec^7ej^. 'XXt;JCS2 

_ Coffjunctit- 

th€'Tt0mT- m^ S^ 

Txt^i%t 7UrtLc£. 

Afovtv ow Aa^rvcv — et . . . . •